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Full text of "The Humming bird"

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HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 




1 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 

Bequest of 
WILLIAM BREWSTER 



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WILLIAM BREWSTER 



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FEB 21 1920 



THE 



HUMMlNG'ilBIRD 



A QUARTERLY 



SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC, and INDUSTRIAL REVIEW. 



EDITED BY 



A. BOUCARD 



VOLUME IV. 



îLontJon, 1893. 
Entered at Stationers' Hall. 

All Rights Reserved. 



•1 



Q 



/ 






BOURNEMOUTH : 
PARDY & CO PRINTERS. 



NHW SPECIES OP BIRDS AND INSECTS, 

Described in Vol. III. of the Humming Bird. 



AVES. 

TROCHILL 



Mf.talî.lra peruviana, Boucard 
Lesbia aeouatorialis, 
Oreotrochilus bolivianus, 
Hylocharis brasiliensis, 
Amazilia forreri, 

SAUCEROTTIA WELLS!, 

Uranomitra wHrri:L\i, 
Agyrtria speciosa, 

ChRYSURONIA BUCKLEY I, 
Phaethornis GARLEPPI, 
Hemlstephania GUMANENSLS, 
Patagona peruvlana, 

PATAGONA BOLIVIAN a, 
Cyanolesbia MERIDAXA, 
CyANOLESBIA COLUMBIANA, 

Thalurania valenciana, 



5J 

JJ 

JJ 
JJ 

JJ 



JJ 
JJ 
JJ 
JJ 
JJ 



Gen. H. Bird 
Gen. H. Bird 



INSECTA. 
Coleoptera, Cetonid.ï:. 

Cetonia delagrangei, Boucard... 
Cetonia syriaca ? „ 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME III. 



Page. 

6 
6 

7 

7 

7 
8 

8 

8 

9 
9 

lO 

6o 
6i 

97 

98 

102 



Page. 

40 

40 



PAGE 

1-34 



Panama 

Grover Cleveland ; the elected 

President of the United States 5 
Descriptions of several supposed 

New Species of Humming 

Birds, by A. Boucard .. 6-io 

Visits to the Zoological Gardens 

of London by W. Rosenberg 11 
Paris International Exhibition of 

igoo .. .. .. 15 

World's Columbian Exhibition 16-36 



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17 
29 

30 



Chicago Exposition ; World's 

Fair Notes 
Relics at the Fair 
Big Prizes for Live Stock 
World's F'air Souvenirs 
Travels of a Naturalist, by 

A. Boucard . . . . 1-126 

Genera of Humming Birds, by 

A. Boucard .. .. 55-106 

The Imperial Institute . . 34 

Anver's International Exhibition 39 



Contents of Vol. ÎII. — continued. 



PAGE 

Royal Institution . . . . 39 

Description of one supposed New 
Species of Cetonia, from Syria, 

by A. Boucard . . . . 40 

How Animals are Protected 
Against Their Enemies, by 

W. Rosenberg , . . . 41 

Abundance of Wasps , . . 48 i 

Notes on Wasps, by A. Boucard 49 I 

The Ways of Wasps. . . . 52 

Las Guêpes . . . . . . 54 

Rectification of Name for 

Semioptera gouldi . . . . 57 

Alligators . . . . • • 57 



Destructive Insects of Victoria, 

by French 
International Exhibitions 
The late World's Fair 
International Exhibition of 

Lyon (France) 
International Exhibition of 

Paris, 1900 
International Exhibition of 

Industry, Science and Art in 

Hobart Town (Tasmania) . . 
Internatiçnal Exhibition in 

San Francisco (California) . . 



PAGE 

58 
60 
60 

61 

6i 



62 



TRAVELS OF A NATURALIST, 

By A. Boucard. 



PAGE 



Preface . . . . . . i 

x\t oea • • • • . . I 

Baptism of the Line . . . . 3 

Dolphins . . . . . . 5 

Whalebone Whale . . . . 7 

Tempest . . . . . . g 

Humming Birds .. .. 11 

Conquest of Chili by the Spaniards 13 

Boundaries of Chili . . . . 15 

Volcanoes, Lakes, and Rivers of 

Chili . . . . • • 17 

Valparaiso . , . . . . ig 

Remarkable Chilian Animals . . 21 

A Mirage . . . . • • 23 

Bonito and Dorado Fish . . 25 

Porpoises . . . . . . 27 

Guillemot and Grebes . . . . 2g 

Sea Lions or Seals .. .. 31 

California . . . . • • 33 

San Francisco . . • • 35 

Count Raousset Boulbon . . 37 
Principal Buildings of San 

Francisco . . . . . . 45 

Chinese . . . . . . 47 

Californian Humming Birds . . 49 

Californian Birds and Mammals 51 

Rare Insects and Giant Trees . . 53 

Discovery of California . . 55 

Fertility of the Soil . . • • 57 

John A. Sutter .. ••59 



Colonel Fremont 

First Discovery of Gold 

Golden Age . . 

Mining Laws. . 

Acapulco 

Pearl Fisheries 

Ruins of Xochicalco 

Indian Pintos 

Nicaragua 

Tropical Forests 

Animal Life in the Tropics 

Lake of Nicaragua 

Granada 

Plantains 

Howling Monkeys 

Mot-Mot and Manakins 

Humming Birds and Butterflies 

Cacao and Chocolate . . 

Cacao Harvests 

Chocolate as Food 

India-rubber and other Product 

Climate, Lakes and Rivers 

History of Nicaragua . . 

Spanish Expeditions . . 

Barbarous Execution of Indians 

Civil Wars . . 

First President of the Federal 

Government 
Walker 
Mosquito Kingdom 



PAGE 
63 

65 

67 

69 
70 

73 

77 
81 

84 
85 
87 
89 
91 
95 
97 
99 

lOI 

103 

105 
107 
log 
III 

113 

115 

117 

119 

121 
123 
125 



lis 



irWi 



Vol. III. Part i.] MARCH, 1893. 



[Price 2/6. 



TLhc Ibumming 3kb 

.JsX A QUARTERLY KS^ 

SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW 



' EDITED BY 



J^. 'JBOJJCDJ^TàlD. 




(JUxAyyxKXy JOamajcxvuK^ 



Annual Subscription: United Kingdom, Europe, N. America and Canada, 

10/- All other Countries, 12/- 

: SI ^ : 

Vol. I. and IL, complete, 10/- each. 

SCALE OF CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS: 

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ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 






^LJi^ 



Published by A. Boucard, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 



BOUCARD, A., Works by :— 

Guide pour récolter préparer et expédier 
DES Objets d'Histoire Naturelle, Brochure 
in 8vo., 32 pages, Rennes, 1871 ... ... ... i/- 

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with Woodcuts, London, 1874 4/- 

CoLouRED Diagrams of Natural History, 2nd 
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Diagrams of typical animals and plants, natural 
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Catalogues Avium hucusque descriptorum, i 
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11,031 species recorded. London, 1S76. A useful 
book for Museums and Ornithologists. Price 
reduced to ... ... .. ... .. 10/- 

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French or English preface ... ... ... 12/- 

Notes on Pharomacruscostaricensis. Pamphlet 
-4to, 8 pages. Brighton, 1877 ... ... ... 4/- 

On Birds collected in Costa Rica, by Mr. 
Adolphe Boucard. Pamphlet in 8vo, 72 pages, 
with coloured plate of Zonotrichia Volcani. 
Boucard, London, 1878 ... ... ., 4/- 

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Notes on some Coleoptera of the genus 
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and prasina ... ... .. ... .. 4/- 

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Notes sur les objets exposés par la Ré- 
publique de Guatemala et par M. Adolphe 
Boucard à l'Exposition universelle de 
Paris, 1878, Brochure in 8vo, 32 pages. Paris, 1878 i/- 

LisTE des Oireaux récottés au Guatemala en 
1877, PAR M. Adolphe Boucard, Brochure 
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Descriptions of two supposed new species 
of South American Birds. Pamphlet, in 8vo., 
with coloured plate, figuring Chiromachacris 
coronata. Boucard, London, 1879 ... ... 2/- 

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Description d'une espèce nouvelle de Pseu- 
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Descriptions de deux espèces nouvelles de 
CiciNDÉLiDES DE PANAMA. Paris, 1880 ... 6d. 

On a Collection of Birds from Yucatan 
(Mexico), with notes by Mr, Osbert Salvin, 
F.R.s. Pamphlet, in 8vo., 30 pages. London, 1883 2/6 

Notice biographique sur Francois Sumichrast, 
Naturaliste- Voyageur, Brochure in 8vo;, avec 
portrait. Paris, 1884 ... ... ... ... 2/- 

VlSITE aux ruines DE XOCHICALCO (MeXIQUE). 

Paris. 1887 ... .. ... ... ... i/- 

Catalogue des Objets exposes par la Rè- 
puplique de Guatemala et par M. Adolphe 
Boucard à l'Exposition universelle de 
Paris, 1889 . . ... ... ... .. i/- 

Catalogue des Oiseaux de la Collection 
RiocouR. Paris, 1889 ... .. ... i/- 

THE HUMMING BIRD. A Monthly Scien- 
tific, Artistic, and Industrial Review. 
Vol. I. London, 1891 ... ... ... .. 10/- 

Contents of Vol. I. 

Preface — What is to be seen everywhere in London — 
The McKinley Bill— The Panama Canal — Notes on the 
Genus Pharomacrus — An easy way of making £100 a 
a year — Reports on Public Sales of Feathers and Bird 
Skins — Rapport sur la Vente publique, de plumes et 
d'Oiseaux à Londres, Décernbre, 1890 — The Museum 
of la Plata, and my idea of a typical and practical 
Museum of Natural History — Reports on Public Sales 
of Postage Stamps — Notes on rare species of Humming 
Birds, and Descriptions of several supposed new species 



— Second International Ornithological Congress — 
Answers to Correspondents — Description of a supposed 
new species of Parrot in Boucard's Museum — Notes on 
the Crowned Superb Warbler ( Maliirtts coioitattis (Gould) 
— A Visit to the Gardens of Zoological Society of Lon- 
don — British Museum (Zoological Department) — Royal 
Aquarium — Books and Journals received — Obituary — 
Description of a supposed new species of Paradise bird 
in Boucard's Museum— The Pilgrim Locust — Descrip- 
tion of a supposed new species of Tanager — Notes on 
the great Bower Bird (Chlamydodera nuchalis, Jard) — 
Collections made in Thibet and Central Asia — A Visit to 
the British Museum (Natural History Department) — 
The Plantain or Banana Plant — Inauguration of the 
statue of Pierre Belon, the Naturalist — A Giant 
Land Crab — Review of new Scientific Books — Report 
on the Public Sale of the celebrated Collection of Shells, 
formed by the late Sir David Barclay, and sold at 
Steven's on Monday, the Gth of July, and following days 
— Recommendations for the prevention of damage by 
some common Insects of the Farm, the Orchard, and 
the Garden — La Vie champêtre. La Destruction de la 
Larve du Hanneton (Melolontha vulgaris) — Crocodile, 
Snake, and Fish skins for industrial purposes — World's 
Columbian Exposition, Bâtiment de I'Administation. 

The same. Vol. H. London, 1892 ... ... 10/- 

Contents of Vol. II. 
Description of a supposed new Species of Humming Birds, 
in Boucard's Museum — The World's Fair, Inter- 
national Exposition of Chicago — Review of New 
Scientific Books — Notes on the Rare Pheasant, 
Rheinardius ocellatus — Books received — Celebrated 
Gallery of Old Masters, of the late General Marquess 
de Garbarino — Customs Tariff of Great Britain and 
Ireland — Obituary — Biographical Notes on Henry 
Walter Bates, F.R.S., etc. (with portrait) — American 
Pearls — Fish from Volcanoes — A very large Tree — A 
Curious Rat Catcher — List of Birds collected, by Mr. 
Hardy at Porto-Real, Brazil, with description of one 
supposed New Species — Description of a supposed New 
Species of the genus Manticora, " Cicindelidœ," from 
Damara Land, South Africa — Description d'une espèce 
nouvelle de Diptère parasite de Costa Rica, Ornithom- 
yia geniculata — ^The Completion of the Panama Canal 
— A complete list, up to date, of the Humming Birds 
found in Columbia, with descriptions of several supposed 
New Species — Christopher Columbus — Festivities and 
Exhibitions, held in honour of Christopher Columbus in 
America, Spain, Italy and France — America — Le Canal 
de Panama— International Exhibition in Monaco — A 
new Emission of Postage Stamps. 

REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS, comprising:— 
Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithso- 
nian Institution, 1890-1891 — Catalogue of Birds in the 
British Museum, Vol. XX., 1891, Vol. XVI., 1892, 
Vol. XXII., 1892— Zoological Record, Vol. XXVIII., 
1892 — Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 
1892— The Ibis, Vol. IV., Sixth Series, 1892 — Mémoires 
de la Société Zoologique de France, Vol. V., 1892 — 
Memorias y Revista de la Sociedad cientifica, Antonio 
Alzate, 1892— Actes de la Société scientifique du Chili. 
Vol. I., 1892— The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 
1892, etc. 
OBITUARY:— 
August von Pelzen — Dom Pedro d' Alcantara — M. 
Alphand — Monseigneur Freppel — Armand de Quatre- 
fages de Breau — Duke of Clarence — Henry Walter 
Bates— Etienne Arago — Hermann Charles Burmeister' 
— Cari August Dohrn — Marshal da Fonseca — Ernest 
Renan — Alfred Tennyson — ^Xavier Marmier. 
GENERA OF HUMMING BIRDS, by A. Boucard, 
pages I to 56. 
Sauvetage du Panama, 4éme edition^ Brochure 

in 8vo., 32 pages. Tours, 1892.. .. . . 6d. 

Catalogue des Collections d'historie 

naturelle récoltées au Mexique par M. 

Adolphe Boucard ... ... .. .. i/- 

Cataloguede Mammifères, Oiseaux Reptiles, 

Poissons et Coquilles de la Californ'e, 

Louisiane, Mexique et Uruguay ... ... i/- 

Catalogue de Carabiques et Colcoptères 
DIVERS, 1477 espèces ... .. .. ... i/- 

CaTALOGUE d'HÉTEROMÈRES ET DE CURCULIO 

nides, 2242 espèces ... .. .. . . i/- 

Catalogue d'Oiseaux, Reptiles et Poissons, 

1157 espèces .. .. .. .. • • i/- 

Liste de Coléoptères exotiques, 2636 espèces 1/6 
Liste des Coléoptères en vente chez M. 

Adolphe Boucard, 79'i6 espèces ... ... 4/- 

LisTE des Oiseaux EN VENTE chez M. Adolphe 

Boucard, 4584 espèces ... .._ .. 4/- 

La série complète des huit Catalogues et Listes ... 12/- 



^\u 





PANAMA. 

PipT is with great sorrow that I have been reading, day by 
H^ day, all the accounts published on this unfortunate affair. 
As one greatly interested in this gigantic enterprise, for the 
salvation of which I am doing all I possibly can, I am very 
much distressed with the events which have lately taken 
place, leaving no possible doubt about the mismanagement of 
the Direction from the beginning. It reads like a romance ; 
but unfortunately there are thousands of victims, ot which a 
large number have been completely ruined. 

It is not my intention to incriminate any one, which is 
the work of Justice ; but, nevertheless, I think that so many 
have incurred great responsibilities in contributing, one way 
or another, to the Panama disaster, that I can only see 
one w^ay to deal with such a calamity. The French 
Government, which is partly responsible for what has hap- 
pened, ought to find the means to indemnify the victims of 
their losses in a certain measure. This could be done easily 
by authorising a grand Lottery, from whose proceeds 
half should be put away to repay, little by little, in its totality 
or in part, the losses sustained by the thousands of honest 
people who have subscribed the Panama Bonds, carried away 
in so doing, by the moral support given to the Panama 
Company by the Government, as also by the famous promises 
constantly repeated by the Directors of the Company. 
Another way should be for the Government to propose to the 
Parliament to vote a certain sum to that effect. 

Some other means must surelv exist to attain the same 
end ; but what is certain is this : that the thousands of victims 
will not be satisfied until something of that sort is done in 
their favour. It will be quite impossible for the majority of 
them to understand why, as I said before, a Government, 
partly responsible for the loss of their economies, should not 
find the means to reimburse their losses in totality, or in a 
certain measure. I have every reason to believe that if such 
a step was taken by the French Government, it would be the 



2 The Humming Bird. 

most sensible, honest, and adequate one in the present cir- 
cumstances. 

I am afraid that nothing short of this will satisfy the 
victims of the Panama Company. [Ed.] 



Réunion plénière des Actisnnaires et Obligataires de 

Panama. 

Une réunion plénière des Actionnaires et Obligataires 
de Panama convoquée par les Directeurs de l'Avenir du 
Panama et du Bulletin Officiel du Comité Central (mais qui 
malheureusement na pas été annoncée comme elle aurait dû 
l'être) a eu lieu à Paris, au Tivoli, Waux-Hall le 15 Janvier. 
Environ 2000 porteurs étaient presents, parmi lesquels un 
certain nombre de Présidents et Vice Présidents des Comités 
régionaux. Le Commandant Saleta qui présidait cette 
réunion a prononcé un discours qui a été très bien accueilli 
par Tassistance. Après lui Monsieur Keratry a retracé un 
historique très succint du Panama, depuis ses débuts jusquàce 
jour, qui a été écouté avec beaucoup d'attention. Il a démontré 
comme quoi l'actif actuel n'était pas à dédaigner et après 
avoir vivement critiqué la gestion du Liquidateur officiel, Mr. 
Monchicourt, il a insisté tout particulièrement sur la nécessité 
de reconstituer l'entreprise avec la co-opération des capitaux 
américains. Ensuite Mr. Focké, Directeur de l'Avenir de 
Panama a raconté les démarches faites par lui près de 
Monsieur Monchicourt, démarches qui n'ont pas été accueillies 
par ce dernier comme elles le méritaient. Il a cité deux per- 
sonnalités françaises Messieurs Bonnardel & Christophle qui 
seraient disposés a prendre la direction d'une nouvelle Com- 
pagnie pour le relèvement de cette affaire en faisant observer 
toutefois que la co-opération de Mr. Christophle, lié comme il 
l'était par les statuts qui régissent le Crédit Foncier, dépendait 
de l'autorisation du Gouvernement Français, qui vu les cir- 
constances actuelles ne pouvait guère la lui refuser. 

Les résolutions suivantes ont été votées à l'unanimité. 

lére Résolution. 

Sont nommés Membres d'un Comité d'exécution. M. M. de 
Kératry, de Vos, Moitessier, Hennet de Goutel, Saleta, Alfred 
Harel, Albert Harel, Baillet, Martinie, et Focké. 



Tlie Humming Bird. 3 

2éme Résolution. 

Le Comité élu est chargé par l'assemblée plénière de 
porter à Mr. le Président de la République, à M. M. les 
Ministres des affaires étrangères, des finances et de la justice, 
les résolutions et les voeux adoptés par elle en ce jour. 

3éme Résolution. 

Sont nommés comme Délégués auprès du Gouvernement 
colombien et des Capitalistes Américains, Messieurs de 
Kératrv et Martinie. 

4éme Résolution. 

Une Délégation particulière de trois membres prise en 
dehors du Comité de reconstitution, sera nommée pour arrêter 
d'accord avec Mr. Monchicourt, les mesures capables de faire 
obtenir la restitution, taut des Actions du Panama Railroad, 
données en gage à divers, que des sommes détournées à 
quelque titre que ce soit de la caisse sociale de la Société de 
Panama, en liquidation. Sont nommés Membres de cette 
délégation. M. M. Odelin, Habert et Labrousse. 

5éme Résolution. 

L'assemblée décide que Mr. Monchicourt Liquidateur 
Judiciaire, devra avec les fonds disponibles et appartenant aux 
intéressés, faire face aux dépenses nécessitées par l'envoi des 
deux délégués, tant a Bogota qu'aux Etats-Unis. 

J'approuve les résolutions votées par l'assemblée des 
Actionnaires et Obligataires daus la réunion du 15 Janvier et 
j'ajoute pour ma part quil n'a jamais été question d'exclure les 
capitalistes Américains ou autres qui sont prêts à aider au 
relèvement du Panama. 

Dès le principe, cette grande entreprise a été inter- 
nationale et il est juste et nécessaire qu'elle conserve ce 
caractère. Dans mes précédentes brochures sur le Panama, 
j'ai constamment fait valoir que cette œuvre grandiose ne 
pouvait être sauvée que par les anciens porteurs, lesquels 
appartiennent à toutes les nationalités. Une entreprise de 
cette envergure et d'un intérêt général pour le Monde entier 
doit être le bien de tous en général et non d'un seul pays en 
particulier. La France doit se contenter d'être l'initiatrice 
d'une des plus belles conceptions du dix neuvième Siècle. 
C'est une gloire plus que suffisante pour un pays qui est 
toujours prêt a se mettre à la tête des entreprises d'un intérêt 
général pour le monde entier. 



The Hummifior Bird. 



<s 



Maintenant il ne reste plus aux hautes personnalités 
qui veulent bien se dévouer au relèvement de cette entreprise 
que de faire connaître leur programme et de ne pas avoir 
peur de se mettre en avant. Même s'ils ne réusissaient pas 
complètement, ils auront toujours droit à la gratitude de TOUS. 

Il est certain que si on adopte mon projet financier, soit 
dans sa totalité soit en partie, on pourra compter sur le 
concours de presque tous les anciens porteurs, car il est 
indispensable de demander en espèces, le minimum possible, et 
d'échelonner les paiements de façon à les rendre faciles aux 
intéressés. 

En outre si on acceptait ma combinaison de reprendre 
toutes les anciennes valeurs du Panama à un taux moyen 
uniforme, on simplifierait beaucoup la formation et la réussite 
de la nouvelle Société, en permettant à ceux qui veulent se 
retirer, de vendre leurs titres, à un prix raisonnable, à ceux 
qui ont foi dans le Canal. Pour une entreprise comme celle 
de Panama, il ne faut que des Collaborateurs qui aient LA FOI, 
et qui soient prêts, non seculement à fournir des fonds a la 
nouvelle Société, mais même à l'occasion, a, donner GRATUITE- 
MENT une partie de leur temps, et faire profiter la nouvelle 
Société de^leur expérience des affaires. 

Il serait aussi a souhaiter que les journaux de toutes 
nuances, prêtassent leur appui au relèvement de cette grande 
affaire, sinon gratuitement^ ce qui serait peut être bien 
difficile, mais cependant possible, tout au moins à des condi- 
tions modestes, acceptables et toutes autres de ce qui a eu 
lieu jusquà a jour, car il est vraiment ridicule de parler de 
patriotisme et autres belles phrases de ce genre, quand on a été 
largement payé pour cela. 

En dû temps; s'il y a lieu, je communiquerai aux Action- 
naires et Obligataires de Panama une modification à ma 
combinaison financière, qui simplifierait encore de beaucoup 
la constitution d'une nouvelle Société et qui ne nécessiterait 
de la part des anciens porteurs qu'une mise de fonds presque 
insignifiante, tout en conservant .la propriété exclusive du 
Canal dans leurs mains. 



The Hîimminçr Bird. 



GROVER CLEVELAND, 

The elected President of the United States. 

Mr. Stephen Grovcr Cleveland, who will take office in 
March, 1893, for four years, as the twenty-fourth President of 
the United States, was President from 1884 to 1888. He 
was born at Coldwell, New Jersey, March 18, 1837, ^^^ father 
being a Presbyterian minister. Before he began to study 
law at Buffalo in 1855, he had been a clerk in a village store, 
and a book-keeper and assistant-teacher in a Blind Institution. 
He was called to the Bar in 1859, was elected Sheriff of Erie 
county from 1870 to 1873, and in 1881 was elected Mayor of 
Buffalo. In this post he introduced various reforms in the 
administration of city affairs, which led to his election in the 
following year as Governor of the State of New York. He 
was nominated for the Presidencv at the National Democratic 
Convention at Chicago, in 1884, and in the following 
November defeated Mr. Blaine, and was elected. Being 
defeated at the 1889 election, he resumed the practice of the 
law in New York City. 

The main reasons a-iven for the Dem.ocratic success are 
dissatisfaction with the McKinley tariff, and opposition to the 
Force Bill, combined with a continuance of the desertion of 
the Republicans in the Western States to the People's party. 

We have every reason to believe that one of the first 
acts of the Democratic Government w^ill be the repeal of the 
McKinley tariff, which will be replaced by a new legislation, 
more adequate to modern times. 

Now is the time when United States ought to take the 
lead of Nations, and p-ive a fair trial to Free Trade in its 
entirety. 

By so doing, I am convinced that a new era of pros- 
perity and greatness (impossible to estimate) w^ould begin 
for the United States, and give to that country a prominent 
place among the Nations of the W^orld. 



6 The Humming Bird. 

Descriptions of several supposed New Species 

OF HUMMING-BlRDS. 
by A. Boucard. 

Metallura Peruviana, N.Sp. 

Male. — Upperside bronzy-green. Median rectrices dark 
greenish-bronze with bluish-purple reflections in certain 
lights ; beneath shining bluish-purple with reddish-purple 
reflections. Throat luminous grass-green. Sides of neck 
and breast golden-green. Abdomen and flanks bronze- 
green. Anal region white. Undertail-coverts bronze-green 
margined with pale buff. Wings purplish-brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 3|in. Wing, 2-|. Tail, i-|. Culmen, \. 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green. Tail like that of male 
with the two outermost rectrices tipped with grayish-white. 
Underside pale buff, whiter on abdomen and flanks, minutely 
spotted with bronze-green. Throat and breast spotted with 
golden-green. Anal region white. Wings purplish-brown. 
Maxilla black, mandible flesh colour at base, rest black. 
Size like that of male. 

This new species was discovered in Peru, by Mr. Whitely. 
It is closely allied to M. smaragdinicollis ; but is a larger 
bird and easily distinguished from that species by the 
greenish colour of the tail above, and the undersurface 
more golden. 

Lesbia aequatorialis, N.Sp. 

Male. — Upperside, sides of throat and breast, vent and 
flanks grass-green. Chin and throat metallic grass-green. 
Lower part of abdomen and undertail-coverts pale rufous. 
Rest of plumage as L. victoriœ. Tail longer with tips of 
central rectrices greener than in L. victoriœ. 

Total length, ç^in. Wing, 2f . Tail, 7. Culmen, \. 

Female. — Upperside grass-geen. Underside pale rufous 
washed with green. Throat white speckled with green. A 
small patch of pale golden feathers in the centre of throat. 
Tail, half the length of that of male and coloured similarly. 

I have separated this species from L. victoriœ, because in 
the large number of specimens which I have (over one 
hundred) collected at Rio Napo, by Buckley, the differences 
in colour mentioned above are constant, and it is impossible 
to confound the two species. 



The Humming Bird. 7 

Oreotrochilus bolivianus, N.Sp. 

Male.- — Upperside olive-brown passing to shining reddish 
bronze on uppertail coverts. Median rectrices dark shining 
bronze-green, lateral white edged outwardly with dark brown, 
outermost ones white at base internally, and the remainder 
dark greenish black. Throat glittering green with an imper- 
ceptible dark blue margin at base. Breast and abdomen 
grayish-white passing to grayish-buff on flanks. A narrow 
line of greenish-blue in the middle of the abdomen. Under- 
tail coverts grayish-brown. Wings brown externally and 
purplish internally. Bill black and curved. 

Total length, 4-|in. Wing, 2\. Tail, 2\. Culmen, i. 

Female. — Upperside like that of male. Lateral and outer- 
most rectrices wdth white tips. Underside grayish-brown. 
Throat spotted with green. 

This new species is closely allied to O. leucopleurus from 
which it differs by the band of throat which is scarcely 
perceptible, the line in centre of abdomen very narrow and 
greenish-blue, and the tail and the uppertail-coverts 
differently coloured. It forms the passage between O. 
estellœ and leucopleurus. 

My specimens were collected in Bolivia by Buckley 

HVLOCHARIS BRASILIENSIS, N.Sp. 

Male. — Upperside shining green, golden on back. Median 
rectrices bronze with purplish reflections, lateral chestnut 
edged with purplish-black. Chin rufous. Throat and breast 
metallic greenish-blue. Flanks and abdomen green. Wings 
purple. Bill flesh colour with black tips. 

Total length, 32in. Wing, 2. Tail, i^. Culmen, |-. 

Female. — Unknown. 

I have only one fine male specimen of this new species 
received from Brazil. It differs considerably from H. 
sapphirina and guianensis, by the colour of throat and 
breast, and the golden colour of its general plumage. 

Amazilia forreri, N.Sp. 

Male ? — Upperside shining golden-green, brownish on 
head. Rump and uppertail-coverts chestnut. Median 
rectrices purplish-chestnut passing to reddish-bronze at tips, 
lateral purplish-chestnut with dark reddish-black edges near 
the tips, outermost one chestnut. Throat and sides of neck 
golden-green. Chest, abdomen and vent white. Flanks pale 



8 The Humming Bird. 

rufous. Undertail-coverts pale chestnut margined with white. 
Wings brown passing to purple on shoulders. Maxilla black. 
Mandible flesh colour with black tip. 

Total length, 4in. Wing, 2^. Tail, i\. Culmen, |-. 

I have only one specimen of this new species, which I 
bought in San Francisco (California). It was sold to me 
with many other birds as having been collected in Mazathan 
by Mr. Forrer, to whom I am happy to dedicate it. 

Saucerottia wells I, N.Sp. 

Male. — Forehead metallic grass-green. Upperside dark shin- 
ing green passing to bronze on lower part of back, rump, and 
uppertail-coverts. Tail shining dark purplish-blue. Upper- 
side metallic grass-green. A tuft on flanks, anal region and 
thighs, white. Undertail-coverts, bronze margined with gray. 
Wings purple-brown. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour 
with black tips. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2\. Tail, i^. Culmen, |-. 

Feinale. — Exactly like the male, but slightly less brilliant. 
Centre of anal region grayish. 

This species is closely allied to S. erythronota ; but can be 
easily distinguished from it by the colour of the upperside 
and tail. It was sent to me by Mr. W'ells, from Grenada 
(West Indies), and I have the pleasure to dedicate it to him. 

Uranomitra whitelyi, N.Sp. 

Male. — Head and sides of neck metallic green. Upperside 
bronze-green. Median rectrices bronze, lateral bronze with a 
sub-terminal blackish bar. Throat, breast and abdomen pure 
white. Flanks golden-green. Undertail-coverts white with 
the centre pale gray. Wings purplish-brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 3|in. Wing, 2. Tail, i|-. Culmen, |. 

Female. — Head and sides of neck shining green ; but not 
so brilliant as in male. Upperside bronze-green. Underside 
white. Flanks white, washed with green. Tail bronze, lateral 
with a brown sub-terminal bar, and tips margined with gray. 

This new species is closely allied to U. milleri ; but 
easily distinguished from that species by the colour of its bill. 

It was discovered in British Guiana, by the late Mr. Henr}^ 
Whitely, to whose memory I dedicate it. 

Agyrtria speciosa, N.Sp. 

Male. — Upperside dark bluish bronzy-green. Throat and 
breast dark glittering-blue. Flanks gray washed with bluish- 



The Humming- Bird. 



b> 



green. Middle of the abdomen vent, undertail-coverts and 
tuft on each side of vent pure white. Median rectrices 
bronze, lateral bluish-black with slight gray tips. Maxilla 
black. Mandible flesh colour with black tip. Wings 
purplish-brown. 

Total length, 3.Un. Wing, 2\ Tail, i|-. Culmen, \]r. 

Female? — Same colourins: as the male, with throat and 
breast shining pale blue. Lateral rectrices tipped white. 

My specimens of this new species were collected in Brazil 
by Mr. Gounelle. It is allied to A. bartletti and lactea, but 
easily distinguished from both, being of the same size as 
A. lactea, with the colouring of throat and breast of A. 
bartletti, and undertail-coverts pure white. 

With A. lactea it belongs to the genus Agyrtria, and not 
to that of Hylocharis, this last genus being easily distin- 
guished from Agyrtria by the flesh colour of its bill and the 
rectrices of tail, which are wide and nearly equal in size. In 
the orenus Ag^vrtria the central rectrices are shorter, the others 
are narrower, and the white band in the middle of the 
abdomen is a special characteristic of that genus, with all 
the brightly coloured species. 

Chrvsuroxia bl'Ckleyi, N.Sp. 

Male. — Head dark shining blue. Upperside golden-green. 
Tail and upper-tail coverts shining golden-bronze. Under- 
side metallic emerald-green, passing to golden on abdomen 
and flanks. Undertail coverts, golden, fringed with gray. 
Wings purplish-brown. Maxilla black, mandible ilesh colour, 
with black tip. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2\. Tail, i^. Culmen, -|. 

Female. — Unknown. 

This species is closely allied to C. josephinœ, from which 
it is easily distinguished by not having any blue on the chin, 
its smaller size, and the bill much shorter. 

It was discovered in Bolivia, 1876, by the late Buckley, and 
I dedicate it to his memory. 

Ph^thorxis garleppi, N.Sp. 

Male. — Upperside pale greenish-bronze, slightly darker on 
crown, rump of the same colour, margined with rusty red. 
Medium rectrices, bronze-green for three-fourths of their 
length, the next one, bronze-green for half its length, with a 
broad, black band, and the remainder white, the other rectrices 



10 The Humming Bird. 

including outermost ones, bronze-green for about half their 
length, then black margined with white at tips. Lores and 
ear-coverts black, with a pale buff stripe over and under. 
Underside cinnamon, paler on throat and in the centre of the 
abdomen. Vent white. Undertail coverts pale-buff. Wings 
purplish-brown, Maxilla black, mandible flesh colour with 
black tip. 

Total length, 5fin. Wing, 2|-. Tail, 2|. Culmen, i\. 

This new species, which is closely allied to P. pretrei, can 
be easily distinguished from that species by its lateral and 
outermost rectrices, which are broad and nearly rounded, 
instead of narrow and pointed as in P. pretrei. The central 
and the next one are also shorter ; the bill is also much 
shorter. It forms the passage between P. pretrei and 
gounellei. My typical specimen is an adult male, collected in 
Bueyes (Bolivia), by the well-known collector, Mr. Gustav 
Garlepp, in 1890, and I have much pleasure in dedicating it 
to him. 

Hemistephania GINANENSIS, N.Sp. 

Male. — Forehead shining dark blue, nape dark reddish 
bronze appearing almost black in certain lights. Upperside 
dark bronze-green. Uppertail, coverts grayish-blue. Tail black 
with bluish reflections. Throat, breast and flanks very dark 
green-bronze. Abdomen and undertail coverts very dark 
blue. Wings purplish, bill black. 

Total length, 4iin. Wing, 2\. Tail, \\. Culmen, \\. 

Female. Forehead shining green, head purplish-bronze. 
Upperside golden-green passing to grayish-blue on uppertail 
coverts. Tail bluish-black with grayish-white tips on lateral 
and outermost rectrices. Chin rufous. Underside dark gray, 
washed with golden-bronze. Undertail coverts bluish, mar- 
gined with gray. Wings purplish. Bill black. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2\. Tail, if. Culmen, \\. 

This new species is closely allied to H. johannœ, but 
easily distinguishable by the colour of the throat, breast and 
flanks of the male, which are dark green-bronze, instead of 
bluish-black. This difference in coloration is greater still in 
the female, the underside of which is dark gray, washed with 
golden-bronze instead of the pale bluish-green of H. johannœ. 

My specimens were collected by the late Mr. Henry 
Whitely in the mountains of Merime, and along Carimang 
River (British Guiana). 



The Humming Bird. 1 1 

VISITS TO THK 

ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 

Of London. 

/. — The Insect House in Winter. 

One would imagine the Insect House to be, during the 
winter months, one of the most uninteresting buildings in the 
Gardens, and indeed, there is little activity in the world of 
insects at that season of the year. But still, there is much 
that is worthy of more than a passing glance to be seen in 
the few cases which still remain on the tables, besides which 
there are many rare and curious birds placed here on account 
of the extra warmth which this house affords. I may here 
state, for the information of those who have not yet had the 
oppuntunity to visit these delightful Gardens, that the Insect 
House is situated on the north bank of the Regent's Canal, 
close to the North or Primrose Hill Entrance. It is a glass 
structure, like a large greenhouse, and heated with hot-water 
pipes, by means of which an even temperature is maintained 
day and night. Iron troughs, filled with water, are placed 
over the pipes, the evaporation from which produces that 
warm, humid atmosphere so necessary to the welfare of the 
many inhabitants of tropical climes which are to be seen here. 
The centre tables, which now merely contain a number of 
beautiful plants, are given up to cases of living insects during 
the summer, shewing every stage and metamorphosis from the 
^%% to the perfect insect. Several fine indiarubber trees en- 
hance the pleasing appearance which the interior of the 
building presents^ and the cleanliness and good order, which 
is maintained in all the houses in the Gardens, is reached to 
perfection here. One thing, which often excites the wonder 
of those who visit the Insect House for the first time, is that 
the legs of all the tables are placed in small bowls of water. 
This is to prevent the cases being invaded by a small species 
of red ant, with which the house is infested, and which would 
quickly destroy the inmates were they able to effect an 
entrance. 

The cases which contain the insects are not unlike square 
fern-cases, the front, back, and sides being of glass, and the 
top of perforated zinc, thus affording plenty of light and air 
to the occupants. On entering the house, and turning to the 



12 The Humming Bird. 

left, half-a-dozen cases, containing cocoons of various large 
Silk-Moths, belonging to the family Saturnidae, are seen. 
Each case has a preserved specimen of the perfect insect 
placed over it for the enlightenment of those not versed in 
the science of entomology. By means of these, we see that 
the first case contains cocoons of the Indian Moon-Moth 
(Actias selene) , a magnificent insect with wings of a beautiful 
green colour, each wing having a crescent-shaped mark in its 
centre, whence the name, Moon-Moth ; the hind pair, more- 
over, are elongated into tails, which add greatly to the 
appearance of the insect. Two other cases contain cocoons 
of Attacus atlas, the Great Atlas Moth, also a native of India, 
a veritable giant among insects, the wings of which often 
attain a width of twelve inches or more. Perny's Silk-Moth 
(Antherea pernyi) , is interesting on account of the facility 
with which the larv;£ can be reared in this country. These 
latter are black when first hatched, afterwards changing to 
bright-green, with rows of yellow tubercles down the back 
and sides. These thrive best on oak leaves in England, but 
will also feed on hawthorn and several other trees. 

Another species, somewhat larger than the preceding, is 
the Tusseh Silk-Moth (A. Mylitta) , some cocoons of which 
are in another case. These cocoons are remarkable for their 
peculiar oval shape, and the long, leathery stalks with which 
they are attached to the food-plant. They are wonderfully 
tough, and how the moth can make its way out on emerging 
from the pupa case is a puzzle to the uninitiated. This 
process is effected as follows :■ — The moth, on issuing from 
the pupa-case, exudes a brown liquid, which softens the top 
of the cocoon, enabling the insect to break the threads and 
work its way out. 

The visitor now comes to a cage containing a pretty bird 
from East Africa, the Madagascar Pratincole (Glareola 
ocularis) ; it is light-brown in colour, with black wings, dark 
head, and a white streak from the base of the bill across the 
cheeks. It is said that these birds are great locust eaters, 
following in flocks the swarms of these insects, and destroying 
great numbers of the pests, and that they are protected by 
the natives for this reason. Next to this interesting bird is a 
tank in which are two Electric Eels (Gymnotus asterias) , from 
South America. They are ugly brutes, with small eyes and 
sluggish movements. Visitors are allowed to receive electric 
shocks from these living batteries on payment of a fee of a 



The Humming Bird. 13 

shillino- to the keeper in charge. A cage, containing a pair 
of birds from the Argentine Republic, comes next. These are 
graceful creatures, but somewhat shy at present. They are 
called short-winged Tyrants (Machetornis rixosa) , and are 
brown on the backs and wings, with grey heads, whitish 
throats and yellow breasts. 

The north side of the Insect House has a large cage or 
aviary built into the wall in each corner, each cage extending 
nearly half the length of the wall. That which is next to 
the Tyrant Birds, is tenanted by a large and handsome bird, 
the Radiated Fruit Cuckoo (Carpococeyx radiatus) , from 
Sumatra, which has been here for many years. He is a 
remarkable looking fellow^, and is evidently fully conscious of 
his superior appearance, putting on a dignified air that is 
most amusing, as if he was the real attraction and the other 
birds, &c., were merely placed in the house to fill up. In a 
recess, which comes between the aviaries, are placed two 
cages, one containing a specimen of Horsfield's Scaps Owl 
(Scops Icmpyi) , from Malacca, and the other an enormous 
Cockatoo (Cacatua triton) , from New Guinea. After these 
comes the other aviary, in which all keepers of foreign cage 
birds will recognize some very familiar pets, namely, the 
Undulated Grass Parrakeet, or Budgerigar (Melopsittacus 
undulatus) , whose habitat is Australia. It is these little 
birds which are usually seen on the stands of the Italian 
fortune-telling women in the streets of London, their extreme 
hardihood and docility rendering them very valuable assistants 
to their dark-skinned mistresses. On the inquirer into the 
mysteries of the future tendering the sum of one penny to 
one of these fortune-tellers, one of these pretty little birds 
advances to a long box, which is placed in the front of the 
cage, and picks therefrom a slip of paper, on which is printed 
what purports to be a full prophecy of the future life of the 
customer. 

In a small cage, hung within that of the parrakeets, is a 
pair of very rare birds, the Sahara Bunting (Fringillaria 
saliarœ) , from North Africa, presented by Lord Lilford, F.Z.S., 
in November, 1892. In the north-east corner of the house is 
a cage containing a couple of specimens of the Large Hill 
Mynah (Gr acuta intermedia) , a member of the Paradiseidse, 
or Paradise Bird family, closely allied to the Crows. It is a 
native of India, and, if properly trained, becomes a most 
charming talker and mimic. I did not hear these particular 



14 The Humming Bird. 

individuals speak, but it is very probable that they had the 
power, as these birds are often very obstinate, refusing to 
utter a sound while being noticed, and then, when no one is 
looking, breaking out into peals of laughter, and carrying on 
quite a conversation in tones, the clearness of which would 
quite eclipse those of most parrots. There was a pair of 
Mynahs in this house in 1885 which were most amusing. I 
do not remember whether they belonged to this species or 
another, the Small Hill Mynah (G. ReligiosaJ , but they 
answered certain questions in a nianner which gave one the 
belief that they understood what was said to them. For 
instance, on a person entering the house, their usual greeting 
was, "Good morning, how are you ?" in accents which made 
it difficult to believe that it w^as a bird speaking. On the 
visitor giving a suitable reply, and inquiring after their healths 
in the same manner, one would answer in shrill tones, '^ Al- 
right, alright," while the other imitated the gruff accents of 
an old man, saying, "Quite well, quite well." At other times, 
on being asked how they did, they would suddenly develop 
most alarming coughs. After a little while, they often ap- 
peared to tire of their visitor, and would throw out a broad 
hint for his departure by exclaiming, " Good-bye, good-bye." 
One of their favourite amusements was to recall anyone who 
had just left the house by whistling and shouting, "Hi ! hi ! hi ! " 
and then, on the perplexed individual returning to see who 
called him, they would burst into laughter, in apparent enjoy- 
ment of his discomfiture. 

Next to the Mynahs are some small insect cases, one of 
which contains some greenish-yellow scorpions, from South 
Africa. These are curled up, and appear at first sight to be 
dead, but the keeper informed me that he picked one up one 
day in this position, thinking it was dead, when it suddenly 
struck at his finger with his venomous tail, and then ran 
under some moss with the greatest rapidity. Fortunately 
the blow was not given with sufficient force to pierce the 
skin. 

In another case are several South African Millepedes, 
animals allied to the well-known Centipedes. These are very 
curious creatures, several inches in length, and dark brown in 
colour, the whole length of the body being furnished with 
innumerable pairs of legs, of a red or reddish-brown colour. 
They feed on decayed vegetables. 

Following the small cases are two larger ones, each 
containing a Mygale, or Tarantula Spider, from Trinidad. 



The Hummino' Bird. 15 



Another case is occupied by a smaller species from Demerara, 
while in a fourth is an enormous Brazilian species, which I 
believe to be the largest ever exhibited in the Insect House. 
As, however, he persisted in turning his back on visitors, and 
keeping himself half-concealed in an empty flower-pot, I was 
not able to observe much of his peculiarities, except that the 
greater part of the abdomen is of a light colour, and 
destitute of hairs, the remainder of the body and legs being 
covered with short, dark-brown hairs, interspersed with long, 
stiff, yellowish hairs. These gigantic spiders are usually fed 
on large cock-roaches, varied occasionally by a young mouse. 

In the next case there are several specimens of a large 
Mollusc (Biilimus oblongusj , from Africa. These are not 
unlike enormous whelks, but they live on the land, and not in 
the sea, as the whelk does. 

The last case contains some pupae of an American 
butterfly (Papilio chrysphontes) , greatly resembling the pupae 
of our own swallow-tailed butterfly (P. Machaon) . 

Altogether the visitor leaves the Insect House with a 
most favourable impression of what he has seen, and with the 
thought that, if it can be so interesting in dreary December, 
what must it be in June, when the whole insect world is 
called into full activity ? 

W. F. H. Rosenberg. 



PARIS INTERNATIONAL 

EXHIBITION OF 1900! 

In November last a Commission, numbering amongst its 
members many French notabilities in Sciences and Arts, and 
nearly the whole of the Directors of the Exhibition of 1889, 
excepting the late Mr. Alphand, who will be much missed, 
has been nominated by His Excellency, the Minister of 
Commerce, to prepare the means suitable for the realization 
of the project of an International Exhibition to be held in 
Paris in the year 1900, from May to November of that year. 
There is no doubt, whatever, that all will be ready in time, 
and that it will be all that can be desired. 

But it will be a great task for all the members of the 
Commission, as France must not remain behind N. America. 
What marvels France must prepare for the millions of visitors 
who will visit Paris during that year, it is impossible 



1 6 The Huimning Bird. 

to have any idea ; especially after such an exhibition as 
that which is going to take place this year at Chicago ; but 
all those who know France well, are certain that it will 
succeed, and that the Exhibition of igoo will be one of ihe 
grandest manifestations of Peace and Labour ever held, and 
just the suitable thing to inaugurate solemnly and peacefully 
the beginning of the Twentieth Century. 

Several magnificent plans have already been studied. 
Some recommend Vincennes, others Auteuil, Courbevoie, and 
Bagatelle ; but it is probable that one of those recommending 
the neighbourhoods of the celebrated Bois de Bouloo-ne will 
be the selected one, as no other place is so well adapted for 
the gorgeous display which is contemplated. 

In fact, the Bois de Boulogne, close to Paris, offers all the 
required conditions ; such as the facility of transport of the 
Visitors to the grounds, unlimited space, beautiful and 
picturesque sceneries, proximity to the Seine for nautical 
exhibits, and many other advantages which alone it possesses. 

It is our intention to follow attentively all the phases of 
this grand enterprise, and to give in this "Review'' a report 
of all the doings of the Commission. [Ed.] 



WORLD'S 

COLUMBIAN EXHIBITION. 

Accordinof to what we hear from all the distins^uished 
travellers who visited Chicago last year, it appears that it will 
be the most magnificent exhibition ever held, everything 
being done on such a grand scale, that probably many years 
will pass before another can surpass it. 

All the Nations of the World wdll be there, to do honour to 
the memory of the great navigator, Don Christobal de Colon, 
the discoverer of America, and will rejoice together over such 
a magnificent spectacle of PEACE AND LABOUR. 

All of them are doing their utmost efforts to appear there 
at their best, and all those who will be able to visit Chicago, 
the fairy City of the West, will never forget the marvellous 
spectacle to be seen there. I hope that an immense number 
of people, from all parts of the World, will be able to do so 
and to enjoy this wonderful sight, and will return home 
convinced that there is nothing like Brotherliood and 
Fraternity among all Nations. [Ed.] 



BOUCARD, POTTIER & CO., 
IRaturaliôtô anb Jfeatber flDercbante, 

225, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, W.C, ENGLAND, 



Messrs. BOUCARD, POTTIER and Co. offer to sell on commission. Objects of 
fatural History, Collections of Mammals and Birds, Skins, Skeletons, Human and 
.nimal Skulls, Insects of all orders pinned and set, or in papers; Marine, Fresh 
Vater and Land Shells ; Reptiles and Fishes in spirit ; Crustacea? and Arachnidae in 
pirit ; Ethnological Collections from all parts ; Showy Bird Skins and Feathers for 
lumassiers and Naturalists ; Mammal Skins for Furriers; Bright species of Insects 
)r Artificial Florists ; Rare Old Stamps, used and unused ; Curios of all sorts ; 
'ictures and Works of Art, etc., etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting 
lessrs. Boucard, Pottier and Co., who having a large connection with Amateurs in all 
arts of the world, are able get the very best prices for them. 



About 6,000 species of Birds, 30,000 species cf Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, 
lammal Skins, from New Guinea, West Africa, South America, etc. ; Land, Fresh 
Vater and Marine Shells, rt large number of species : Reptiles and Fishes in spirit; 
^rustaceas, dried and in spirit ; Insects of all orders ; Skeletons ; 5,000 different 
arieties of Postage Stamps, etc., etc. 

A very fine collection of Shells, especially rich in Land Shells, and containing 
lany types and new species, about 40,000 specimens. For Price, etc., apply at 
25, High Holborn, London, W.C. 



I. 
2. 

3. 
4- 
5- 



srrA.Kri>s, 

For Humming Birds and Small Birds 

For Small Birds, up to Tanagers 

For Tanagers up to Magpies 

For Magpies up to Crows or Small Hawks 

For Small Hawks to Large Hawks and Owls 



M^Ei^inr s'W'ue:. 



at 20S. per hundred 
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Jo. I to 4 6d. 

„ 5 to 8 8d. 

„ 9 to 10 IS. od. 

„ II to 13 2s. 6d. 



„ 14 to 16 3s. Gd. 
„ 17 8s. od. 
,, 18 I2s. od. 



Coloured. 



IS. 6d. 
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Per Dozen Pairs. 

No. 4 to 6 3s. 6d. 
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Larger Sizes can be made to order. 



urrEHYSiUjS FOft cox^iLiEicmifl^G, e:«c. 



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4/- 
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2/ 



lb. 
from i/- to 
from 
from 24/- to 36/ 
from 2/6 to 6/- 
.. ... 3/- 

large 

from 6d. 



each 
each 
doz. 
each 



Soucard's Tin Collecting Box, with 

two partitions 2/- 

Straight Scissors from 2/- 

-urved „ „ 2/- 

Faxidermist Knives „ 1/6 

Long Forceps „ 3/- 

Small „ „ i/- 

[nsects' Nippers „ 1/6 

Sieve „ 2/- 

Blowpipe for cleaning eggs . . „ 2/- 

Digger „ 2/- 

Folding ditto „ 6/- 



Insect Pins. English, 
or German 

Setting Boards 

Butterfly Nets complete 

Sweeping and Water Nets 

Cork in Sheets 

Magnifying Glasses 

Hammers 

Naphthaline 

Botanical Grey Paper ... 

Folding Umbrella for collecting 

Insects from 10/- 

Cutting Pliers „ 2/ 

Flat Pliers 

Arsenical Soap 

Glass Tubes 

Taxidermist Case, containing 
I Pair of Scissors, 2 Knives, 
I Lime, i Grater, 2 Pliers, 
I Hammer, i Pair of Forceps, 
I Brush, 3 Gimlets, etc. com- 
plete , 



French 
...from 1/6 per 1000 
from i/- to 2/- each 
„ 1/6 to 5/- 
from 2/6 to 10/- 
. . from 3/- doz. 
from i/- to 5/- 
„ 1/6 to 5/- 
„ 4/- per lb. 
6/- ream 



21- 

2/- per lb 
i/- doz. 



from 12/- to 40/- 



TO BE SOLD OR EXCHANGED, 

For Properties of equal value in London, Brighton, or 

the Isle of Wight, 

SEVERAL PROPERTIES AT SAN-REMO, 

The Celebrated Winter Resort on the Riviera, 40 Minutes 

from MONACO. 




VILLA MARIA LUIGIA. 

Tinee Viilis, ku )\vii as Villn \fa?iu Lwgia, <irn] Villas Rondo : tlie first 
one, dtftached with a beaiitiiul j;cU\len of 2200 square vards; the last, semi- 
detached with front and back gardt^ns. Villa Maria Luiga consists of three 
floors, with fifteen fine room, offices, kitchen, etc. Ten ot the rooms are full 
south, facing the sea. 

Villa Rondo n^ 25, corso Garibaldi, consists of two floors, with nine 
rooms, kitchen, office and cellar. N^ 27 has two kitchens and two more 
rooms on the underground floor. 

Villa Maria Luigia and Villa Rondo n^ 25, the smallest, are actually let 
unfurnished, 3800 francs per annum, for several years. — Villa Rondo n° 27, 
is also let at 1400 francs per annum. Furnished, they will produce between 
;^400 amd £500 per annum. 

All applications to be made at Mr. Boucard's, 225, High Holborn, 
London, W.C. (England), where photographs of the Villas can be seen. 



JUST ARRIVED. 

A very interesting collection of Beetles and Butterflies from Syria. 
Another of Beetles and butterflies from Haiti (Antillae). It contains some 
very fine species of Buprestidae and Curculionidae, and one rare species 
of Gymnetis. Collections of Coleoptera from Java and Japan. Large 
collections of Butterflies and Moths from Assam and Japan. Several inter- 
esting collections of Bird skins from Japan, British Guiana, Borneo, Gaboon, 
Congo, Guatemala, etc., etc. Specimens of Ceriornis caboti, and other 
rare species of birds. A collection of shells from Australia, and many others, 
also Australian Echidnae, in spirit, which can be seen at the 

Naturalists' Agency, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

Pardy & Co., General Printers, 8, The Triangle, Bournemouth. 



m 



iUl* 



Vol. III. Part II.] JUNE, 1893. 



[Price 2/6. 



îlbc IDumminô 3ivb 

^SX A QUARTERLY x©^ 

SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW 



EDITED BY 



.A.. IBOJJCDJ^TàlD 




OUXA/yvUxy ubxMA^CCVuK^ 



Annual Subscription: United Kingdom, Europe, N, America and Canada, 

10/- All other Countries, 12/- 

Vol. I. and II., complete, 10/- each. 

SCALE OF CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS : 

Whole Page, 20/- Half Page, 15/- Quarter Page, io/-> 

Lowest charge, 2/6 up to five lines, and 6d. per line extra. 

Repeated or Continuous Advertisement per contract. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 



Published by A. Boucard, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 



BOUCARD, A., Works by:— 

Guide pour récolter préparer et expédier 
DES Objets d'Histoire Naturelle, Brodiure 
in 8vo., 32 pages, Rennes, 1871 ... i/- 

The same in Spanish ... i/- 

Notes sur quelques TrOchilidés, Brochure 
grand, in 8vo., 16 pages, Lyon, 1873 1/6 

Hand-book of Natural History, 2nd Edition, 
Vol. in 8vo,, 234 pages, profusely illustrated 
with Woodcuts, London, 1874 ... ,., ... 4/- 

Coloured Diagrams of Natural History, 2nd 
Edition, 20 sheets, i8in. by 24in., comprising 166 
Diagrams of typical animals and plants, natural 
size, and 37 natural typical specimens of woods, 
and minerals, all neatly mounted on strong card- 
board 40/- 

The same, varnished ... 45/- 

Notes sur les Trochilidés du Mexique, 
Brochure grand in 8vo., 16 pages, Lyon, 1875 ... 1/6 

Monographic List of the Coleoptera of the 
genus PLUSIOTIS, with descriptions of 
several NEW species. Pamphlet, in 8vo, with 
coloured plate, illustrating five new species ... 4/- 

The same, with black plate ... ... .. 2/6 

Catalogues Avium hucusque descriptorum, i 
Vol. in 8vo., cloth, 352 pages, 2546 genera, and 
11,031 species recorded. London, 1876. A useful 
book for Museums and Ornithologists. Price 
reduced to ... ... ,, ... .. 10/- 

The same, with French preface ... .. .. 10/- 

The same, interleaved with blank sheets of paper, 
French or English preface ... ... . ... 12/- 

NoTES ON Pkaromacruscostaricensis. Pamphlet 
4to, 8 pages. Brighton, 1877 ... ... ... 4/- 

On Birds collected in Costa Rica, by Mr. 
Adolphe Boucard. Pamphlet in 8vo, 72 pages, 
with coloured plate of Zonotrichia Volcani. 
Boucard, London, 1878 ... ... .. 4/- 

The same, with black plate ... ... ... 2/6 

Notes on some Coleoptera of the genus 
PLUSIOTIS, WITH descriptions of three 
NEW species from Mexico and Central 
America. Pamphlet in 8vo, 4 pages, with 
coloured plates, illustrating fine species, P. 
rodriguezi, badeni, boucardi, mniszecki, 
and PRASiNA ... ... .. ... .. 4/- 

The same, with black plate ... ... ... 2/6 

Notes sur les objets exposés par la Ré- 
publique DE Guatemala ET PAR M. Adolphe 
Boucard à l'Exposition universelle de 
Paris, 1878, Brochure in 8vo, 32 pages. Paris, 1878 i/- 

LisTE des Oireaux récottés au Guatemala en 
1877, PAR M. Adolphe Boucard, Brochure 
grand, in 8vo, 48 pages. Lyon, 1878 ... ... 2/6 

Descriptions of two supposed new species 
OF South American Birds. Pamphlet, in 8vo., 
with coloured plate, figuring Chiromachacris 
CORONATA. Boucard, London, 1879 ... ... 2/- 

The same, with black plate ... .. ... i/- 

Description d'une espèce nouvelle de Pseu- 
DOEOLAPTES DE CosTA RiCA. Paris, 1880 ... 6d. 

Descriptions de deux espèces nouvelles de 
CiciNDÉLiDES de Panama. Paris, 1880 ... 6d. 

On a Collection of Birds from Yucatan 
(Mexico), with notes by Mr. Osbert Salvin, 
F.R.s. Pamphlet, in 8vo., 30 pages. London, 1883 2/6 

Notice biographique sur Francois Sumichrast, 
Naturaliste Voyageur, Brochure in 8vo,, avec 
portrait. Paris, 1884 ... ... ... ... 2/- 

Visite aux ruines de Xochicalco (Mexique). 
Paris. 1887 ... .. ... ... ... i/- 

Catalogue des Objets exposés par là Rè- 
puplique de Guatemala et par M. Adolphe 
Boucard à l'Exposition universelle de 
Paris, 1889 . . ... ... .. . . i/- 

Catalogue des Oiseaux de la Collection 
RiocouR. Paris, 1889 ... .. ... i/- 

THE humming bird, a Monthly Scien- 
tific, Artistic, and Industrial Review. 
Vol.1. London, 1891 ... ... ... .. 10/- 

Contents of Vol. I. 

Preface — What is to be seen everywhere in London — 
The MoKinley Bill — The Panama Canal — Notes on the 
Genus Pharomacrus — An easy way of making ;f 100 a 
a year — Reports on Public Sales of Feathers and Bird 
Skins — Rapport sur la Vente publique, de plumes et 
d'Oiseaux à Londres, Décembre, 1890 — The Museum 
of la Plata, and my idea of a typical and practical 
Museum of Natural History — Reports on Public Sales 
of Postage Stamps — Notes on rare species of Humming 
Birds, and Descriptions of several supposed new species 



— Second International Ornithological Congress — 
Answers to Correspondents — Description of a supposed 
new species of Parrot in Boucard's Museum — Notes on 
the Crowned Superb Warbler ( Malurus coronatus (Gould) 
— A Visit to the Gardens of Zoological Society of Lon- 
don—British Museum (Zoological Department)— Royal 
Aquarium — Books and Journals received — ^Obituary — 
Description of a supposed new species of Paradise bird 
in Boucard's Museum — The Pilgrim Locust — Descrip- 
tion of a supposed new species of Tanager — Notes on 
the great Bower Bird {Chlamydodera nuchalis, Jard) — 
Collections made in Thibet and Central Asia — A Visit to 
the British Museum (Natural History Department) — 
The Plantain or Banana Plant — Inauguration of the 
statue of Pierre Belon, the Naturalist — A Giant 
Land Crab — Review of new Scientific Books — Report 
on the Public Sale of the celebrated Collection of Shells, 
formed by the late Sir David Barclay, and sold at 
Steven's on Monday, the 6th of July, and following days 
— Recommendations for the prevention of damage by 
some common Insects of the Farm, the Orchard, and 
the Garden — La Vie champêtre. La Destruction de la 
Larve du Hanneton (Melolontha vulgaris) — Crocodile, 
Snake, and Fish skins for industrial purposes — World's 
Columbian Exposition, Bâtiment de I'Administation. 

The same, Vol. II. London, 1892 ... ... 10/- 

Contents of Vol. II. 
Description of a supposed new Species of Humming Birds, 
in Boucard's Museum — The World's Fair, Inter- 
national Exposition of Chicago — Review of New 
Scientific Books — Notes on the Rare Pheasant, 
Rheinardius ocellatus — Books received — Celebrated 
Gallery of Old Masters, of the late General Marquess 
de Garbarino — Customs Tariff of Great Britain and 
Ireland— Obituary — Biographical Notes on Henry 
Walter Bates, F.R.S., etc. (with portrait) — American 
Pearls — Fish from Volcanoes — A very large Tree — A 
Curious Rat Catcher — List of Birds collected, by Mr, 
Hardy at Porto-Real, Brazil, with description of one 
supposed New Species — Description of a supposed New 
Species of the genus Manticora, ".Cicindelidse," from 
Damara Land, South Africa — Description d'une espèce 
nouvelle de Diptère parasite} de Costa Rica, Ornithom- 
yia geniculata — The Completion of the Panama Canal 
— A complete list, up to date, of the Humming Birds 
found in Columbia, with descriptions of several supposed 
New Species — Christopher Columbus — Festivities and 
Exhibitions, held in honour of Christopher Columbus in 
America, Spain, Italy and France — America— Le Canal 
de Panama — International Exhibition in Monaco — A 
new Emission of Postage Stamps. 

REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS, comprising:— 
Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithso- 
nian Institution, 1890-1891 — Catalogue of Birds in the 
British Museum, Vol. XX., 1891, Vol. XVI., 1892, 
Vol. XXII., 1892— Zoological Record, Vol. XXVIII., 
1892 — Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 
1892 — The Ibis, Vol. IV., Sixth Series, 1892 — Mémoires 
de la Société Zoologique de France, Vol. V., 1892 — 
Memorias y Revista de la Sociedad cientifica, Antonio 
Alzate, 1892— Actes de la Société scientifique du Chili. 
Vol. I., 1892— The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 
1892, etc. -, 

OBITUARY:— • ' 

August von Pelzen — Dom Pedro d'Alcantara — M. 
Alphand — Monseigneur Freppel — Armand de Quatre- 
fages de Breau — Duke of Clarence — Henry Walter 
Bates— Etienne Arago — Hermann Charles Burmeister 
— Cari August Dohrn — Marshal da Fonseca — Ernest 
Renan — Alfred Tennyson — Xavier Marmier. 
GENERA OF HUMMING BIRDS, by A. Boucard, 
pages I to 56. 
Sauvetage du Panama, 4éme edition, Brochure 

in 8vo., 32 pages. Tours, 1892.. .. . . 6d. 

Catalogue des Collections d'historie 

naturelle récoltées au Mexique par M. 

Adolphe Boucard ... ... .. .. i/- 

Catalogue de Mammifères, Oiseaux Reptiles, 

Poissons et Coquilles de la Californie, 

Louisiane, Mexique et Uruguay ... ... i/- 

Catalogue de Carabiques et Colcoptères 
divers, 1477 espèces ... .. .. ... i/- 

Catalogue d'Héteromères et de Curculio 

nides, 2242 espèces ... .. .. .,. 1]- 

Catalogue d'Oiseaux, Reptiles et Poissons, 

1157 espèces .. .. .. .. ■ ■ jh 

Liste de Coléoptères exotiques, 2636 espèces î/6 
Liste des Coléoptères en vente chez M. 

Adolphe Boucard, 79'56 espèces ... ... 4/- 

Liste des Oiseaux en VENTE CHEZ M. Adolphe 

Boucard, 4584 espèces ... .. .. 4/- 

La série complète des huit Catalogues et Listes ... 12/- 



The Humfning Bird. 17 



CHICAGO EXPOSITION. 

WORLD'S FAIR NOTES. 

The Duke of Edingburgh has announced his intention of 
sendinor for exhibition at the World's Fair some of the almost 
invaluable collection of ancient musical instruments, which 
he possesses. A part of the collection is now on exhibition 
at the International Music and Art Exhibition at Vienna^ 
where it attracts much attention. 

The following schedule of allotments of space in square feet 
to foreign nations in the World's Fair Agricultural Building, 
includes grants of increase made since the first schedule 
of allotment determined upon some years ago. As finally 
fixed these allotments are as follows : — Brazil, 7,200 ; Argen- 
tine Republic, 2,976 ; Chile, 731 ; Honduras, 999; Nicaragua 
1,180; Columbia, 1,810; Peru, 1342; Salvador, 1,342; Bolivia 
1,342; San Domingo, 912; Porto Rico, 912; Cuba, 1,444 
Ecuador, 1,710; Guatemala, 978 ; Hayi, 978; Ceylon, 1,684 
Mexico, 6,020; Germany, 11,875; Great Britain, 18,346 
France, 6,835^; Denmark, 1,584; Sweden, 1,769; Japan^ 

3.038- 

A solid gold brick, weighing 500 pounds, and worth 
$150,000, will be exhibited in the Mines and Mining Building 
at the World's Fair, by a Helena, Mon., mine owner. 

The Russian exhibit at the World's Fair will occupy 
120,610 square feet, divided as follows : — Agriculture, 32,000; 
horticulture, 7,000 ; live stock, 200 ; fisheries, 6,300 ; mines, 
2,400 ; machinery, 4,100; transportation, 2,500; manufactures, 
50,000; electricity, 200; fine arts, 1,209; liberal arts, 12,400; 
ethnology, 10 ; forestry, 2,300. 

Two of the cannon which, it is believed, were at one 
time mounted on board Christopher Columbus' flagship, were 
received at Chicago recently. The cannon are of the ancient 
and clumsy pattern of such guns turned out in the fifteenth 
century. Nothing but the body of the guns remain, the 
w^oodwork, of course, having rotted away centuries ago. The 
guns themselves are almost worn to pieces, and are not much 
more than huge chunks of rust. Indeed, the cannon are put 
on the '^ scrap iron " list in the custom house papers. These 
historic old pieces have been secured for exhibition at the 
World's Fair. One of the naval officers, who was detailed for 
B 



1 8 The Humming Bird. 

work in connection with the Columbian Exposition, found the 
rehcs at one of the West Indian islands. Tradition and sub- 
stantial proof showed that the cannon had been used in a fort 
erected by Columbus' son, and that they were brought from 
Spain with Columbus' fleet. The ruins of the fort are still to 
be seen. 

The Marquis de Lacaze, of Paris, has a portrait of George 
Washington, made by Stewart, an American painter, which 
he offers to lend to the World's Fair at Chicago. It was 
faken to France by his wife's grandfather, at onetime minister 
to the United States. As the portrait is by an American 
artist, it cannot be exhibited in the French section, but the 
Marquis de Lacaze offers to send it over if the government 
will pay the charges, which it undoubtedly will do. 

One of the curiosities of the Chicago Exhibition will be 
a Salt Palace, built by the inhabitants of San-Bernardo. 
Blocks of crystalized salt of one cubic foot will be used. 
These blocks being transparent, the effect will be extremely 
curious. 

France intends to show its skill in landscape gardening 
at the World's Fair. A cablegram has been received from 
the French Commission asking that it be allowed to do, and 
bear the expense of, the ^' whole decoration of the spaces 
surrounding the Horticultural and the Woman's Buildings." 
This generous offer, doubtless, will be accepted if it does not 
interfere with plans too far advanced to be changed. The 
French are world-renowned as artistic landscape gardeners, 
and, it is believed, they would hardly have made the offer 
referred to unless they intend to make a display of surpassing 
beauty. The Commission asked also for 60,000 square feet 
for the French Horticultural Exhibit. 

The rich and powerful Princes of India, writes Consul- 
General Ballantine, are preparing to send to the World's 
Fair a. large collection of exhibits, including artistic articles 
of gold and silver, ivory carvings, paintings, lacquer, and 
damask work, embroidery, lace, silver filigree work, etc. 
Several of the Princes have decided to visit the Fair with 
their retinues. 

The Chicago Schuetzen-Verein has issued an invitation 
to the Sharpshooters of the World to participate in a great 
International Sharpshooters' Contest in Chicago in connection 
with the Exposition this year. Should a sufficient number of 
acceptances be received to warrant it, the festival will be 



The Humming Bird. 19 

continued during the first five months during which the 
Exposition will be open. The Festival is to be conducted by 
the Chicago Society under the title of the Columbia 
Schuetzenfest. Communications should be sent to C. 
Schotte, 20 N. Canal Street, Chicago. 

A huge octopus, or devilfish, has been captured outside 
the Golden Gate, Cal., by some fishermen. It measured 
fourteen feet from the end of the body to the end of the 
lono-est tenacle, and has eiofht arms, and as is usual with the 
fish, there are over 800 suckers on the arms. The body is 
nothing but a huge sack, and is soft and flabby ; it is about 
two feet long. There are two eyes about an inch in diameter, 
and a faint resemblance to a beak and mouth. This specimen 
is one of the best in the country, and will be preserved and 
sent to Chicago for exhibition at the Exposition. 

Some very interesting exhibits of Photography are to be 
sent to the Exposition from Sydney, New South Wales. The 
collection is being prepared by the Government Printing 
Office, and will consist of some 400 views, measuring 40 by 
30 inches. Some of these pictures, when arranged in 
panoramic order, will finally measure 40 feet in length. An 
enlarged view of the moon, from a negative taken by 
Mr. Russell, the Government Astronomer at the Observatory, 
is said to be one of the collection. 

It is proposed that one of Montana's contributions to 
the Exposition, to be made by women of the State, shall be 
a Fountain made of natural ore. The design will be selected 
by open competition. It is suggested that the base be made 
of native minerals, the bowl of silver, and the cup of gold. 

The largest sample of gold quartz ever mined in Montana 
was taken out of the Mclntyre lode. Its weight is 1,785 
pounds. It came from near the surface. There are other 
large samples which came from the Shafer shaft at the depth 
of no feet ; one from the Musser shaft, 100 feet, and another 
from the working shaft, 200 feet. All are destined for ex- 
hibition at the World's Fair at Chicago. 

The bust of the Queen, upon which the Princess Louise 
has been engaged for some months, and which her Royal 
Highness has, with her Majesty's consent, promised to send 
to Chicago for exhibition at the World's Fair, is now complete. 
It is a notable example of the Princess' skill, and, standing 
in the Queen's boudoir, at Osborne, it has attracted much 



20 The Huimning' Bird. 



<s 



attention among members of the Royal Family. The Princess 
has also been at work upon some pictures which are intended 
for Chicago, and these, it is said, will, after the Exhibition, be 
sold, the proceeds being given to some of the charitable in- 
stitutions in this country in which she takes so much interest. 
Of all the daughters of the Queen, Princess Louise is the best 
artist, though she is closely run by Princess Beatrice. 

One of the features of the California exhibit at the Ex- 
position will be a pampas palace, twenty feet square, which 
will be erected in the state building. The palace is the con- 
tribution of Mrs. Harriet W. R. Strong, of Whittier, Cal., who 
is a large grower of pampas plumes. 

Much apprehension has existed in the minds of many 
persons lest they should not be able to procure single speci- 
mens of the World's Fair souvenir half dollar, except by 
paying exorbitant prices to speculators. The Exposition 
could not sell, except in quantities, and the solution of the 
problem seemed difficult. The Hon. Thos. B. Bryan has 
solved it in a highly satisfactory manner. He has deposited 
with the treasurer of the Exposition $5,000, and the same 
number of half dollars, as soon as minted, are to be delivered 
to the Jenning's Trust Co. Any stockholder of the Exposition,, 
on exhibition of his stock certificate and payment of the value, 
at the rate of one dollar for each, can receive one or more 
coins. These will be delivered in the order of the original 
application as filed. Applications should be made at once. 

An exhibit of the Ice Age is being prepared, in Ohio,, 
for the Exposition by Professor I. F. Wright. He will collect 
boulders from different parts of the State, and with them 
fragments from the original ledges in Canada, from which 
the Ohio boulders were brought by the ice ; and specimens 
of scratched stones ; exhibit a large Glacial Map of Ohio, an 
outline map showing the course the boulders have been 
brought, placard detailing the principal glacial facts, etc. 

An optician of Baltimore, Md., has perfected an 
ingenious invention for cutting, grinding, and polishing 
lenses. The original device will be exhibited at the 
Columbian Exposition. It will make 400 lenses at the same 
time. It consists of a saw and a number of metal discs, both 
flat and oval, in which the glass is secured by clamps, and 
which are kept in constant motion by means of a pulley and 
wheel operated by a motor. 



The Humming Bird. 2\ 



t> 



Late advices from Sydney, New South Wales, sustain the 
view that, notwithstanding the commercial and financial 
depression existent in some parts of Australia, the Australian 
Exhibit at the World's Fair will be a great and representative 
display. From Sydney will be sent a remarkable astro- 
nomical clock. This clock is forty-five feet high and 
twentv-five feet square at the base. Within it is exhibited 
the motion of the sun. Mercury, Venus, and the Earth 
revolvinor on its axis around the sun, and the moon around the 
earth. The sun is to be represented by an electric light, 
which will illuminate the surrounding planetary bodies. 

The International Chess Tournament, to be held at Chicago 
in connection with the World's Fair, will distribute $7,000 in 
prizes. 

Dauphin county. Pa., will send for exhibition, in the 
Woman's Building at the W^orld's Fair, an elaborate carved 
table of extraordinary historical interest. It will be composed 
of woods taken from the yoke of the famous " Liberty Bell," 
from the house in which the first American flag was made, 
from Washington's headquarters at Valley Forge, from the 
old ship Constitution, and from a pillar in Independence 
Hall. The upper surface will be inlaid with Indian arrow 
heads, relics of the Six Nations, wdth whom, what is now 
Dauphin country, w^as once a favourite hunting ground. 

The owners of the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky propose to 
reproduce the "Starry Chamber" in the Mining Building at 
the W^orld's Fair. 

Persons in Bombay, India, are persuaded that there will be 
considerable profit in making a varied display at the World's 
Fair. They propose to send over twelve elephants, so that 
visitors can take rides "in howdah with mahout;" to give 
exhibitions of suttee, cremation, jugglery, nautch, wrestling, 
etc., and to sell tea at ten cents a cup. They expect to sell a 
million cups. 

Arrangements have been completed whereby excursion 
trains to the World's Fair, by whatever road they may arrive 
in Chicago, will run within the Exposition grounds and dis- 
charge their passengers there. No transfer of passengers at 
any point will be necessary. 

Carl Hagenbeck, the celebrated German Collector and 
Tamer of Wild Animals, is in Chicago to arrange for the 
extensive Zoological Exhibit which he will make in Midway 



22 The Humming Bird. 

Plaisance at the World's Fair. He will exhibit lions, tigers, 
panthers, leopards, bears, monkeys, etc., in great number, 
and will show the largest "happy family" ever seen. 

A very interesting exhibit in the Transportation Depart- 
ment of the World's Fair will be made by the Steamship and 
Railway Companies of England. The collection of models of 
battleships, yachts, cruisers, steamers and merchant vessels 
will be more complete than was ever before exhibited. The 
London and North Western Railway will send over a 
complete train of cars, headed by a great compound 
locomotive named " Great Britain." This will afford an 
opportunity to compare the English compartment cars and 
sleepers with American coaches. The Great Western 
Railway will exhibit the antiquated locomotive '' Lord of the 
Isles," one of the first used on that road. Several of the 
Railways will show their signalling systems. 

Sir Walker Duller, who owns the finest collection of native 
Maori curiosities and paintings in the world, has applied for 
space in which to display his collection, and intends visiting 
the Exposition with his family. Major John Wilson, of Auck- 
land, has submitted a proposition to the Foreign Affairs 
Committee to bring a colony of Maoris to the Exposition, 
house them in one of their native-built forts, and let them 
show their native costumes, home life, and methods of war- 
fare. The proposition is regarded with some favour, as it 
would add greatly to the value of the general ethnological 
exhibit of the Exposition. 

Ivan Malakoff, a St. Petersburg capitalist, wants to repro- 
duce at the Exposition a street scene from Nijni Novgorod, 
the celebrated place where expositions have been held for 
800 years. He agrees to spend $250,000 upon the repro- 
duction. 

British Columbia has decided to build a structure, which 
will be a novelty in architecture, composed of every variety 
of wood known to the British Columbian forests. The build- 
ing will be built first in sections of contrasting woods neatly 
mortised together. The roof will be of native slate and a 
variety of cedar shingles, making in all a pleasing effect. It 
is intended to ship the building in sections, ready to be 
erected on its arrival. The display will be unique in every 
way, the government and cities of the province subscribing 
to the fund. 



The Humming Bird. 23 

The supporting columns for the Forestry Building are to 
be trunks of trees, with the bark on. Chief Buchanan has 
requested each State to furnish three trunks of trees for this 
purpose. Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, 
■Indiana, Iowa, Maine, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New 
■Mexico, Pennsylvania, Texas, Wisconsin, Washington, and 
West Virginia have promised to furnish their quota. 

The president of Ecuador has ordered that a complete 
display of woman's work shall be prepared for the Fair. This 
is to include a collection of gold and silver braid work, woven 
straw, and other novelties. Two or three women may be sent 
to Chicago to take charge of the display. 

Hassan Ben AH, of Morocco, is seeking a concession to 
make a Morocco Exhibit at the Exposition. He says he will 
spend §50,000 in showing the people, manners, customs, 
amusements, etc., of his country, and in bringing to Chicago 
a tribe of Berbers. 

Among the exhibits to be made at the World's Fair by 
foreign nations, the visitor will doubtless find that of Persia 
one of the most interesting. It includes rare specimens of art 
industry work. Rich and highly wrought fabrics will 
constitute an attractive feature, as will exquisitely fine 
embroideries and elaborately worked gold and silver jewelry, 
rare Persian rugs, carpets, embroidered hangings, etc. 
There will also be found in this Persian exhibit a department 
for manufactured articles, such as arms, curios and richly 
wrought armour, tiles and tile work, mosaics, objects of art; 
antiquities, musical instruments, wearing apparel, etc. Alto- 
gether the Persian exhibit is promised to be characteristic 
and exceptionally unique, a collection rich in objects of cost 
^ahd beauty. 

Fac-similes of thirty-seven of the most prominent of the 
Aztec idols in the museum in the City of Mexico, have been 
prepared for the W^orld's Fair at Chicago. 

- From Holland an offer has been made to the Hollancd 
Society of New York, and the St. Nicholas Society of 
Brooklyn, to construct and present to them an exact repro^ 
duction of the Half Moon, the ship in which Henry Hudson 
discovered and explored the river which bears his name. The 
societies named have accepted the offer, and are planning 
to fit up the ship as a club house, and to take it to Chicago 
both to be exhibited and to be occupied by their members 
during the Exposition. 



24 



The Hu in in ing Bird. 



The owners of one of the finest business corners in Chicago 
have decided to erect a $1,000,000 sixteen-story building, to 
be called '' The Columbus," in honour of America's discoverer. 
The plans contemplate a structure, strikingly artistic and 
ornate in appearance, of the Spanish style of architecture. 
On each side of the main entrance will be placed a bronze 
tablet, the first bearing this inscription : — 

* * 



Erected in honour of 

COLUMBUS 

iTi the year 1892, 

being the 400th anniversary 

of the discovery of 

America. 



*• 



* 



The other tablet will show : — 
* 



CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, 

Born at Genoa in 1435, 

Discovered America the 12th day 

of October, 1492. 

Died at Valladolid the 20th day 

of May, 1506. 



* 



*■ 



* 



It is the intention to have the building completed by May 
ist, 1893. 

The Gold and Silver, and other Mineral exhibits at the 
Exposition will probably aggregate in value several 
million dollars. In exhibits of this description Colorado will 
naturally take front rank. It is announced that the gold and 
silver nuggets to be shown by that State alone, are worth a 
quarter of a million dollars. There has been made a splendid 
collection of native gold specimens, from all the richest 
mining districts. A single collection, valued at $60,000, has 
already been secured. This will be supplemented by the 
finest collections, secured as loan exhibits. The exhibit will 
be both technical and economic in its character, showing a 
scientific classification of the mineralogy of Colerado and a 
correct presentation of its geology. At the same time a 



The Hujnmincr Bird. 25 



popular and massive display of ores, building stone, commer-' 
cial clays and other mineral products will be made. Models, 
maps, and diagrams will be employed to show the progress 
made in mining. These will be accompanied by historical 
data and reliable information regarding the product and 
formation of veins in the mining districts. In the display will 
be the " Silver Queen," a beautiful statue of an ideal female 
figure executed in silver, and valued at $7,500 to f 10,000. 

It is announced that the Virginia Exposition Board intends 
to reproduce at the Fair, Mount Vernon, the famous home 
and last resting place of George Washington. If this is done 
a large and interesting collection of Washington relics will be 
exhibited in the structure. 

A very interesting Exhibit which, it is reported, the British 
Commission is planning to make at the World's Fair, is a 
Large Scale Map, showing the discoveries which have been 
made in North America by Englishmen. Though Columbus 
discovered the West Indies, the credit of first sighting the 
mainland of America seems — if we put aside the unrecorded 
investigations of the Northmen — to be due to an Englishman, 
Sebastian Cabot ; and the list of names of English explorers 
of America, which is headed by his, is a very long and 
distinguished one. Raleigh, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, Sir Hugh 
Willoughby, Frobisher, Davis, Hudson, Baffin, in the seven- 
teenth century, were followed, in the eighteenth, by Scoresby 
and Cook ; while the work they commenced was carried 
on during our own century by the Rosses, Parry, Franklin, 
CoUinson, Maclue, McClintock, Nares and Markham. It will, 
therefore, be seen that there is ample material for a map such 
as that proposed. 

The American flaor now floats from the Administration 
Building at Jackson Park to signify that the World's Fair 
buildings and grounds are in the possession of the United 
States government. Vice-President Morton accepted them 
on behalf of the government on Dedication day, but actual 
possession was not taken until Director-General Davis, the 
chief government World's Fair official, moved into his offices 
in the Administration Building. The raising of the stars and 
stripes signalled that event. 

All of the World's Fair offices, except two or three, are 
now removed to Jackson Park, and those will soon follow. 
For nearly two years the offices have been in the Rand- 
McNally building, in the centre of the city. Now, however, 



20 .The Humming Bird. 

the work of preparation of the great Fair has reached a stage 
requiring it to be carried on in the buildings which are to 
contain the exhibits. All of these buildings are now practi- 
cally finished, and ready for the installation of exhibits. 
Most of the work remaining to be done on the buildings is of 
a decorative nature, and can be carried on and completed 
without interfering with the placing of exhibits. 

In the Administration Building, with Director-Genenal 
Davis, are the offices of the departments of Foreign Affairs 
and Publicity and Promotion. The chiefs of the various 
-exhibit departrnents — agriculture, electricity, mines, trans- 
portation, etc., — have their offices respectively in the great 
department buildings. 

The installation of exhibits has already begun, but has not 
yet progressed far. Soon, however, the interior of each one 
of the buildings will be the scene of great activity. The 
authorities are determined to have all exhibits in place at the 
opening of the Fair, and manifestly this cannot be accom- 
plished if exhibitors are allowed to be dilatory. It will not 
do to permit the great mass of exhibitors to defer installing 
their exhibits until April, and accordingly, state and foreign 
commissions, and individual exhibitors, will be required to be 
prompt. Exhibitors, who are dilatory beyond a certain point, 
will lose their space and be barred out.. 

The requirements of the preparation of the official catalogue 
of exhibits also necessitate promptness on the part of ex- 
hibitors. This catalogue will be an elaborate publication, 
and, generally speaking, will have a separate volume devoted 
to each department. Its preparation is in charge of Major 
Handy, chief of the department of Publicity and Promotion. 
It is the determination to have it on sale, in complete con- 
dition, on the opening day of the Fair, if it is possible to do 
so. That will, of course, depend mainly on the promptness 
of exhibitors. 

Under the east windows of the occupied wing of the 
Administration building lies a scene like a creation of the 
Arabian Nights. It is the grand court, the main gate-way to 
"the World's Fair, the feature par-excellence of the entire 
perfect plan of the Exposition. 

In the centre ripples the blue waters of the great basin, 
which, while constantly renewed by Lake Michigan, is yet 
sheltered from the giant waves foaming on the open shore*' 
The sky line on the east side — where the gray-blue horizon 



The Huniîning Bird, 27 

melts indistinguishably into the greyer blue of the lake and 
basin — is broken by the imposing pillared colonnade and the 
magnificent arch of the Perestyle. At either end stands the 
Music Hall and the Casino, disappearing in the soft misty 
haze behind the stately corner pavilion of the Manufacturers' 
Building on the north, and on the south partially hidden by 
the graceful front of the Agricultural Building. Above the 
dome of the latter the famous figure of Diana pirouettes with 
the shifting wind. This statute, being of heroic proportions 
and brilliantly gilded, is dazzlingly conspicuous amidst the 
prevailing white and grey of the landscape. Here and there, 
too, along the ornate fronts of these ivory palaces, are rich 
warm frescoes, in mellow reds and yellows, painted under the 
direction of Millet, the artistic magician of the World's Fair. 
At the east end of the great basin stands French's grand 
statute of the Republic, lifting her shapely length sixty feet 
from the pedestal, towering ninety feet above the waters of 
Lake Michigan. Opposite, and immediately in front of the 
Administration Building, is the celebrated McMonnies foun- 
tain, fast approaching completion. Columbia sits enthroned 
in the barque of Progress, heralded by Fame, and rowed by 
the genius of civilization, while Time, representing experience,, 
keeps a firm steady hand on the tiller. It is a strikingly 
beautiful and particularly spirited conception, the wind from 
the lake seeming to rustle the snowy drapery of the forward 
bent figures at the oars. 

To the right and left of this, workmen are toiling and 
machines are whirring, within two balustraded semi-circles,, 
building the electrical fountains. These will give the finishing 
touch to the scene of enchantment, by throwing over it the 
light that never was on land or sea. Over the great basin, 
with its giant statutes and its encircling columns and palaces 
of ivory and gold, will play these cloud-touching fountains of 
myriad, ever varying hue, tinging them in turn with violet, 
rose, blue, green, crimson, or the mingled tints of the m.ost 
resplendent rainbow. 

There is no ground for the published report that Visitors to 
the Fair are to be made the victims of exorbitant charges. 
Competition will be so extensive and sharp as to prevent it. 
One who climbs to the top of one of the Exposition buildings 
and surveys the territory lying to the north, west and south 
of Jackson Park, can easily believe this statement. There, 
and indeed in all parts of the City, the amount of building 



2S The Humming Bird. 

which is going on tis simply astonishing. Hundreds of 
structures to meet World's Fair demands are being erected. 
Some of the new hotels are large enough to accommodate 
several thousand guests each. By the time the Fair opens 
Chicago will have living accommodations for not less than 
300,000 strangers. Connected with the Exposition Manage- 
ment is a Bureau of Public Comfort, through the agency of 
which many thousands of visitors can be directed to hotels, 
apartments, boarding houses, furnished rooms, etc., where 
they will be comfortably cared for at moderate prices. 
Eating facilities, both outside the Fair Grounds and in the 
numerous restaurants in the Exposition Buildings, will be so 
extensive that no one need fear that he will not be able to 
get all he needs to eat, and at reasonable charges. 

An effort is being made to arrange for a grand reunion, at 
the World's Fair, of surviving '' 49-ers "-^the men who left 
their homes in the East in 1849 ^^ become gold-hunters in 
California. It is thought that several thousand of them are 
still living, and that all would make an extra effort to go to 
Chicago this year, were a reunion arranged as is proposed. 
Many of them remained in California, but the majority 
returned and are now scattered throughout the States east of 
the Mississippi. 

The most approved methods of Artificial Ice Making and 
Cold Storage will be exhibited at the World's Fair. These 
processes will be shown in a very fine building, 130X255 feet, 
and five stories high, with observatories at the corners and a 
lofty tower at the centre. About eighty tons of ice will be 
manufactured daily, three methods being employed, namely, 
the plate system, from filtered water ; the can system, from 
condensed steam filtered and purified ; and the can system 
from de-aerated water. Three different processes of cooling 
rooms will also be shown. 

Ohio will erect a Mineral Cabin in the Mines Building at 
the World's Fair to illustrate its mineral resources. The 
Cabin will be 32X61 feet in dimensions, and twenty-three feet 
high, and be constructed entirely of Ohio mineral products. 

The section from one of the big California redwood trees, 
which the government will exhibit in its building at the 
World's Fair, has arrived at the Fair grounds. Eleven freight 
cars were required to convey it across the continent. It 
measures thirty feet long by twenty-three feet in diameter. 
The section is hollowed out, and when placed on end, divided 



The Humming Bird. 29 

into two stories and lighted, as it will be, it will form a rustic 
house, larp-e enough for a family to live in. 

The Educational Exhibit at the World's Fair is to have the 
space it requires. A new building, costing $120,000, has been 
ordered for the ethnological exhibit, which, accordingly, is 
thereby removed from the Manufactures and Liberal Arts 
Building, thus allowing more space for the Educational 
Exhibit. 



RELICS AT THE FAIR. 

The objects of historical value and interest, which will be 
shown at the World's Fair, will be legion. It is safe to say 
that the collection will be ten times as numerous as has ever 
been witnessed in one place before. The Columbus relics 
alone will be very great in number, and will include the 
majority of the important portable reminders of the famous 
explorer. They will be brought from Spain, Italy, Rome, the 
West Indies, and other widely separated parts of the earth. 
Every department, almost, of the great Exposition will have 
its relics on view — old records, portraits, machines, models . 
inventions, etc., each having historical interest, or marking a 
stage of progress in its own line. Particularly numerous will 
be these historical exhibits from the United States. Almost 
every state will contribute to the number somethino- which 
will be viewed with interest because of its history or associa- 
tions. One of the best contributions will be shown by 
Pennsylvania, the collection being furnished mainly from Phila- 
delphia, under the auspieces of a committee of its city council. 
Among the objects in this collection are the following: — The 
chair occupied by Thomas Jefferson wdien writing the Declara- 
tion of Independence ; the table on which it was sio-ned ; the 
silver inkstand used on that occasion ; Thomas Jefferson's 
sword; chair of memorial woods, including parts of Columbus' 
house in Spain ; bell rung at Valley Forge when Washino-ton 
occupied that place wdth his army ; sofa belonging to Georo-e 
W^ashington and used by him when he lived in Philadelphia ; 
bench made from pew in old Christ Church occupied by Wash- 
ington and Lafayette; punch bowl used by Gen. Washington 
and other officers of the Revolutionary army ; baby clothes 
made by Mrs. John Adams for her son, John Quincy Adams • 
ale mug that belonged to John Paul Jones ; Peale's portrait of 
Washington, the first ever printed ; first lightning rod in- 



30 The Humming Bird. 

vented by Ben. Franklin ; electrical machine invented by 
Franklin ; original model of John Fitch's steamboat which ran 
between Philadelphia and Burlington from 1787 to 1790; 
unsigned copy of the Declaration of Independence ; fans used 
by Franklin at the court of France when he was minister 
there ; cast of Washington's face taken during life, from 
original mould used for Houdon's statue ; clocks of Benjamin 
Franklin, William Penn and Oliver Cromwell, running and 
keeping good time ; Gilbert Stuart's portrait of Washington ; 
Thomas Jefïerson's thermometer; lock of Jefferson's hair; 
Pocahontus' necklace; surveying instruments used by William 
Penn in laying out the city of Philadelphia ; and the famous 
Liberty Bell. 



BIG PRIZES FOR LIVE STOCK. 

Chief Buchanan of the World's Columbian Exposition Live 
Stock Department, has sent out about 3,000 copies of the live 
stock premium list to the various fair and breeders' associ- 
ations of the country, and is receiving responses which show 
that the live stock exhibit at the Exposition will be something 
tremendous. Besides the large premiums offered by the 
Exposition for a live stock exhibit, all the various breeders' 
associations are offering large prizes, notably for shorthorns, 
Herefords and Jerseys. As an evidence of the widespread 
interest taken in the live stock show, A. E. Mansell, of Shrop- 
shire, England, offers a prize of Ç500 for the best American 
bred Shropshire ram. The State of Illinois offers $40,000 in 
premiums for live stock ; the Clydesdale horse breeders offer 
$5,000 extra prizes ; the cattle associations offer extra prizes 
as follows : Galloway, $3,000 ; shorthorn, $6,000 ; Hereford, 
$5,000; Jersey, $10,000, and Holstein, $10,000. The swine, 
sheep and dog breeders also offer extra money prizes. The 
money prizes to be paid for live stock will amount to 
$250,000 or more, which, of course, includes the sum of 
$150,000 voted by the Exposition company for premiums in 
that department. The Exposition Buildings for the accom- 
modation of live stock will cover thirty acres. 



WORLD'S FAIR SOUVENIRS. 

How YOU CAN GET ONE OF THE COLUMBIAN HALF DOLLARS. 

The World's Fair souvenir coins are ''going like hot cakes," 
and those who want to get one or more of them will have to 



The Humming Bird. 31 

bestir themselves, or they will be too late. The desire for 
one of these mementos of the Exposition seems to be almost 
as universal as is the interest in the Exposition itself, and 
orders for them have been sent in from all parts of the United 
States, and also from foreign countries. 

This souvenir half dollar, it is reported from Washington, 
•will be the most artistic coin ever issued from the mint. On 
the obverse side will appear the head of Columbus, designed 
from the Lotto portrait, and surrounding it the words, 
''World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893." On the 
reverse side will appear a caravel, representing Columbus' 
flagship, and beneath it two hemispheres. Above the caravel 
will be " United States of America," and beneath the hemis- 
pheres, '' Columbian Half Dollar." There is no doubt that 
this coin will be regarded as the most distinctive and highest 
prized cheap souvenir of the World's Fair. 

All of these souvenir coins, except five, are being sold at a 
uniform price of one dollar each. For the first coin struck off 
§10,000 has already been offered, and various prices have 
been bid for the 400th, 1,492nd, 1,892nd, and the last coin. 
Desiring that these souvenirs be distributed as widely as 
possible among the people, and that all, irrespective of locality, 
have an equal chance to obtain them, the Exposition authori- 
ties have sought to prevent syndicates and others from 
purchasing large quantities, and thus "cornering" the sale. 
On the contrary, they have arranged to supply banks, business 
houses, and individuals in all parts of the country, with as 
many as they may desire to distribute among their patrons, 
customers, or friends. They require only that the orders 
must be for fifty coins, or some multible of fifty, and that the 
order be accompanied by the cash, at the rate of one dollar 
for each coin. A great many banks and business firms have 
gladly complied with these conditions, and ordered each from 
50 to 20,000 of the coins. 

Notwithstanding these conditions have been widely pub- 
lished, still a vast number of inquiries by letter have been 
received at Exposition headquarters asking how the coins 
may be obtained. The best way is to get them through local 
banks, all of which are no doubt willing to accommodate in 
that way their patrons, and the residents of the city or town 
in which they are doing business. If, however, for any 
reason it is desired to obtain them otherwise, the proper 
method is to form a club of subscribers for fifty coins, or 



32 The Hmnmîng Bird. 

some multiple of fifty, and select some one member of the 
club to send on the order and money and to distribute the 
coins when received. Orders should be addressed to 
A. F. Seeberger, Treasurer World's Columbian Exposition,. 
Chicago. 



THE GENERA OF HUMMING BIRDS. 



Since the last six months I have been w^orking and re- 
arranging my collection of Humming-birds, with the hope of 
finding a way to adopt partly, or in its entirety, the classifica- 
tion proposed last year, by Mr. Osbert Salvin, of Trochili 
serrirostres, intermedii, and laevirostres ; but I am sorry to 
say that I have not been successful, therefore I must continue 
to follow my own classification, which I have made as natural 
as possible ; but I must confess that it has been a very hard 
work. I do not believe that other birds present such difficulties 
of classification as the Humming-birds. 

To orive an idea of the difficulties encountered all alono-, 
I shall just mention some of the genera included in the 
Trochili serrirostres of Mr. Salvin. Heliothrix, Schistes, 
a.nd A ugasf es, belong certainly to the family of Petasophoridae,. 
having all in common, metallic blue or violet ear-covers, 
peculiar to that family. 

Ramphodon, Androdon, and Glaucis, whose dentition is 
very conspicuous, cannot be well separated from Pyginornis, 
Phaethornis, Threnetes, Eutoxeres, etc., which are laevirostres. 

Chlorostilbon cannot be separated from Panychlora, 
Eupherusa, and Elvira are closely allied to Agyrtria, and so 
on with[many others. 

From what has been printed of the Genera, in Vol. II. 
of the Humming Bird, I have been obliged to reprint pages 55 
and 56, so as to make place for the genus, Abeillia, which 
finds its place in my family of Cephalolepidae, and I have 
been obliged to place Patagona after Eustephanus, agreeing 
with that genus in many particulars, and forming the passage: 
to Oreonympha, which begins my family of Metalliiridae. 

A.B. 



BOUCARD, POTTIER & CO., 
1Ratiua[ist5 an& Jfeatber (IDercbants, 

225, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, W.C, ENGLAND. 



Messrs. BOUCARD, POTTIER and Co. offer to sell on commission. Objects of 
Natural History, Collections of Mammals and Birds, Skins, Skeletons, Human and 
Animal Skulls, Insects of all orders pinned and set, or in papers; Marine, Fresh 
Water and Land Shells ; Reptiles and Fishes in spirit ; Crustaceae and Arachnidas in 
spirit; Ethnological Collections from all parts; Showy Bird Skins and Feathers for 
Plumassiers and Naturalists ; Mammal Skins for Furriers ; Bright species of Insects 
for Artificial Florists ; Rare Old Stamps, used and unused ; Curios of all sorts ; 
Pictures and Works of Art, etc., etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting 
Messrs. Boucard, Pottier and Co., who having a large connection with Amateurs in all 
parts of the world, are able get the very best prices for them. 



About 6,000 species of Birds, 30,000 species cf Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, 
Mammal Skins, from New Guinea, West Africa, South America, etc. ; Land, F""resh 
Water and Marine Shells, a large number of species : Reptiles and Fishes in spirit; 
Crustaceae, dried and in spirit ; Insects of all orders ; Skeletons ; 5,000 different 
varieties of Postage Stamps, etc., etc. 

A very fine collection of Shells, especially rich in Land Shells, and containing 
many types and new species, about 40,000 specimess. For Price, etc., apply at 
225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 



No. I. For Humming Birds and SmalJ Birds 

„ 2. For Small Birds, up to Tanagers 

,, 3. For Tanagers up to Magpies 

,, 4. For Magpies up to Crows or Small Hawks 

,, 5. For Small Hawks to Large Hawks and Owls 



NTESIW ST^K'IL-E. 



at 20s. per hundred 
at 24s. ,, 

at 28s.' ,, 

at 32s. „ 

at 40s. ,, 



ji.f^mFiciA.r^ £:^yE:s. 



Black 

Per Gross. 

No. I to 4 6d 

„ 5 to 8 8d 



,, 9 to 10 
„ II to 13 



IS. od. 
2S. 6d. 



,, 14 to 16 3S. 6d. 
„ 17 8s. od. 
,, 18 I2S. od. 



Coloured. 



IS. 6d. 
2s. 6d. 
4s. od. 
7s. od. 

Per Dozen Pairs. 
2s. 6d. 
3s. od. 
4s. od. 



Cornered. 

Per Dozen Pairs. 

No. 4 to 6 3s. 6d. 
„ 7 to 9 5s. od. 

,, 10 to II 8s. od. 
,, , 12 9s. od. 



Cornered and 
Veined. 
Per Dozen Pairs. 

4s. 6d. 
6s. od. 

los. od. 
IIS. od. 



„ r3 to 15 13s. od. 15s. od. 

Larger Sizes can be made to order. 



xjrrEsi^siiLiS FOJR cor^HiEzcrr'xiiqrG, e:«o. 



from 



Bicarbolic Acid 

Rectified Benzoline 
Boucard's Insecticide ... 
Collecting Corked Box 
Pocket Corked Box 
Corked Box for Museums 

Botanical Box 

Pin Box, with i,ooo pins 
Collecting Bottles with 

opening 
Boucard's Tin Collecting Box, with 

two partitions 

Straight Scissors 

Curved ,, 

Taxidermist Knives 

Long Forceps 

Small ,, 

Insects' Nippers 

Sieve 

Blowpipe for cleaning eggs . . 

Digger 

Folding ditto 



quart 2/- 
„ 2/- 
Ib. 4/- 
i/- to 5/- each 
from 2/- each 
from 24/- to 36/- doz. 
from 2/6 to 6/- each 

3/- 

large 

from 6d. 



.. 2/- 
from 2/- 
2/- 



1/6 
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i/- 
1/6 

2/- 
21- 
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Insect Pins. English, 

or German . . 
Setting Boards ... 
Butterfly Nets complete 
Sweeping and Water Nets 
Cork in Sheets 
Magnifying Glasses 
Hammers ... 
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for 



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Insects 

Cutting Pliers ... 

Flat Pliers 

Arsenical Soap ... 

Glass Tubes 

Taxidermist Case, containing 
I Pair of Scissors, 2 Knives, 
I Lime, i Grater, 2 Pliers, 
I Hammer, i Pair of Forceps, 
I Brush, 3 Gimlets, etc. com- 
plete 



French 
...from 1/6 per 1000 
from i/- to 2/- each 

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TO BE SOLD OR EXCHANGED, 

For Properties of equal value in London, Brighton, or % 

the Isle of Wight, 

SEVERAL PROPERTIES AT SAN-REMO, 

The Celebrated Winter Resort on the Riviera, 40 Minutes 

from MONACO. 




VILL/\ MARIA LUIGIA. 

Three Villas, known as Villa Maria Liiigia, and Villas Rondo: tlie first 
one, detached with a beautiful garden of 2200 square yards; the last, semi- 
detached with front and back gardens. Villa Maria LiUga consists of three 
floors, with fifteen fine room, offices, kitchen, etc. Ten of the rooms are full 
south, facing the sea. 

Villa Rondo n^ 25, corso Garibaldi, consists of two floors, with nine 
rooms, kitchen, office and cellar. N° 27 has two kitchens and two more 
rooms on the underground floor. 

Villa Maria Luigia and Villa Rondo n^ 25, the smallest, are actually let 
unfurnished, 3800 francs per annum, for several years. — Villa Rondo n*^ 27, 
is also let at 1400 francs per annum. Furnished, they will produce between 
;;^400 amd ;^500 per annum. 

All applications to be made at Mr. Boucard's, 225, High Holborn, 
London, W.C. (England), where photographs of the Villas can be seen. 



JUST ARRIVED. 

Collections of Mammal and Bird Skins from Madagascar, containing 
new species of Lemur, the Sea Eagle, Coua ruficeps, gigas, olivaceiceps, and 
other species ; Lepiosomus discolor, Brachypteracias, pittoides, and sqiiamigera, 
E uryceros prevosti, a.nd mâny other rare species. Also a perfect specimen, 
fossil egg, of the supposed extinct species, Aepyornis mediiis, Insects various, 
etc. Collections of rare Butterflies and Moths from Madagascar, Japan, India, 
Gold Coast, Venezuela, Columbia, Brazil, and other countries. Collections 
OÏ Beetles from India, Mexico, Venezuela, Columbia, Japan, Madagascar, 
Australia, Cape of Good Hope, etc. Collections of Land, Fluviatile, and 
Marine Shells, from Madagascar, New Guinea, Japan Venezuela, Paraguay, 
Mexico, Central America, etc. A unique specimen of the wonderful 
Pheasant from Tonkin, Rheinardioiis oçellatus. Also a unique andperfect 
pair of the very rare Pheasant, Lobiophasis Bulweri, and many other very 
rare species of Birds from Borneo and New Guinea. 

Ethnological Collections and Curiosities from New Guinea, Mada- 
gascar, Gold Coast, Mexico, Central America, Japan, etc. 

■ — . ..- .. ■■ ■ .— ... . — — - . — I — ■ - ■ ■.■..■-.■— — — — — — r — — ' 

Pardy & Co., General Printers, 8, The Triangle, Bournemouth. 



Vol. III. Part III.] SEPTEMBER, 1893. [Price 2/6. 



XLhc Ibumminô Bir6 

.u&x. A QUARTERLY X9^ 

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Lowest charge, 2/6 up to five lines, and 6d. per line extra. 

Repeated or Continuons Advertisement per contract. 



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Published by A. Boucard, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 



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BOUCARD, A., Works by :— 

Guide pour récolter préparer et expédier 
DES Objets d'Histoire Naturelle, Brochure 
in 8vo., 32 pages, Rennes, 1871 

The same in Spanish 

Notes sur quelques Trochilidés, Brochure 
grand, in 8vo., 16 pages, Lyon, 1873 

Hand-book of Natural History, 2nd Edition, 
Vol. in 8vo., 234 pages, profusely illustrated 
with Woodcuts, London, 1874 

Coloured Diagrams of Natural History, 2nd 
Edition, 20 sheets, i8in. by 24in., comprising i65 - 
Diagrams of typical animals and plants, natural 
size, and 37 natural typical specimens of woods, 
and minerals, all neatly mounted on strong card- 
board 

The same, varnished 

Notes sur les Trochilidés du Mexique, 
Brochure grand in 8vo., 16 pages, Lyon, 1875 ... 

Monographic List of the Coi.eopteka of the 
GENUS PLUSIOTIS, with descriptions of 
several new species. Pamphlet, in 8vo, with 
coloured plate, illustrating five new species 

The same, with black plate ... . -•• 

Catalogues Avium hucusque descHiptorum, i 
Vol. in 8vo., cloth, 352 pages, 2546 genera, and 
11,031 species recorded. London, 1876. A useful 
book for Museums and Ornithologists. Price 
reduced to ... ... 

The same, with French preface ... 

The same, interleaved with blank sheets of paper, 
French or English preface 

Notes ON Pharomacrus costaricensis. Pamphlet 
4to, 8 pages. Brighton, 1877 ... 

On Birds collected in Costa Rica, by Mr. 
Adolphe Boucard. Pamphlet in 8vo, 72 pages, 
with coloured plate of Zonotrichia Volcani. 
Boucard, London, 1878 ... ... 

The same, with black plate 

Notes on some Coleoptera of the genus 
PLUSIOTIS, with descriptions of thkee 
new species from Mexico and Central 
America. Pamphlet in 8vo, 4 pages, with 
coloured plates, illustrating fine species, P. 

RODRIGUEZl", BADENI, BOUCARDI, MNISZECKI, 

and PRASiNA ... 

The same, with black plate 

Notes sur les objets exposés par la Ré- 
publique DE Guatemala et par M. Adolphe 
Boucard à l'Exposition universelle de 
Paris, 1878, Brochure in 8vo, 32 pages. Paris, 1878 

Liste des Oireaux récottés au Guatemala en 
1877, PAR. M. Adolphe Boucard, Brochure 
grand, in 8vo, 48 pages. Lyon, 1878 

Descriptions of two supposed new species 
OF South American Birds. Pamphlet, in 8vo., 
with coloured plate, figuring Chiromachacris 
CORONATA. Bpucard, London, 1879 

The same, with black plate 

Description d'une espèce nouvelle de Pseu- 
doeolaptes de Costa Rica. Paris, 1880 

Descriptions de deux espèces nouvelles de 
Cicindélides de Panama. Paris, 1880 

On a Collection of Birds from Yucatan 
(Mexico), with notes by Mr. Osbert Salvin, 
F.R.s. Pamphlet, in 8vo., 30 pages. London, 1883 

Notice biographique sur Francois Sumichrast, 
Naturaliste Voyageur, Brochure in 8vo., avec 
portrait. Paris, 1884 ... 

Visite aux ruines de Xochicalco (Mexique). 
Paris. 1887 

Catalogue des Objets exposés par la Rè- 
PUPLIQUE DE Guatemala et par M. Adolphe 
Boucard à l'Exposition universelle de 
Paris, 1889 

Catalogue des Oiseaux de la Collection 
RiocouR. Paris, 18S9 

THE HUMMING BIRD. A Monthly Scient 
TiFic, Artistic, and Industrial Review 
Vol. I. London, 1891 ... 

Contents of Vol. I. 

Preface — What is to be seen everywhere in London — 
The McKinley Bill— The Panama Canal— Notes on the 
Genus Pharomacrus — An easy way of making £100 a 
a year — Reports on Public Sales of Feathers and Bird 
Skins— Rapport sur la Vente publique, de plumes et 
d'Oiseaux à Londres, Décembre, iSgo — The Museum 
of la Plata, and my idea of a typical and practical 
Museum of Natural History — Reports on Public Sales 
of Postage Stamps— Notes on rare species of Humming 
Birds, and Descriptions of several supposed new species. 



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-^ Second International Ornithological Congress — 
Answers to Correspondents — Description of a supposed 
new species of Parrot in Boucard's Museum — Notes on 
the Crowned Superb Warbler (/V/a/j/;-»s coionatus (Gould) 
— A Visit to the Gardens of Zoological Society of Lon- 
don — British Museum (Zoological Department) — Royal 
Aquarium — Books and Journals received^Obituarv — 
Description of a supposed new species of Paradise bird 
in Boucard's Museum— The Pilgrim Locust — -Descrip- 
tion of a supposed new species of I'anai^er— Notes on 
the great Bower Bird (Chlamydodeia nuchalh, Jard)— 
Collections made in Thibet andC<-ntral Asia — A Visit to 
the British Museum (Natural History Department) — 
The Plantain or Banana Plant — Inauguration of the 
statue of Pierre Belon, the Naturalist — A Giant 
Land Crab — Review of new Scientific Books — Report 
on the Public Sale of the celebrated Collection of Shells, 
formed by the late Sir David Barclay, and sold at 
Steven's on Monday, tbë 6lh of July, and following days 
— Recommendations for the prevention of damage by 
som : corrimon Insects of the Farm, the Orchard, and 
the Garden — La Vie champêtre. La Destruction de la 
Larve du Hanneton (Melolontha y///^a>zs) —Crocodile, 
Snake, and Fish skins for industrial purposes — World's 
Columbian Exposition, Bâtiment de I'Administation. 

The same. Vol. II. London, 1892 ... ... 10- 

Conteuts of Vol. II. 
Description of a supposed new Species of Humming Birds, 
in Boucard's Museum— The World's Fair, Inter- 
national Exposition of Chicago — Review of New 
Scientific Books — Notes on the Rare Pheasant, 
Rheinardius ocellatus — Books received — Celebrated 
Gallery of Old Masters, of the late General Marquess 
de Garbarino — Customs Tariff of Great Britain and 
Ireland — Obituary — Biographical Notes on Henry 
Walter Bates, F.R.S., etc. (with portrait) — American 
Pearls — Fish from Volcanoes — A very large Tree — A 
Curious Rat Catcher — List of Birds collected, by Mr. 
Hardy at Porto-Real, Brazil, with description of one 
supposed New Specie's — Description of a supposed New 
Species of the genus Manticora, " Cicindelidae," from 
Damara Land, South Africa— Description d'une espèce 
nouvelle de Diptère parasite de Costa Rica, Ornithom- 
yia geniculata — The Completion of the Panama Canal 
— A complete list, up to date, of the Humming Birds 
found in Columbia, with descriptions of several supposed 
New Species — Christopher Columbus — Festivities and 
Exhibitions, held in honour of Christopher Columbus in 
America, Spain, Italy and France — America — Le Canal 
de Panama — International Exhibition in Monaco — A 
new Eipission of Postage Stamps. 

REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS, comprising:— 
Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithso- 
nian Institution, 1890-1891 — Catalogue of Birds in the 
British Museum, Vol. XX., 1891, Vol. XVI., 1892, 
Vol. XXII., 1892— Zoological Record, Vol. XXVI II., 
1892 — Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 
1892 — The Ibis, Vol. IV., Sixth Series, 1892 — Mémoires 
de la Société Zoologique de P'rance, Vol. V., 1892 — 
Memorias y Revista de la Sociedad cientifica, Antonio 
Alzate, 1892— Actes de la Société scientifique du Chili. 
Vol. I., 1892— The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 
1892, etc. 
OBITUARY:— 
August von Pelzen — Dom Pedro d'Alcantara — M. 
Alphand — Monseigneur Freppel — Armand de Quatre- 
fages de Breau — Duke of Clarence — Henry Walter 
Bates- Etienne Arago — Hermann Charles Burmeister 
— Cari August Dohrn — Marshal da Fonseca — Ernest 
Renan — Alfred Tennyson — Xavier Marmier. 
GENERA OF HUMMING BIRDS, by A. Boucard, 
pages I to 56. 
Sauvetage du Panama, 4éme edition, Brochure 

in 8vo., 32 pages. Tours, 1892.. .. . . 6d. 

Catalogue des Collections d'historié 

naturelle récoltées au Mexique par M. 

Adolphe Boucard ... ... .. .. i/- 

Catalogue de Mammifères, Oiseaux Reptiles, 

Poissons et Coquilles de la Californie, 

Louisiane, Mexique et Uruguay ... ... i/- 

Catalogue de Carabiques et Colcoptères 
divers, 1477 espèces ... ,. .. ... ; 

Catalogue d'Héteromères et de Curculio 

nides, 2242 espèces ... .. .. .. i/- 

Catalogue d'Oiseaux, Reptiles et Poissons, 

1157 espèces .. .. . ., .. ■ • i/- 

LisTE de Coléoptères exotiques, 2636 espèces 1/6 
Liste des Coléoptères en vente chez M. 

Adolphe Boucard, 7956 espèces ... ... . 4/- 

Liste des Oiseaux en vente chez M. Adolphe 



Boucard, 4584 espèces 
La série complète des huit Catalogues et Listes 



4.'- 
12/- 



She ||umnuu(( ^ivd. 



PANAMA. 

Prorogation for the Completion of the Panama 

Interoceanic Canal. 

I^^INCE the issue of Part i, Vol. iii., of the Hujnming Bird, 

I^P a treaty has been signed between Mr. Monchicourt, 
Liquidator of the Panama Canal Co., and the Columbian 
Government, by which the latter has agreed to a prorogation 
of twenty months, thus giving ample time to the Company 
to promote and form a new Society for the completion of 
the Canal. 

So far so good, as I never doubted that the Columbian 
Government would protect, as much as possible, the interests 
of the first subscribers ; but I am sorry to see that one of the 
clauses of the treaty mentions that a total sum of four millions 
of francs be paid to Columbia by the new Society, the first 
payment of 500,000 francs to be made by the Liquidatioii in 
the course of next month. 

Knowing as I do, the great difficulties existing in the 
formation of a new Society, I am afraid that the said clause 
will be a great obstacle to the formation of a new Companv, 
and I really believe that Columbia has made a mistake in 
introducing that clause in the treaty. 

The interests of Columbia were to facilitate by all means 
in its power the promoting of a new Company, and by makino- 
such terms, I am afraid that the result will be quite the 
reverse of what that country expects. 

I know of one Company, with a capital of twenty millions 
of francs, which is willing to resume work in Panama, but 
it cannot do so if that clause is maintained, because the twenty 
millions which it possesses are required in their entirety, for 
the disposing of the principal obstacle standing in the way of 
the Canal, I mean the removal of the Culebra. This done 
B 



34 The Huîmning Bird. 

confidence would be restored, and the rest made easy ; but it 
cannot be done if the new Company has to pay four millions, 
from its capital, to the Columbian Government. 

This is the state of affairs at the present moment, and I 
think that the only way of rescuing this gigantic international 
and most useful undertaking should be the immediate convo- 
cation of an International Congress, either at Paris, London, 
New York, or Chicago, where suitable measures could be taken 
to that effect. [Ed.] 



THE IMPERIAL INSTITUTE. 

On Wednesday, the 12th of May, the Imperial Institute 
v\^as officially opened by Her Majesty the Queen. 

The weather was magnificent, and that day of rejoicing 
and spontaneous holiday making, will be remembered during 
their life time, by all Londoners who assisted, either as guests 
or spectators, at that grand ceremony. 

Crowds began to assemble in the vicinity of Buckingham 
Palace and along the line of route to be taken by the Royal 
cortege, as early as nine o'clock in the morning, and it is quite 
impossible to form an exact estimate of the number of 
spectators who assembled together to do honour to QuEEN 
Victoria, but we think that nothins^ less than several hundred 
thousands lined the passage followed by the Royal Family. 
Triumphal arches, festoons of evergreens, and flags could be 
seen everywhere. Add to that, most magnificent weather, 
and you will have an idea of the glorious appearance of that 
part of London, on the 12th of May last. 

No such gathering had been seen since the Jubilee celebra- 
tion. Shortly after noon the appearance of the six carriages 
forming the Queen's procession was signalled by a flourish of 
trumpets from the Queen's trumpeters. The first four carriages, 
preceded by an escort of Life Guards, contained the Equerries, 
the Lords and Ladies in Waiting, and the Court officials. Then 
came a carriage containing Prince Christian and Prince Henry 
de Battenberg. A body of Life Guards, followed by the 
Australian, Canadian and Indian troops, preceded the Queen's 
state carriage, drawn by six cream coloured horses. Her 
Majesty, who appeared to be in excellent health, was dressed 



The Hummincr Bird. 35 

in black, as usual. Opposite her, were Princess Christian and 
Princess Henrv de Battenberg. Another body of Life Guards 
followed the Imperial carriage. Their Royal Highnesses, 
Prince of Wales, Duke of York, Duke and Duchess of Edin- 
burgh, Princess May, and Duke of Con naught who had gone 
in advance, received Her Majesty on her arrival at the 
Institute. 

Her Majesty took her seat at the north end of the HalL 
On each side were placed chairs for the Royal Family, the 
Indian Princes, and the high Dignitaries. 

Opposite were the guests, among which could be seen 
manv well-known celebrities, civil and military. After the 
usual ceremonies, the Imperial Institute was declared open 
by Her Majesty. 

The Imperial Institute, a magnificent building, nobly 
carried out by the architect, Mr. Colcutt, has been built with 
the contributions made to that effect by private individuals, 
in honour of the Oueen's Jubilee. 

The foundation stone of this great building was laid five 
years ago, by Her Majesty on the occasion of her Jubilee. Its 
object is to bring the Colonies into closer touch with the 
mother country, by friendly and commercial intercourse, by 
the exhibition of the raw materials and manufactured products 
of England and its Colonies, by the advancement in every 
possible way of trades, handicrafts, etc. The Institute will 
form a kind of international club for colonists and others 
visiting England, where information may be easily gained and 
good fellowship promoted. In fact, it will be the Colonies' 
Palace of Commerce, Art, and Industrv, a fit homage rendered 
by the nation to Her Most Gracious Majesty, Queen Victoria. 

On the evening of the 17th, a grand reception was held 
by His Royal Highness, the Prince of Wales. The guests 
numbered over 15,000, including all the Fellows, the guests 
invited on the day of opening, the members of the London 
County Council, the London School Board, the London Cor- 
poration, the mayors, provosts, and town clerks throughout 
the country, and about 1,000 officers of the Army and Navy. 
An immense buffet had been placed in the north gallery, at 
which guests were supplied with all kinds of wine, fruits, and 
other refreshments. As far as possible, the articles supplied 
at the buffet were obtained either from England or from the 
Colonies. It was a grand success. 



36 The Humming Bird. 

WORLD'S 

COLUMBIAN EXHIBITION. 

On the ist of May, President Cleveland inaugurated the 
Chicago Exhibition and delivered a remarkable speech on 
that occasion, chiefly in praise of Labour and Peace. 

It was a magnificant ceremony all through. Over three 
hundred thousand spectators assisted at this solemn inaugura- 
tion. An orchestra of 1,200 performers played National 
tunes all the while. 

The Duke of Veragua, direct descendant of Christopher 
Columbus, and his wife, assisted at the ceremony as special 
guests of the American Government, and were much cheered. 

The Austrian, English, German, and French Exhibitions 
were much admired by President Cleveland and suite. 

The German Exhibition which was nearly completed was 
inaugurated by President Cleveland on that day. 

In general, the foreign exhibitions were more advanced 
than the American sections, but it was hoped that all of them 
would be completed during the month. 

Mrs. Palmer inaugurated the Ladies' Exhibition, and in 
her speech she said that special thanks were due to Queen 
Victoria, to the Empress of Russia, to the Queen of Italy, to 
the Queen Regent of Spain, and to the Committee of the 
Belgian ladies for the great help and interest taken by all of 
them in that part of the Exhibition. 

The Duchess of Veragua replied in the name of the 
Spanish ladies. Countess Piazza in the name of the Italian 
ladies, and Princess Schakowsky in the name of the Russian 
ladies. 

'^ The Ladies' Section," said Mrs. Palmer, " proves that 
the talent is not the privilege of one sex alone." 

On the 15th, the Women's Congress was opened in the 
of Hall Columbus, in the new Art Institute. Nearly seventy 
organisations composed exclusively of women, and many 
hundred societies and associations were represented, the 
number of participants in the Congress being over 5,000. 

The Countess of Aberdeen, Miss Jane Cobden, and the 
most prominent of Women's Rights representatives in 
America occupied seats on the platform. 



Tlie Humming Bird. 37 

Addresses were delivered by Marie Stromberg (Russia), 
Miss Unwin, Mrs. Fenwick Miller and Marie Fisher (England), 
Isabelle Bogelot, and Cécile Ranoz (France), and by other 
delegates from Canada, South America, etc. 

On the 1 6th, twenty different conventions were in 
session. 

The French Section of Fine Arts attracts a great deal of 
attention. On the 9th, a banquet was given by Mr. Roger 
Ballu, the principal French Commissioner of Fine Arts, to the 
Officers of the Chicago Exhibition, the foreign Commissioners 
of Fine Arts, artistic notabilities, and others. 

The Japanese Exhibition is also much admired. 

Much remains to be done ; but even as it is, months 
would be required to see all the marvels accumulated in the 
Exhibition. 

It is a great pity that such a wonderful display should 
have such an ephemeral life. 

During the six months of its existence there is scarcely 
time enough to study conscientiously only those peculiar 
branches which interest most. 

The Chicago Exhibition occupies about ten times more 
space than the last Paris International Exhibition of 1889. 
Those who saw the Paris Exhibition will know Avhat that 
means. 

The Palace of the Administration is in the centre. It is 
a wonderful structure and one of the great attractions of the 
Exhibition. It cost very nearly one million of dollars, or 
/,2oo,ooo. All the buildings are distributed right and left 
of that palace. On the right, the Palaces of Mines and 
Electricity, two colonial structures. Further on, the leviathan 
of all, or Palace of Manufactures and Liberal Arts, the centre 
of which is occupied by England, France, Germany, and 
United States. Then comes the Palace of Music where 7,000 
spectators and over 2,000 artists can be easily seated. 

Opposite the Palace of Liberal Arts is the Palace of 
Agriculture, another colonial structure, and so many others that 
it would fill several pages of this journal to give their names. I 
shall only mentiontheHorticultural Palace, the Women's Palace, 
the Federal Government Palace, the States Buildings, the 
Foreign Palaces, and the gigantic Aquarium. 



38 The Hinmning Bird. 

In the place called Midway Plaisance, two hundred yards 
wide, and over one mile in length, are concentrated the places 
of amusement and the curiosities of the Exhibition, such as : 
— A captive balloon, Algerian, Indian, Austrian and Tunisian 
villages, Japanese bazaars, Panorama of the Alps, Dutch 
sledges, Pompeian house, Temples, etc., etc. On the lake can 
be seen crafts of all descriptions, from an Indian canoe to a 
man of war, and it will certainly be one of the greatest attrac- 
tions of the Exhibition. Restaurants and drinking stalls are 
to be seen everywhere, so it is to be hoped that visitors will 
not experience the unpleasant feeling of thirst and hunger, 
as happened several times to the visitors of the last Paris 
International Exhibition, who could not get, inside the grounds, 
a glass of wine, or a piece of bread, for love or for money. 

The Humming Bird has been one of the first Journals 
which, from the beginning, has had the greatest and most 
constant faith in the complete success of the World's 
Columbian Exhibition. It has constantly kept its readers 
well informed of all the doings of the directors and officers 
of the administration ; of all the preparations made by 
American, European, and other foreign countries to appear at 
the Fair at their best ; and the Editor is very happy to say that 
everything has come to pass exactly as announced. It is the 
grandest and finest Exhibition ever held, and it does great 
credit to all those who, in one way or another, have contributed 
to it. 

The North Americans can be justly proud of their 
glorious achievement in commemoration of the four hundredth 
anniversary of the discovery of America, by Christopher 
Columbus. 

How far it will prove an European success, time will show, 
because for want of habit of travelling, it is much less easy 
for Europeans to go to America than for Americans to 
come to Europe ; but what is certain, is, that it will be a 
colossal American success, and that Europeans will be seen 
this year in America in greater numbers than ever before, 
and we hope that such a friendly and peaceable intercourse 
between all the nations of the World at the Fair, will do more 
for the maintenance of PEACE than all the armaments of the 
World. [Ed.] 



TJic H iiDiiiu'ng Bird. 39 

The Queen-Regent of Spain has conferred a sufficiently 
large pension on Don Cristobal Colon, Duke of Veragua, to 
keep him from want, and even to enable him to maintain 
some of the position of his rank. It will be remembered 
that this great Spanish nobleman, who is the principal lineal 
descendant of the discoverer of America, was declared bank- 
rupt, and his possessions sold bv auction, a few days after the 
recent Columbus celebration in the United States. He was 
Minister of Marine in Don Saorasta's Cabinet. 

Mr. John D. Rockefeller, the Standard Oil Company 
millionaire, has made an additional donation of 81,000,000 
to the Universitv of Chicago. 

Mr. Phil Armour, a Chicago millionaire, left for Europe 
somewhile ago, and after his departure it was learned that he 
had made a gift to the city of a splendid five-storey building, 
which is to be called the Armour Institute, for manual train- 
ing in science and art. Mr. Armour gives an endowment of 
§1,400,000 to maintain the establishment. 



ANVERS INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION. 

In May, 1894, will be opened an International Exhibition 
at Anvers, Belgium. 

All those willing to participate in it can communicate 
directlv with the Belgian Consuls in EnHand and in other 
countries, who will give all the required information to 
intending exhibitors. 



ROYAL INSTITUTION. 

A series of scientific lectures is being given at the above 
Institution by the well-known lecturer and ornithologist, Mr. 
Bowdler Sharpe, of the Zoological Department of the British 
Museum. In the two lectures already given, Mr. Sharpe has 
treated principally of the extinct species, and the geographi- 
cal distribution of Birds. Very good diagrams of fossil and 
of rare birds w^ere shown. We wish all success to Mr. Sharpe 
for these popular lectures. 



40 The Humming Bird. 

DESCRIPTION OF ONE SUPPOSED NEW 
SPECIES OF CETONIA, from SYRIA. 

Cetonia DELAGRANGEI, N. Sp. 

C. delagrangei, supra vividi-aurata ; capite crebre punctu- 
lato; thorace subtuliter punctulato ; scutello loevi ; elytris 
fortiter punctatis ; infra metallicoviolacca; tibiis tarsisque, 
violaceo tinctis ; antemns rufis. 

Length, \ to f of an inch. 

Habitat. — Akbes, Syria. 

Head and pygidium metallic-coppery, strongly punctured,, 
thorax, scutellum and elytrae golden-green with coppery 
reflections in certain lights, especially on the thorax and on 
the margins of the elytrae, the thorax is very minutely 
punctured all over, the scutellum quite smooth, the elytrae 
strongly punctured all over with only a vestige of two white 
lines on each elytrae, one external at about two-thirds of 
its length, the other internal slightly lower ; undersurface 
dark metallic violet, tibiae and tarsi of same colour, darker 
on tarsi. I have some specimens with the thorax metallic 
coppery and others entirely metallic coppery. 

This new species is closely allied to the well-known 
Cetonia aurata, but is much smaller and much brighter in 
colouration. The white markings of C. aurata, scarcely 
exists at all in this species. Some specimens have no trace 
whatever of them. It is a beautiful insect, finding its place 
between C. aurata and C. afinis. 

I have much pleasure in dedicating this new species to its 
discoverer, the well-known Syrian collector, Mr. Delagrange. 

I have also a fine series of what may be a variety of this 
species, but in the doubt, I give the description below, and 
propose the name of Cetonia syriaca for it, if it should prove 
to be a distinct species. 

Head, thorax, scutellum and elytrae, brilliant metallic dark 
green, with golden reflections in certain lights ; undersurface, 
including pygidium, tibiae, and tarsi, dark bluish-purple. On 
some specimens one small white mark is seen on the external 
margin of the elytrae, on others none. 

Habitat. — Akbes, Syria. 

It is a beautiful insect. 



She 





HOW ANIMALS ARE PROTECTED 
AGAINST THEIR ENEMIES. 

The most casual observer cannot fail to be interested in the 
wonderful manner in which all classes of animals, from the 
largest quadruped to the smallest insect, are protected against 
the various enemies which seek to destrov them, and the studv 
of this subject is a source of never-ending delight to the 
naturalist, or, indeed, anyone who is embued with a true sense 
of the lessons to be learnt from the wonders of nature. It 
will be seen at once that those animals which are not endowed 
with strong teeth, claws, or other weapons of defence against 
their foes, always have some peculiarity of shape or colour 
which concealsthembvharmonizinor with their surroundino-s, and 
thus guards them, to a certain extent, from the attacks of those 
predatory creatures into whose clutches they would otherwise 
easily fall. And this is as it should be, for, if those carnivorous 
animals whose natural food they are, were able to hnd their 
prey too easily, they would destroy for the love of slaughter, 
even after the pangs of hunger were satisfied. But as it is^. 
predatory'animals are obliged to use a large amount of cunning 
and energy in hunting their victims down, and therefore they 
do not as a rule kill more than are absolutely necessary to 
satisfy the cravings of the stomach. Thus is the balance of 
Nature evenly preserved, all species of animals maintaining 
their proper proportions to one another. At the same time, 
we must not forgret that the same resemblance to surroundinof 
objects which conceals many animals from their stronger foes, 
serves them also as a means of more successfully hunting those 
weaker creatures upon which they in their turn prey. 

Anyone who has seen the Hippopotami in the Gardens 
of the Zoological Society of London must have been strujk 
by the resemblance these huge animals bear to half-sunken 
rocks, when laying quietly in the small lake which is attached 
to their house, with only part of the back and top of the head 

C 



42 The Humming Bird. 

showing above the surface. This, and their power of sinking 
noiselessly when alarmed, affords them, no doubt, a means of 
concealment from the hunter. A somewhat similar case in 
point is seen in the Crocodiles and Alligators, which look 
exactly like dead logs laying in the water, especially in their 
native haunts, when they are surrouiided by slime, water- 
plants, fallen trunks of trees, etc. A curious means of defence, 
familiar to everyone, is that of the Hedgehog, which, besides 
having its body covered with spines, has the power of rolling 
itself into a ball when attacked, entirely concealing its head 
and legs (which, with the belly, are the only parts not pro- 
tected by the spines), and thus becoming nothing but an 
impenetrable prickly ball. The " fretful porcupine " is another 
animal protected by spines, these latter being, however, much 
longer than those of the Hedgehog ; it also differs from the 
latter by being unable to roll itself into a ball. There are several 
other animals besides the Hedgehog which possess this power, 
one of the principal being the Armadillo, a little animal from 
South America, which is covered with a kind of bony armour 
on the upper parts of the body and head, and by this means 
is, when rolled up, as secure from danger as the Hedgehog. 
There is also a species of woodlouse called the Armadillo, 
which is frequently met with in England, under the bark of 
decayed trees, etc., and is armour-plated like the mammal 
referred to above, rolling itself into a little ball like a black 
pill when disturbed. Indeed, it is said that the old-time 
doctors used to have great faith in their virtues as pills, and 
dried them for the purpose, administering them, along with 
their powdered snake-skins and other equally delightful pre- 
scriptions, to their confiding patients. 

An interesting instance of nature's protection is afforded 
by the Stoat, or Ermine (Mustela erminea). This animal is 
reddish brown in summer, which colour harmonizes well with 
the undergrowth in which the creature lives. But, being an 
inhabitant of northern countries, where snow lies on the 
ground during part of the year, its summer dress becomes 
too conspicuous amongst its white surroundings, and its 
colour then changes to white, which, while effectually con- 
cealing it from its foes, at the same time enables it to 
approach, unseen, the small mammals and birds upon which it 
feeds. It is while it wears this winter coat that it is called 
the Ermine, and it is then hunted for its skin, which is highly 
valued. Among birds, the Ptarmigan (Lagopus vulgaris) is 
one which changes its colour in the same manner as the 



The Humming Bird. 43 

Stoat, its plumage being composed of various shades of bro\^■^, 
grey, &c., during the summer months, like other birds 
belonging to the grouse family, and then turning pure white 
in the winter. The Reindeer is an inhabitant of countries 
which are under snow for the greater part of the year, like 
Lapland, and these countries being also the home of thousands 
of hungry wolves, which are the worst enemies of the 
Reindeer, the latter would be in constant danger were it not 
for the large size and peculiar formation of his hoofs, which 
are cloven like those of other deer, but which are very large 
and which, moreover, spread apart over the snow instead of 
sinking into it, enabling the animal to travel at great speed, 
and thus escape its enemies. Antelopes, living as most of 
them do in countries which are infested with the larger 
Carnivora, besides being much hunted by the natives for their 
flesh, skin, &c., would be in great danger of extermination 
were it not for their fleetness of foot, which is greatly aided 
bv their liorhtness and eleg^ance of build. 

Almost all animals which are gregarious, i.e., travel or feed 
in herds or flocks, appoint some of the oldest and most 
experienced among them to act as sentinels and give warning 
of the approach of an enemy. The Baboons of Africa are an 
example, and, if attacked by a Leopard or other foe, the old 
males will not hesitate to give battle to the enemy, so as to 
keep him at bay whilst the females and young escape. W^ild 
Horses, when attacked by w^olves, usually form themselves 
into a circle, with their heels outwards, and woe be to the 
imprudent wolf who ventures within reach of their hoofs. 

A curious instance of protection for the young is afforded 
by the Marsupials, or Pouched Animals, of which the 
Kangaroo is a familiar example. The females of these 
remarkable creatures, as all visitors to the Zoological Gardens 
know, have a pouch in front of their bodies in which the 
vounor are reared, and to which, after thev are old enoug^h to 
run and feed themselves, they retreat when alarmed. It is a 
most interesting sight to see the prettv little animals protrude 
their bright eyes and pointed ears from their mother's pouch, 
and cautiously emerge, hastily scrambling back again at the 
least alarm. 

Nearly all birds which live much on the ground, such as 
larks, partridges, quails, etc., are dull in colour, the various 
browns and drabs which are the usual hues of their plumage 
being the most indistinguishable among grass and under- 
growth, and these birds usually sit very quiet on the approach 



44 The Humming Bird. 

of danger, preferring to trust to the assimilation of their 
plumage with the surrounding objects than to their powers 
of flight. The females of most birds are of a dull colour, as, 
if they wore the brilliant dress which a large number of the 
males do, they would easily betray the whereabouts of their 
nests. This is especially the case with birds like the peacock 
and pheasant. 

There are probably no animals which are more effectually 
concealed from their enemies than the toads and frogs, 
especially the former, for although manv of them are brightly 
coloured underneath, in most cases they are dark on the 
upper parts of the body, and they usually make a small 
depression in the ground and lay flat in it, when, their backs 
being on a level with, and of a similar colour to the earth, 
they are extremely difficult to distinguish. Those species 
which inhabit swamps, marshes, etc., are usually of a greenish 
colour, like the slime and ooze in which they live, the only 
thing brilliant about them being their beautiful eyes, which 
often betray them to the practised eye of the collector. 

Among fish, the flat-fish, such as plaice and soles, are about 
the most defenceless, being comparatively slow in their 
movements, but to compensate for this defect they are able 
to hide themselves very effectually. As everyone knows, they 
are brown on one side, which most people call the back, and 
white on the other, commonly supposed to be the belly. But 
a close examination of the position of the intestines, mouth, 
fins, &c., will show that these fish lie on one side, the eyes 
being the only organs which are in a different place to those 
of other fish, as they are both on the uppermost side. These 
fish lie at the bottom of the water, the brown side uppermost, 
and often covered with sand, the only parts visible being the 
mouth and eyes ; these latter are rather prominent, so that 
they remain above the sand when the fish has the rest of its 
liead buried beneath it, and he is thus enabled to watch all 
that is going on above him while lying securely hidden. It is 
only necessary to visit the Fish House at the Zoological 
Gardens to verify this, as there are usually several buried 
beneath the sand at the bottom of their tank there. A 
remarkable means of protection is that of the Torpedo Fish 
and the Electric Eel (Gymnotus) . The former is a member of 
the ray, or skate family, and has the power of giving very 
severe electric shocks to anyone who touches them. 

The Electric Eel is common in rivers in many parts of 
South America, where they are said to grow to the length of 



The Humming Bird. 45 

six feet, and to be able to give a sliock strong enough to stun 
a horse. However that may be, I had ample opportunities of 
observing two of these Hsh at the Insect House, Zoological 
Gardens, in 1885. They were only medium sized specimens, 
but they could give a somewhat severe shock, as I have 
myself experienced, causing a most unpleasant sensation and 
momentarily paralyzing the arm sometimes, as they were 
apparently able to regulate the strength of the shock. Nor is 
it necessary to touch them in order to receive a shock, as they 
could send a current of electricity through the w^ater, though 
I was unable to ascertain to what distance. They also make 
use of their wonderful power to obtain their food, which 
consists of small fish, &c. They have very small eyes, and 
are bv no means active, therefore thev would soon starve 
were it not for the aid of their electrical apparatus. The two 
specimens referred to used to have small roach, carp, and 
other fish for their food, which, of course, were given them 
alive. As soon as the eels became a-ware of the presence of 
their prey, they would send several electric currents through 
the water, which would cause the fish to fioat, dead or stunned, 
upon the surface. The eels would then feel about with their 
mouths, their eyesight being, as I have said, very poor. 
As soon as they felt a fish they would seize it voraciously 
and sw^allow it whole. I noticed an interesting circumstance 
one day, which shewed that they must possess a certain amount 
of reasoning power. A small perch had inadvertently been 
given them among the other fish, and when one of the eels 
seized it, he turned it round so as to swallow it head foremost; 
had he tried to dispose of it tail first, the fins, which are very 
spiny in the perch, would have stuck in his throat and choked 
him. The most remarkable point about this incident was 
that they never troubled how they swallowed the carp, roach, 
etc. I do not think they gave very strong shocks as a rule 
while feeding, as on several occasions I took apparently dead 
fish out of the water, and on putting them into a bowl of fresh 
water they gradually came too and swam about as lively as 
ever. I saw these two eels only last June ali^'e and well, 
and with a notice over their tank intimating that visitors who 
pay one shilling to the keeper are entitled to receive an 
electric shock from these extraordinary fish. 

But it is amonor insects that we find the most wonderful 
instances of protection and disguise against their foes. 
Their enemies are so numerous, including mammals, birds, 
reptiles^ fishes, and even the stronger members of their own 



46 The Humming Bird. 

class, that it is only the extraordinary means of concealment 
which many of them possess, combined with their remarkable 
fecundity, that stands between them and total extinction. As 
it is, however, they are enabled to hold their own with such 
success as to greatly out-number the remainer of the animal 
world. No doubt birds are the greatest destroyers of insects, 
especially when the latter are in the larval state, as almost all 
birds, even the seed-eating species, feed their young on 
insects. As a means of protection against these destroyers, 
a large number of insects lay their eggs either in the ground 
or in the future food-plant of the young larvae. Among the 
former are the cockchafers and grasshoppers. The cock- 
chafer is fearfully destructive when in the larval stage, as the 
grub lives under the ground, where it is comparatively safe 
from the attacks of birds, feeding on the roots of plants and 
doing enormous damage to growing crops. It is for this 
reason that rooks, starlings, and other birds follow the plough, 
in order to find these and other grubs which may have been 
turned up with the soil. Consequently, these useful birds 
should never be destroyed, but, on the contrary, should be 
encouraged as much as possible. The weevil, a small beetle 
belonging to the family of Ciirculionidœ, is another insect 
which, unfortunately for the farmer, is well concealed from 
its foes when in the larval state. The eggs are laid in grains 
of corn, and the larvae hatch and feed in security, causing 
immense destruction on account of their numbers. Another 
beetle which lays its eggs so that the young grubs find them- 
selves in the midst of their food on hatching, is the Burying 
Beetle, which, however, is not injurious to farmers. On 
finding the dead body of a mouse, small bird, or something of 
the kind, these insects bury it in the earth, and then lay their 
eggs in it. Among the larvae of Lepidoptera may be found 
some of the most interesting examples of the subject of this 
paper. The larvae of a large number of species belonging to 
the family of Vanessidœ feed on nettles, thistles, and other 
plants which are more or less spiny or hairy ; in order to 
conceal them as much as possible, these larvae are covered 
with branched spines, which look very formidable, but which, 
however, are quite soft and harmless. The pupae of the same 
insects hang by their tails from the stems, etc. of their food- 
plants, and from a little distance look exactly like dead leaves 
which have shrivelled up. 

The larvae of a remarkable North American butterfly, 
(Limenitis disippiis) , are curious from the fact that in 



The Hummino Bird. 47 

colour and shape they resemble the excrement of a bird, so 
much so as to deceive even the most experienced eye ; 
indeed, I should think that even the birds themselves were 
mislead, so extraordinary is the similarity. They spend about 
three weeks in the larval stage, and eleven or twelve days as 
pupae. The Leaf Butterflies (Kallima) of India are brightly 
coloured on the upper side of the wings, but quite sober 
in hue underneath, and they look exactly likebrovvn leaves 
when the wings are closed, the middle vein of the leaf being 
represented bv a dark line extending across both wings, 
which are also marked with blotches and spots, just like a 
leaf commencing to decay. Each hind wing is elongated into 
a kind of tail, which, when the butterfly is in repose, rests 
against the stem of the plant on which the insect is sitting, 
and thus resembles the stem of the leaf. They are very 
variable in colour on the underside, all shades from vellow 
to dark brown being found, and no two specimens are exactly 
alike. One of the most difficult British pupae to And is that 
of the Puss Moth (Dicranura vinula) , on account of the 
shape and colour of the cocoon. When the larva is about 
to undergo its metamorphosis it selects a comfortable crevice 
in the bark of the poplar or willow tree on which it has been 
feeding. It then bites the bark away in small chips until it 
has made a sliorht hollow, a little longr-er and broader than 
itself ; then, with the aid of a gummy secretion, which it 
possesses in lieu of the silk with which most larvae of 
Lepidoptera are provided, it proceeds to glue together the chips 
of wood which it has bitten away, until it has built an oval 
shaped dome over itself, which soon hardens with exposure 
to the air, becoming almost impervious to the sharpest knife. 
During; the winter months the cocoons oret discoloured, and 
often covered with lichens, etc.. so as to be indistinguishable 
from the bark of the tree. If comfined in a box, it will 
compose its cocoon of cardboard or whatever substance the 
box is made of. This larva is also interesting from the fact 
that it has two so-called tails on the extremity of the body, 
which are in realitv whips for drivino- awav ichneumon flies. 
When it feels one of these flies alight on its back, for the 
purpose of laying its eggs in the caterpillar's body, the larva 
protudes these curious organs from the sheathes in which they 
are encased, and uses them as whips to drive its foe away. 

Countless other examples could be added to those already 
enumerated, such as the snail, which has a shell into which it 
retires when threatened with danger ; the cuttle fish, which 



48 The Hinnjning Bird. 

discharo^es a black fluid into the water to darken it and thus 
cover its retreat; the hermit crab, which lives in the old shells 
of whelks, etc., but it would fill many volumes to mention all 
of them. In fact one may say that every animal has some 
special protection, or disguise, to guard it from the dangers 
which beset it. Moreover, there are always fresh points of 
interest to be discovered in this connection, and there is a 
wide field of study and research still left open for every lover 
of natural history. 

W. F. H. Rosenberg. 



ABUNDANCE OF WASPS. 

The extraordinary hot and dry weather which has been 
experienced this year in Europe, has been partly injurious to 
the crops of cereals and grasses ; but, as a compensation, it 
has been extremely favourable to all trees and plants bearing 
fruit. 

The quantity of fruit has been so large this year, that 
everywhere can be seen trees, so overloaded with them, that 
many of their branches not being able to support such a 
weight, lie broken on the soil. 

The year 1893 will always be remembered as an exceptional 
year in that respect. The Vines are in the most flourishing 
condition as to quantity and quality, and it is now certain that 
this year, the w^ine will be of an exceptionable good quality. 

But what is of greater interest to the Zoologist, is the 
prodigious number of Wasps, which can be seen everywhere 
in the orchards. Millions, or better say milliards of them are 
feasting on fruits, and it is a great task, for gardeners and 
others, to preserve their crops from these insects. From 
where did all these insects cqme from, precisely at a time 
when there is such an abundance of fruit, is more than we 
can say ? It is one of those mysterious doings of NATURE,, 
which we can well admire, but not so easily explain ? [El).] 



BOUCARD, POTTIER & CO., 

inaturali5t6 ant) ]featber fIDercbante, 

225, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, W.C, ENGLAND. 



Messrs. BOUCARD, POTTIER and Co. offer to sell on commission. Objects of 
Natural History, Collections of Mammals and Birds, Skins, Skeletons, Human and 
Animal Skulls, Insects of all orders pinned and set, or in papers; Marine, Fresh 
Water and Land Shells ; Reptiles and Fishes in spirit ; Crustacese and Arachnidse in 
spirit ; Ethnological Collections from all pnrts ; Sliowy Bird Skins and Feathers for 
Plumassiers and Naturalists ; Mammal Skins for Furriers; Bright species of Insects 
for Artificial Florists ; Rare Old Stamps, used and unused ; Curios of all sorts ; 
Pictures and Works of Art, etc., etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting 
Messrs. Boucard, Pottier and Co., who having a large connection with Amateurs in all 
parts of the world, are able get the very best prices for them. 

About 6,000 species of Birds, 30,000 species cf Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, 
Mammal Skins, from New Guinea, West Africa, South America, etc. ; Land, Fresh 
Water and Marine Shells, a large number 0/ 5/»^^/V5 : Reptiles and Fishes in spirit; 
Crustaceae, dried and in spirit; Insects of all ..orders ; Skeletons; 5,000 different 
varieties of Postage Stamps, etc., etc. 

A very fine collection of Shells, especially rich in LtAND Shells, and containing 
many types and neiv species, about 40,000 specimens. For Price, etc., apply at 
225, High Holborn, London, W.C. ^ 



No. 



For Humming Birds and Small Birds 

For Small Birds, up to Tanagers 

For Tanagers up to Magpies 

For Magpies up to Crows or Small Hawks 

For Small Hawks to Large Hawks and Owls 



ia^E:^w snPY^iLtE:. 



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ji.itmiF'ici/sLiL. £:^ve:s. 



Black 

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No. I to 4 6d. 

„ 5 to 8 8d. 

,, 9 to 10 IS. od. 

,, II to 13 2S. 6d. 



,, 14 to 16 3s. 6d. 
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Coloured. 



IS. 6d. 
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No. 4 to 6 3s. 6d. 
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4s. 6d. 
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los. od. 
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Larger Sizes can be made to order. 



XJrX7E21«SIi:<S FOXS COX^ILiElG'ni^G, £:«c. 



from 



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i/- to 

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Pin Box, with 1,000 pins 
Collecting Bottles with 

opening 
Boucard's Tin Collecting Box, with 

two partitions 

Straight Scissors 

Curved ,, 

Taxidermist Knives 

Long Forceps 

Small „ 

Insects' Nippers * 

Sieve 

Blowpipe for cleaning eggs . . 

Digger 

Folding ditto 



quart 2/- 
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4/- 

5/- each 
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from 6d. 



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or German 

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French 
...from 1/6 per 1000 
from i/- to 2/- each 

„ 1/6 to 5/- 
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„ 4/- per lb. 

,, 6/- ream 



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Insects from 10/- 

Cutting Fliers ,, 2/- 

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Arsenical Soap ,, 2/- per lb 

Glass Tubes ,, i/- doz. 

Taxidermist Case, containing 

I Pair of Scissors, 2 Knives, 

I Lime, i Grater, 2 Pliers, 

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SEVERAL PROPERTIES AT SAN-REMO, 

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VILLA MARIA LUIGIA. 

Three Villas, known as Villa Maria Liiigia, and Villas Rondo : the first 
one, detached with a beautiful garden of 2200 square yards ; the last, semi- 
detached with front and back gardens. Villa Maria Luiga consists of three 
floors, with fifteen fine room, offices, kitchen, etc. Ten of the rooms are full 
south, facing the sea. 

Villa Rondo n° 25, corso Garibaldi, consists of two floors, with nine 
rooms, kitchen, office and cellar. N^ 27 has two kitchens and two more 
rooms on the underground floor. 

Villa Man a Luigia and Villa Rondo n" 25, the smallest, are actually let 
unfurnished, 3800 francs per annum, for several years.— Villa Rondo n*^ 27, 
is also let at 1400 francs per annum. Furnished, they will produce between 
;£'400 amd ;^5oo per annum. 

All applications to be made at Mr. Boucard's, 225, High Holborn, 
London, W.C. (England), where photographs of thé Villas can be seen. 



JUST ARRIVED. 

A very interesting collection of Beetles and Butterflies from Syria. 
Another of Beetles and Butterflies from Haiti (Antillae). It contains some 
very fine species of Buprestidae and Curculionidae, and one rare species 
of Gymnetis. Collections of Coleoptera from Java and Japan. Large 
collections of Butterflies and Moths from Assam and Japan. Several inter- 
esting collections of Bird skins from Japan, British Guiana, Borneo, Gaboon, 
Congo, Guatemala, etc., etc. Specimens of Ceriornis caboti, and other 
rare species of birds. A collection of shells from Australia, and many others, 
also Australian Echidnae, in spirit, which can be seen at the 

Naturalists' Agency, 225, Higii Holborn, London, W.C. 

Pardy & Co., General Printers, 8, The Triangle, Bournemouth. 



Vol. III. Part IV.] DECEMBER, 1893. 



[Price 2/6. 



XLhc IDumminô J5ir6 

a.€X A QUARTERLY x®^ 

SCIENTIPIC, ARTISTIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW 



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Published by A. Boucard, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 



BOUCARD, A,, Works by :— 

Guide pour récolter préparer et expédier 
DES Objets d'Histoire Naturelle, Brochure 
in 8vo., 32 pages, Rennes, 1871 i/- 

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NoTES SUR QUELQUES Trochilidés, Brochurc 
grand, in 8vo., 16 pages, Lyon, 1873 1/6 

Hand-book of Natural History, 2nd Edition, 
Vol. in 8vo., 234 pages, profusely illustrated 
with Woodcuts, London, 1874 4/- 

CoLOURED Diagrams of Natural History, 2nd 
Edition, 20 sheets, i8in. by 24in., comprising 166 
Diagrams of typical animals and plants, natural 
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board 40/- 

The same, varnished ... ... 45/- 

Notes sur les Trochilidés du Mexique, 
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Monographic List of the Coleoptera of the 
GENUS PLUSIOTIS, WITH descriptions of 
several new species. Pamphlet, in 8vo, with 
coloured plate, illustrating five new species ... 4/- 

The same, with black plate ... ... . . 2/6 

Catalogues Avium hucusque descriptorum, i 
Vol. in 8vo., cloth, 352 pages, 2546 genera, and 
11,031 species recorded. London, 1S76. A useful 
book for Museums and Ornithologists. Price 
reduced to ... ... .. ... .. 10/- 

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The same, interleaved with blank sheets of paper, 
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Noteson Pharomacruscostaricensis. Pamphlet 
4to, 8 pages. Brighton, 1877 ... ... ... 4/- 

On Birds collected in Costa Rica, by Mr. 
Adolphe Boucard. Pamphlet in 8vo, 72 pages, 
with coloured plate of Zonotrichia Volcani. 
Boucard, London, 1878 ... ... .. 4/- 

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Notes on some Coleoptera of the genus 
PLUSIOTIS, WITH descriptions of three 
NEW species from Mexico and Central 
America. Pamphlet in 8vo, 4 pages, with 
coloured plates, illustrating fine species, P. 
rodriguezi, badeni, boucardi, mniszecki, 
and PRASiNA ... ... .. ... .. 4/- 

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Notes sur les objets exposés par la Ré- 
publique DE Guatemala et par M. Adolphe 
Boucard à l'Exposition universelle de 
Paris, 1878, Brochure in 8vo, 32 pages. Paris, 1878 i/- 

Liste des Oireaux récottés au Guatemala en 
1877, PAR M. Adolphe Boucard, Brochure 
grand, in 8vo, 48 pages. 'Lyon, 1878 ... ... 2/6 

Descriptions of two supposed new species 
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CORONATA. Boucard, London, 1879 ... ... 2/- 

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Description d'une espèce nouvelle de Pseu- 
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Descriptions de deux espèces nouvelles de 
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On a Collection of Birds from Yucatan 
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Notice biographique sur Francois Sumichrast, 
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THE HUMMING BIRD. A Monthly Scien- 
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Vol.1. London, 1891 ... ... ... .. 10/- 

Contenls of Vol. I. 

Preface — What is to be seen everywhere in London — 
The McKinley Bill— The Panama Canal— Notes on the 
Genus Pharomacrus — An easy way of making ;é"ioo a 
a year — Reports on Public Sales of Feathers and Bird 
Skins — Rapport sur la Vente publique, de plumes et 
d'Oiseaux à Londres, Décembre, 1890 — The Museum 
of la Plata, and my idea of a typical and practical 
Museum of Natural History — Reports on Public Sales 
of Postage Stamps — Notes on rare species of Humming 
Birds, and Descriptions of several supposed new species 



— Second International Ornithological Congress 
Answers to Correspondents — Description of a suppos 
new species of Parrot in Boucard's Museum — Notes > 
the Crowned Superb WsiThler { Maliinis coronaius (Goul 
— A Visit to the Gardens of Zoological Society of Lc 
don — British Museum (Zoological Department) — R05 
Aquarium — Books and Journals received^Obituarv 
Description of a supposed new species of Paradise bi 
in Boucard's Museum — The Pilgrim Locust — Descri 
tion of a supposed new species of Tanager — Notes ■ 
the great Bower Bird {Chlamydodera nuchalis, Jard) 
Collections made in Thibet and C'-ntral Asia — A Visit 
the British Museum (Natural History Department) 
The Plantain or "Banana Plant — Inauguration of t 
statue of Pierre Belon, the Naturalist — A Gia 
Land Crab — Review of new Scientific Books^Repc 
on the Public Sale of the celebrated Collection of Shel 
formed by the late Sir David Barclay, and sold 
Steven's on Monday, the 6th of July, and following da 

— Recommendations for the prevention of damage 
some common Insects of the Farm, the Orchard, ai 
the Garden — La Vie champêtre. La Destruction de 
Larve du Hanneton (Melolontha vulgaris) — Crocodi 
Snake, and Fish skins for industrial purposes — Worl< 
Columbian Exposition, Bâtiment de I'Administation. 

The same, Vol. II. London, 1892 ... ... k 

Contents of Vol. II. 
Description of a supposed new Species of Humming Birc 
in Boucard's Museum — The World's Fair, Inte 
national Exposition of Chicago — Review of Ne 
Scientific Books — Notes on the Rare Pheasai 
Rheinardius ocellatus — Books received — Celebrate 
Gallery of Old Masters, of the late General Marque 
de Garbarino — Customs Tariff of Great Britain ai 
Ireland — Obituary — -Biographical Notes on Hen 
Walter Bates, F.R.S., etc. (with portrait) — Americ! 
Pearls — Fish from v^olcanoes — A very large Tree- 
Curious Rat Catcher — List of Birds collected, by M 
Hardy at Porto-Real, Brazil, with description of 01 
supposed New Species — Description of a supposed Ne 
Species of the genus Manticora, " Cicindelidae," fro 
Damara Land, South Africa — Description d'une espèi 
nouvelle de Diptère parasite de Costa Rica, Ornithor 
yia geniculata — The Completion of the Panama Can 
— A complete list, up to date, of the Humming Bin 
found in Columbia, with descriptions of several suppos( 
New Species— Christopher Columbus — Festivities at 
Exhibitions, held in honour of Christopher Columbus : 
America, Spain, Italy and France — America — Le Can 
de Panama — International Exhibition in Monaco- 
new Emission of Postage Stamps. 

REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS, comprising: 
Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smiths 
nian Institution, 1890-1891— Catalogue of Birds in tl 
British Museum, Vol. XX., 1891, Vol. XVI., i8g 
Vol. XXII., 1892— Zoological Record, Vol. XXVIIl 
1892 — -Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Londo 
1892 — The Ibis, Vol. IV., Sixth Series, 1892 — Memoir 
de la Société Zoologique de France, Vol. V., 1892' 
Memorias y Revista de la Sociedad cientifica, Anton 
Alzate, 1892— Actes de la Société scientifique du Chi 
Vol. I., 1892— The Entomologist's Monthly Magazin 
1892, etc. 
OBITUARY:— 
August von Pelzen — Dom Pedro d'Alcantara — B 
Alphand — Monseigneur Freppel — Armand de Quatp 
fages de Breau — Duke of Clarence — Henrj'^Waltl 
Bates- Etienne Arago — Hermann Charles Burmeisf 
— Cari August Dohrn — Marshal da Fonseca — Erne 
Renan — Alfred Tennyson — Xavier Marmier. 
GENERA OF HUMMING BIRDS, by A. Boucai^ 
pages I to 56. 
Sauvetage du Panama, 4éme edition. Brochure 

in 8vo., 32 pages. Tours, 1892.. .. ..6 

Catalogue des Collections d'historie 

naturelle récoltées au Mexique par M. 

Adolphe Boucard ... ... .. .. i 

Catalogue de Mammifères, Oiseaux Reptiles, 

Poissons et Coquilles de la Californie, 

Louisiane, Mexique et Uruguay ... ... i 

Catalogue de Carabiques et Colcoptères 
divers, 1477 espèces ... .. .. ... i 

Catalogue d'Héteromères et de Curculio 

NiDES, 2242 espèces ... .. .. .. J 

Catalogue d'Oiseaux, Reptiles et Poissons, 

1157 espèces . . . . . . . . . . 1 

Liste de Coléoptères exotiques, 2636 espèces i 
Liste des Coléoptères en vente chez M. 

Adolphe Boucard, jg-^S espèces ... ... 4 

Liste des Oiseaux EN vente CHEZ M. Adolphe 

Boucard, 4584 espèces ... .. ..4 

La série complète des huit Catalogues et Listes ... lî) 



Wxt Mumming ^iul 



NOTICE. 




ITH the present Part, we close the Third Volume of the 
Humming Bird. In \'olume IV. will be concluded the 
Genera of Humming Birds, and the First Volume of Travels of a 
Naturalist. 

This Fourth Volume will be issued Quarterl}^: the First 
Part on the first of March, and the Fourth and last one on the 
first of December. 

The price for Subscribers, post prepaid, will be Ten 
Shillings for the United Kingdom, Europe, North America and 
Canada ; and Twelve Shillings for all other countries. The 
subscription for Vol. IV. is now due. 

The Redaction. 



NOTES ON WASPS. 

BY A. BOUCARD. 

The Wasp (Vespa Britannica) is an hymenopterous 
insect belonging to the family Vespidae, or family of Wasps 
and Hornets. The principal characters of these insects are 
taken from the structure of the wings. These, four in 
number, as in all the species of Hymenoptera, are folded 
throughout their entire length when the insect is at rest ; the 
fore-wings have one marginal and three sub-marginal cells, 
with an incomplete terminal sub-marginal cell, and in all the 
species the neuration is the same. Some wasps are solitary 
in their manner of life, and these have been separated from 
the social species and formed into a distinct familv EuMENlDAE. 

The social wasps have their bodies usually black with 
yellow markings ; they have strong and dentated mandibles, 
and the females and neuters have a long, powerful, and 
venomous sting. Their legs are unprovided with apparatus 
for collecting pollen. They live in societies composed of 
D 



50 The Humming Bird. 

males, females, and neuters or workers; but their communities 
are dissolved at the commencement of the winter. The nests 
in which they live, called sometimes vespiaries, are either 
built under ground, in holes, in banks, or attached to the 
branches of trees. Within these nests, which are varied in 
size and appearance, they construct hexagonal cells, arranged 
in combs like those of the bees, and in which the larvae and pupae 
are contained. A large nest sometimes contain an hundred 
females, and though few escape the rigour of the winter, the 
few that do emerge in spring commence to construct a new 
habitation. 

The males perform no menial work, this is left to the 
neuters which are always the most numerous and busiest of 
the community. These are the architects and the soldiers; 
they build the nests, gather provisions, regulate the nurseries, 
and revenge insults. Wasps are very voracious, preying 
upon insects, sugar, meat, fruit, honey, etc. Vespa Britannica 
is a true wasp, and builds its nest of a thin substance like 
paper, but of a very fine and close texture, and suspends it 
from the branch of a tree. 

This year, as everyone knows, there has been quite an 
abundance of wasps in all Europe, and many were the notices 
published in many of the leading European papers on these 
insects. Nearly all of them have stated that the wasps was 
one of the greatest pests to orchards, vineyards, etc. Myself, in 
Part III. of the Humming Bird^ 1893, page 48, mentioned that 
millions of vvasps were feasting on fruits, and considered them 
as extremely injurious insects; but since then, I have been think- 
ing a great deal over the matter, and I have completely altered 
my opinion. I am not at all certain that they are so injurious 
as I thought. On the contrary, I think that they are very 
useful, and that it is chiefly due to these insects that such an 
abundance of fruit has been gathered this year in all Europe. 
I quite believe that they are the greatest auxilary of Agri- 
culturists in destroying an immense number of parasitic, 
minute insects well known as injurious to fruit, and I call the 
special attention of the Hymenopterists and other Entomolo- 
gists to what precedes. It is of such vital importance to 
Agriculture, that we should know with certainity, which are 
our friends or our enemies among the insects and other 
animals, that I consider that money and time could not be 
better spent than in trying to solve this most important point, 
and more especially so about the wasps when we see that in 
many European countries, money has been spent largely for 



The Humuiimy Bird. Ki 

the destruction of these insects, when perhaps quite the 
reverse, is what ought to have been don(^ Supposing for one 
instant that mv opinion about the utility of these insects 
could be satisfactorily proved, it is easy to see of what 
importance it is to the whole world at large, especially so, 
if we take into account the immense number of wasps which 
have been destroyed this year, by order, or by supposed 
friendlv advices. 

It is quite true that several fatal casualties, occasioned by 
these insects, have been made known by different newspapers; 
but these are only accidents, similar to many others, to which we 
are dally exposed, during the course of our life ; and we may 
sav that imprudences were perhaps made by the victims. 

Unless man is attacked by a. multitude of these insects, 
in trying to destroy their nests, the sting of a single wasp is 
not a pleasant sensation, but is not dangerous. With a few 
drops of pure ammonia, immediately applied on the wound, 
the irritation disappears very quickly ; and in all my rambles 
• over the world, I have nev^er heard of wasps attacking man, 
without provocation of his part, neither seen one of these 
Insects stinging anyone of its own accord. 

During a stay of several weeks made this year in the Isle 
of Wight, I have been greatly annoyed with them, when 
walking, bathing, and even at meal times. When bathing, 
thev came along and wanted to rest on me (for w^hat purpose 
I don't know) ; when walking about and in perspiration, they 
seemed as if they w^anted to suck me ; when eating fruits or 
sugared cakes, they swarmed round and even dared to stand 
on the cake or fruit which I had in my hand, and devoured 
part of it ; and, lastly, when taking my breakfast or dinner, 
they ransacked what was on the table, chiefly butter and sugar. 

On the 24th of August, when at breakfast, I witnessed 
\vhat I consider a very interesting fact, on the voracious habits 
of wasps : that of a wasp hunting a common house fly, which 
was partly stuck in the butter. A wasp which assisted to 
nearly all my meals — now flying about in all directions, now 
partaking of the sugar, then of the bread, etc. — perceiving the 
fly half stuck in the butter, pounced upon, seized it, and carried 
it on the glass of the French window. In less than two 
minutes it had cut off the two wings of the poor fly, and swal- 
lowed it all. If I had not seen it, I could not have believed it. 

I shall conclude my Notes on Wasps with the reprint of 
two principal notices on Wasps, taken from the '^ Petit 
Journal " de Paris, and '' Pearson's Weekly" of London. 



52 Tlie Humming Bird. 

THE WAYS OF WASPS. 

In many parts there is a regular plague of wasps. Here 
are some interesting facts about these pests. 

I know naturalists say that the wasp has really no blood- 
thirsty designs in our direction, but I have not noticed this 
myself. Anyway, they always go for me and I always 
retaliate and slay them wholesale and when they are asleep 
if possible. In my opinion, the taking of a wasps' nest is a 
great and glorious occupation- — if you don't get stung. 

There are more wasps about this year than ever. But in 
1892 there were hardly any to be found. It is easy to under- 
stand why, too, if we look into their domestic ways and habits. 

At the end of each summer every '^waspy," as the 
village lads call them, who has escaped the avenging hand of 
man falls into the clutches of death with the exception of the 
biggest females or self-crowned queens. Now^ upon these 
ladies depends the entire responsibility of propogating the 
species. On the death of their husbands they become torpid, 
and so manage to survive the cold bleak winter, which kills 
so many millions of their tribe. 

Sometimes as many as 500 of these regal dames are 
produced in one nest, and if there happen to be a succession 
of heavy rains, the chances are that the hibernating queens 
are drowned in their beds. And every female carried off 
represents a loss of from 10,000 to 30,000 wasps the next 
season. And so it is easy to understand that a wet winter 
materially reduces the number of nests for us to take during 
the ensuing summer. 

On the advent of spring every queen who has survived 
quits her snug quarters and sails out into the open air to 
select a suitable site for her future home. 

By the side of sunny banks she flits searching for apart- 
ments. If she cannot find a decent rat hole or other sub- 
terranean passage, she starts building on her own account. 
As soon as the excavations are complete, or the original ones 
altered and improved to her majesty's taste, the problem of 
upholstering the establishment presents itself. Off she darts 
and searches diligently till she finds a tree with rotting bark, 
or some weather-beaten paling. 

Clinging to the wooden fence or gnarled branches, as the 
case may be, she strips off* scraps of the outside wood and 
gathers them in bundles, leaving behind her a pale glistening- 
streak wherever she has passed. 



TJic Humming Bird. 53 

She carries the fibre home and then turns it into paper- 
pulp ; for it was Mrs. Wasp who gave us our first lesson in 
paper-making. 

All the odd bits of vegetable matter which have been 
collected are mashed most carefully, most thoroughly, with a 
sticky secretion from her mouth, and are then plastered to- 
gether into a thin film of stucco, which looks for all the world 
like some crumpled sheet of tissue. 

y\ variable number of cones are connected togfether with 
scaffolding, made of this papier mâché, and then a strong 
external wall is built, having two doors. The next operation 
is to form a pillar riveted to the roof of the cavern, and then 
the topsy-turvey lady, whose sting is in her tail, not in her 
mouth, begins at the roof and builds gradually down towards 
the foundations. 

The energetic female does not complete the building of 
her inimitable walled citadel without assistance ; and feeling 
the want of ' fellow workers, she sets to and manufactures 
some for her own purposes. 

Every cell she furnishes with an ^%%-: which, as time goes 
on, becomes converted into a grub. The maternal duties now 
interfere considerably with the professional ones, and bring 
the building operations to a standstill. The queen-builder 
turns huntress. She leaves her little colony to chase and 
capture luckless flies and other insects, which she forthwith 
churns into a palatable mess and retails to the little grubs. 

As they are fed up in this way several times a day the 
ugly grublings soon begin to grow in breadth and stature, 
until they suddenly burst forth into full-blown wasps, and 
immediatelv be^in to relieve their mother of her multitudinous 
duties. When they grow old enough they take the building 
operations entirely out of her hands and finish the great work 
she began so gamely. 

These new-comers are neither masculine nor feminine, 
but neuter. They are, above all things, workers, and the 
mother does not let them forget it either. She allows no 
lazying. She sends them out into all parts of the world to 
collect food for the younger generations of grublings, and it 
is when they feel too lazy to suck the flowers and gather 
honey from the fields that they come into our rooms, drive us 
from our dinners, and browse on the jam-tarts and the fruit. 

As time goes on this champion mother produces more and 
more grubs, and these in their turn have to build for their 
prospective brothers, and so the paper mansion grows bigger 
every day. 



54 The Hummiiîg Bird. 

Then, as the summer draws to a close, the little boy and 
girl wasps are born. They are rather larger than the gender- 
less workers, and have more spacious cells apportioned out to 
them as becomes their more exalted position in the colony. 
The females have a section of the nest to themselves, and are 
not allowed to mingle with their brothers. 

Finally the young ladies and gentlemen break through 
the barriers which divide them and quit their homes in nuptial 
flight, which secures the continuance of the species, whilst 
the poor workers who have fed them and the mother who has 
tendered them so long are left behind to die. 

— Peai'son's Weekly. 



LESGUEPES. 

L'été exceptionnel que nous avons eu cette année a 
développé dans des proportions vraiment extraordinaires 
l'activité de ces insectes. Le printemps qui a commencé de 
très bonne heure leur a permis de multiplier leurs pontes et^ 
l'été venu, ils se sont montrés en si grande abondance qu'ils 
ont fait courir de sérieux dangers à nos arbres à fruits, nous 
ont très désagréablement incommodés nous-mêmes et ont 
causé de très graves accidents. 

Dans quelques régions de la France, en Auvergne notam- 
ment, ils ont fait de tels dégâts dans les cultures fruitières que 
l'administration préfectorale a pris contre eux un arrêté. Ne 
riez pas. L'administration préfectorale pouvait employer sa 
puissance à de moindres objets. 

Vous le connaissez tous cet insecte malfaisant. Vous 
savez qu'il est proche parent de l'abeille, mais qu'il ne fournit 
ni miel ni cire utilisables. Les guêpes en effet vivent souvent 
en nombre, mais ne forment pas de véritables communautés 
industrieuses. On en compte plus decent mille espèces aussi 
nuisibles les unes que less autres, carnassières et féroces, ne 
vivant que de rapines. 

Elles établissent leur nid, — leur guêpier, — un peu partout, 
sous la terre, dans les tiges creuses des arbres, les coquilles 
vides des limaçons, les trous de vieux murs ; parfois leurs 
alvéoles sont appliqués contre une pierre on une branche 
d'arbre. 

Le guêpier souterrain est leur guêpier de prédilection. 
Elles ont, comme tous les animaux de la terre, l'instinct de la 



The Humming Bird. 55 

conservation très prononcé et elles n'ignorent pas qu'un nid 
souterrain est plus difficile à détruire qu'un nid aérien. 

Il y a chez elles, comme chez toutes les espèces animales, 
des individus imprudents, inexpérimentés, sans souci du lende- 
main. Ce sont ces individus qui risquent leurs alvéoles aux 
branches de nos arbres. Ces guépiers-la sont faciles â détruire. 
Rien n'est si aisé que de les prendre, à la nuit close, lorsque 
les guêpes sont toutes rentrées et de les jeter au feu. 



La destruction des nids souterrains présente plus de 
difficultés. D'abord, ce nid, il faut le découvrir. Où est-il ? 
D'où viennent ces guêpes dont l'aiguillon" est si menaçant? 
Quand nous aurons trouvé le nid, comment le détruirons-nous ? 

Dans l'instruction qui accompagne l'arrêté préfectoral 
auquel je faisais allusion plus haut, nous trouvons réponses à 
ces questions. Je ne résiste pas au désir que j'ai de citer ce 
document, car il est instructif. Voici d'abord le texte de 
l'arrêté pris par le préfet du Puy-de-Dôme : 

Art i". — La destruction des nids de guêpes est obligatoire 
dans toute l'étendue du département, dans toutes les pro- 
priétés closes ou non closes, dans les huit jours qui suivront 
la publication du présent arrêté. 

Art. 2. — Les propriétaires ou fermiers devront, en tout 
temps, permettre sur leurs terres aux agents de l'autorité la 
constatation de la destruction des insects dont il s'agit. 

Art. 3. — Les contraventions aux dispositions qui précè- 
dent seront constatées par des procès-verbaux, et punies par 
les peines prévues a l'article 5 de la loi du 24 décembre 1888, 
sans préjudice de la destruction des nids de guêpes qui pourra 
être opérée d'office, aux frais des contrevenants, conformément 
aux dispositions de l'article 4 de cette dite loi. 

Notez bien ceci : la destruction des nids de guêpes est 
obligatoire. 

C'est là évidemment une obligation qui, si elle n'est pas 
observée, ne donnerait pas lieu à une contravention sérieuse, 
quoi qu'en dise l'article 3 de l'arrêté. Mais ne pourrait-on 
pas la rendre pour ainsi dire effective, cette obligation, en 
facilitant la destruction des nids de guêpes par les moyens 
dont on se sert parfois pour se débarrasser des hannetons ? 

Pourquoi, par exemple, ne donnerait-on pas une récom- 
pense aux destructeurs de guêpiers ? La question vaut la 
peine d'être examinée par nos Sociétés agricoles et, au besoin, 
par le ministre de l'agriculture lui même qui ne reste étranger 
à rien de ce qui peut intéresser son department. 



56 The Humming Bird. 

Mais revenons aux instructions qui accompagnent l'arrêté. 
Elles sont intéressantes et les voici : 

Les moyens recommandés pour se soustraire aux dégâts 
causés par les guêpes consistent à rechercher les nids et à 
détruire les insectes avant leur départ dans les vergers et les 
vignes. 

Pendant le jour, on doit observer la direction suivie par les 
guêpes lorsqu'elles emportent leurs provisions. Si l'on remarque 
que toutes les guêpes suivent la même direction, on peut être 
certain que l'on se trouve à proximité d un nid. 

Le guêpier découvert (le plus souvent il se décèle par un 
petit tas de terre extraite par les guêpes), on plante alors une 
ilche à une certaine distance, et la nuit ou de grand matin, 
lorsque toutes les guêpes sont réunies, on se rend à l'endroit, 
muni d'une lanterne : on agrandit l'orifice du nid et l'on creuse 
jusqu'à la rencontre de son enveloppe, on la perce au moyen 
d'un bâton, et on verse rapidement un quart de litre de pétrole 
ou de sulfure de carbone ; enfin, on rebouche le trou et on tasse 
la terre, toutes les guêpes de la colonie se trouvent asphyxiées. 

Pour les nids installés dans les vieux murs, on pourra se 
servir d'une pompe pour faire pénétrer le pétrole ou le sulfure ; 
quant aux nids suspendus aux arbres, on les emprisonne, la 
nuit, dans des sacs de toile grossière que l'on plonge ensuite 
dans l'eau. 

Il est à peine besoin de recommander aux opérateurs de 
prendre mille précautions. Si on oubliait de boucher l'entrée 
du nid avoc soin et rapinement, les guêpes en sortiraient et 
feraient sentir à leurs ennemis que ce n'est pas pour rien que 
dame Nature leur a donné une arme terrible : un aiguillon. 

C'est maintenant surtout qu'il faut rechecher les guêpiers 
si nous ne voulons pas, l'an prochain, avoir à souiïrir cruelle- 
ment des guêpes Voici le moment oi^i les femelles vont se 
terrer pour passer chaudement l'hiver. Au commencement 
du printemps, ces femelles feront une première ponte d'une 
vingtaine d'œufs environ, qu'elles placeront soigneusement 
dans les alvéoles fabriqués par elles à l'avance. Au fur et à 
mesure de l'éclosion des premières larves, ces mères-guêpes 
construiront de nouveaux alvéoles q\x elles continueront à 
pondre tout en nourrisant leurs premiers . . . rejetons. 

Quelques jours suffisent aux larves pour se transformer 
en guêpes. Ces guêpes sont dépourvues de sexe et sont 
condamnées à servir comme ouvrières dans la famille ; elles 
ne sont que les domestiques de la mère-guêpe. C'est pour 
elle et pour les nouveaux venus, les dernières larves, qu'elles 



The Hu77iming Bird. 57 

vont à la recherche de leur proie de prédilection, escarbots, 
chenilles ou arraignées. Et pendant trois ou quatre semaines, 
grâce à ce mode d'évolution, au dévouement des ouvrières, 
c'est par milliers qu'il faut compter la population d'un nid de 
guêpes vers la fin du printemps. 

Si donc, au printemps et à l'été prochains, nous ne voulons 
pas voir sortir de terre d'innombrables colonies de ces insectes 
nuisibles, détruisons les nids oii les femelles, dans quelques 
jours, vont chercher un abri pour y passer l'hiver et y pondre 
tout à leur aise. 
— Petit Journal. THOMAS Grimm. 



RECTIFICATION OF NAME FOR 
SEMIOPTERA GOULDI. 

The Bird of Paradise which I described as a new species 
in Vol. I. of the Humming Bird, page 47, under the name of 
Semioptera goiildi, is undoubtedly the same as what Count 
Salvadori has described under the name of Semioptera 
zvallacei var halmaherae. When I made my description, I 
did not know that another species of Semioptera had been 
described. It is Doctor Kurt Lam pert, of Stuttgart, w^h.o first 
kindly informed me of this, and I quite agree with him ; 
especially since I have received specimens of this bird from 
Halmahera. Therefore it is the name bestowed by Count 
Salvadori which has the priority, and it must stand as 
follows : — 

Semioptera halmaherae, Salvadori. 

Semioptera gouldi, Boucard. 



ALLIGATORS. 



During last year, 250,000 alligators have been killed 
in Florida, for the sake of their skins, which are in great 
demand in Europe for the manufacture of purses, bags, pocket 
books, shoes, etc., etc. These animals are now so scarce in 
that country, that alligator farming is one of the principal 
ressources for many of the inhabitants, and lately alligators' 
eggs have been hatched by incubators. The actual demand 
for the skins of these reptiles is very large, much in excess of 
the supply, so that about half the population of the villages 
find it a lucrative employment to explore the shores of the 
swamps for eggs. 



58 The Hunimin^ Bird. 

The usual time required for the full growth of these 
reptiles is about fifty years ; but when they attain this fine 
old age, they are usually very large and have a skin so tough 
that they are of very little value lor manufacturing purposes. 
When old, it is nearly impossible to soften enough its skin for 
manufacturing purposes. The skins which fetch the highest 
prices are those from two to three years old. 

In Vol. I. of the Humming Bird, page 83, I have already 
called the attention of the readers of this Journal to the 
farming of alligators, and the value of their skins for manu- 
facturing purposes. Fifty years ago if such a thing had been 
told, that a day would come when thousands of people would 
find a living, and even make money with the farming of 
alligators, every one would have laughed at the suggestion. 
This shows us once more that there is scarcely anything in 
this world, which one day or another, cannot be turned to 
ofood account to the welfare of the communitv. 

A. B. 



Handbook of the 
DESTRUCTIVE INSECTS OF VICTORIA, 

Part II., by French. 

I have just received the book entitled as above, and I 
congratulate heartilv my friend, Mr. Chas. French, the 
Government Entomologist of Victoria, for its publication. It 
is a very interesting and useful book which ought to be in the 
hands of all farmers, and other persons interested in Agri- 
culture. It consists of 193 pages of text, twenty-two beauti- 
fully coloured plates of insects, and eleven black plates 
figuring apparatus, and showing the way how to apply the 
remedies recommended by the author, concluding with a very 
good index. 

The principal insects figured are : — 

Green French Aphis (Myzus sp.) and its parasites. 

Common garden Ladybird (Leis conformis) . 

Black Peach Aphis (Myzus cerasi). 

The Plum Curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar) . 

The Cherry Green Beetle (Diphucepliala colaspidoides) .■ 

The Cottony Cushion Scale (I eery a purcJiasi) . 

The Oleander Scale (Aspidiotus nerii) . 

Red Scale of the Orange (Aspidiotus coccineus) . 

Orange Moth (Hvdrusa sp.) 

The Orange Aphis (Siphonophora sp.) 



The Hmiiniing Bird. 59 

The Case Moth of the Orange (Metura clongata). 

Lemon Scale (Mytilaspis citricola). 

The Apple-root Borer (Lcptops liopei). 

The Vine Moth (A^ariste glycine). 

The Silver Striped V^ine Moth (Chaerocampa celerio). 

Phylloxera or Grape Louse of the Vine (Phylloxera 
vastatrix) , two very good plates, with a great 
deal of information on this too much known pest. 

The White Ant (Termes aiistralis) . 

Potato Moth (Lita solanclla) . 

The Cabbage Moth (Plutella cruciferarum) , and its 
parasites. 

The Cabbage Aphis (Aphis brassicae) . 

The Strawberry Beetle (Rhinaria per dix). 
The perusal of this cheap and useful book, issued at 2/6^ 
has ag-ain reminded me that in Eng-land and in manv other 
European countries, such appointments as Government 
Entomoloo^ists do not exist, at least I am not aware of their 
existence. \\ hy is it so ? I am quite unable to say. In my 
opinion, it is imperative that it should be remedied at once. 

During this year. I have travelled in the country, in 
England as well as in France, and I have been quite astonished 
to see the gross ignorance of the countrymen and others 
about the animals useful or injurious to their crops. Of 
course I met with several scientists who knew a orreat deal 
about these insects, but it was of little use to them ; mean- 
while it is one of the most vital questions of the present 
time to farmers, and I really believe that the time has arrived 
when the heads of all the Agricultural Departments in Europe 
ought to take the means to publish at a nominal price, such 
handbooks as the present one. I will say more, these books 
ought to be printed extensively, and given awav to all whom 
it may concern, and before long, a large harvest would be 
reaped by all those who will take the trouble to studv them, 
and put into practice the remedies, discovered by manv 
Scientists and Specialists, for the destruction of those pests 
which cause so much injurv to Agriculture. It is a well 
known fact that in Canada, in the United States, and now in 
Australia, where such institutions exist, they have been the 
means of saving a large part of the crops of cereals and 
fruits grown in these countries, during the last vears, and the 
benefits obtained have been of such a masfnitude, that if 
expressed in pounds sterling, they would amount to several 
millions vearlv. A. B. 



6o The Hit m miner Bird. 

INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS. 

THE LATE WORLD'S FAIR. 

CHICAGO, NOVEMBER 2nd, 1 893. 

Although the returns relating to the World's Fair have 
not yet been completed, it has already been definitely ascer- 
tained that the receipts cannot have fallen short of §14,000,000. 
The Chairman of the Finance Committee reports that all 
obligations have been met, and that there is a cash balance in 
hand of §2,500,000. It is expected that a sufficient sum will, 
in the end, have been received from gate receipts and salvage 
to pay working and general current expenses. Hence the 
stockholders, whose capital represented a total of §5,000,000 
upon which, however, they did not expect to realise anything, 
will be reimbursed to the extent of 50c. per dollar. It was 
understood, however, that most of them would contribute 
their stock to the Columbian Museum, and a careful estimate 
shows that §1,500,000 in stock will be so presented, giving 
that institution, with the help of other donations and subscrip- 
tions, a working capital of over §8,000,000. The exhibits are 
being rapidly removed from the late World's Fair, but no 
immediate step is to be taken for the demolition of the 
buildings. — Reuter. 

The Chicago Exhibition was closed on Monday in 
mourning, with flags at half-mast and without festival exercises, 
which vv'ould have taken place but for the murder of Mr, 
Harrison, the Mayor. The total number who paid for admis- 
tion during the Fair exceeds 20,000,000. All expenses have 
been paid, and stockholders will receive 10 or 15 per cent, of 
sheir subscriptions. As the stockholders never expected to 
be repaid, it is contended that the Fair can be pronounced a 
financial success — wonderfully so, considering the unprece- 
dented amounts expended upon buidings. Chicago contributed 
$10,000,000 without expecting any return, this city being the 
chief stockholder. 

INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF LYON 

(FRANCE), 1894. 

(3n the ist of May, an International Exhibition, will 
be held at Lyon, France, the capital of the Rhône, justly 
celebrated for its fine manufactures of brocades, and all silky 



TJie H u mini my BircL 6 i 



.s 



textures. The Directors have clone wonders to attract 
P^xhibitors and Visitors to their fair Capital, and everyone 
thinks that the Exhibition will be a great success. 

All intending- Exhibitors should apply at once for space, 
to the Chief Director, Exposition Internationale de Lyon, 
Lvon. Rhône, France. 

INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF 

PARIS, igoo. 

During the month of November, the Commission entrusted 
with the selection of the site for the future ICxhibition of 
igoo have met under the Presidency of Mr. Picard, the 
General Director, and decided that it should take place in 
Paris, making use of the Palais de l'Industrie, Cours la 
Reine, Quai de la Conférence, Invalides, Trocadero, and 
Champ de Mars. Additional bridges will be erected on the 
Seine to facilitate the communications between the two banks 
of the Seine. Besides manv concourses and feasts will 
take place at Vincennes, the well-known and beautiful park, 
unfortunatelv situated on the wrono- side of Paris. 

For my part, although I am quite certain that as a whole, 
the Exhibition of 1900 will greatly surpass the memorable one 
of 1889, I regret verv much that the Commission has not 
decided in favour of the Bois de Boiilo^ne or J'incennes. 
Anvone of the two would have been much better than the 
Trocadero, Champ de Mars, etc., of old memorv. What 
was wanted for such celebration, as the event of the twentieth 
century (the Century of Peace and Labour, I hope] would 
have been something quite new, grand, and in a magnificent 
scale, quite distinct of all what has been done before, and this 
could only have been properly carried on in the parks 
mentioned above, where space and fine scenery exist all 
round. 

This International Exhibition of Paris, which is to take 
place in 1900, reminds me that in England no such exhibition 
has been held since 1862, as we cannot call by that name all 
the partial Exhibitions held in London since. How is it that 
London has not had its International Exhibition since 1862, 
• I cannot imagine? It is a well-known fact that International 
Exhibitions are a great stimulus to COMMERCE, Art and 
Science, and are the means of reviving Trade and Industry, 
and I sincerely hope that before long, I shall hear that London 
is going to prepare one of these great festivals of Labour 
and Peace. 



02 The Hiunminp; Bird 



t> 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF 

INDUSTRY, SCIENCE, AND ART, IN 

HOBART TOWN (TASMANIA), 

1894-95. 

It has been decided to hold an International Exhibition 
in Hobart during the Summer of 1894-95, and the Government 
of Tasmania has been pleased to grant their Official Patronage 
to the undertaking. 

The proposal has been taken up by the people of 
Tasmania and the adjacent Colonies with such general 
approval, that the necessary capital has been most readily 
subscribed. 

The City of Hobart is most favourably situated. The 
Colony of lasmania has a population of 150,000, and with the 
neighbouring Colonies the total population numbers about 
4,000,000 inhabitants. Launceston and other centres are 
within a few hours by rail. The Australian Colonies are easy 
of access by steam, and the tourists' routes to all places of 
interest radiate from Hobart. 

The objects of the Exhibition are : — To promote and 
foster Industry, wScience, and Art, by inciting the inventive 
genius of our people to a further improvement in Arts and 
Manufactures, as well as to stimulate commercial enterprise 
by inviting all nations to exhibit their products, both in the raw 
and finished state. Samples of the products for which this 
and the other Australasian Colonies have become famous will 
be exhibited with a view to increase the development of their 
natural resources^ 

Similar and more varied exhibits may be expected from 
Great Britain, the Continent of Europe, America, India, Canada, 
the Cape, and other Colonies, to which the Government of 
Tasmania have forwarded an official invitation to grant their 
substantial support to the undertaking. 

A Fine Art Section will form an important and attractive 
department of the Exhibition. For the accommodation of the 
Art Treasures and Historical Objects a special block of the 
building will be reserved, and the most ample precautions will 
be taken for the security of valuable property lent for the 
purposes of the Exhibition. 

Two Sections, viz., the Women's Industrial and the 
Artisan Section, will be particular features. Special arrange- 
ments will be made for the management of these. 



The Hiimniing Bird. 63 

The site which has been ijranted b\- the Government for 
the Exhibition Buildings covers about (eleven acres. It is one 
of exceptional beauty and convenience, being that portion of 
the Queen's Domain adjoining the l)altery and the Central 
Railway Station. 

The Buildings which it is proposed to erect will be 
constructed according to plans prepared by competent archi- 
tects. The ornamental flower pots, shrubberies, fountains, etc., 
will be enclosed in the Exhibition Grounds, where musical 
promenades and other entertainments will be provided for the 
enjoyment of visitors. 

The situation of the Exhibition Buildings is speciallv 
convenient of access for Exhibitors by means of rail, which 
can be made use of dav or night for the passage of railway 
trucks. Heavy goods can be delivered at a minimum cost 
and with the least possible amount of risk. In addition to this, 
the Port of Hobart offers a cheap and ready means for the 
receiving and delivery of all sea-borne goods. 

It is intended to afïord full postal, telephonic, telegraphic, 
and banking facilities Avithin the Exhibition Buildings, so that 
all necessary business may be conducted by Exhibitors and 
others without leaving the premises. 

The whole arrangements are in the hands of a powerful 
Directorate, and everything will be done to facilitate the work 
of Exhibitors, and minimise their outlay, 

REGULATIONS FOR EXHIBITORS. 

An International Exhibition of Industry, Science, and Art, 
under the immediate patronage of the Government of Tasmania, 
will be held in Hobart in 1894-95. 

The Exhibition will be opened on the 15th day of 
November, 1884, and will continue open during the day and 
evening for a period of about six months. 

Certificates of Merit wnll be awarded by competent 
Juries in every Section, Special Certificates being given for 
Exhibits showing superlative merit. 

Charge will be made for space, except in special cases, to 
be determined by the Directors. The charge for space inside 
the building will be 2s. per square foot, with a minimum charge 
of £2 I OS. Space in main avenues will be charged extra, 
according to position ; and wall space, which must be mentioned 
when making application, will be charged according to location. 
In all cases the amount of space money must accompany the 
Application Form, and no Exhibits can be admitted unless all 



64 The Humming Bird. 

payments for space have been made. Spaces not occupied 
^vithin fourteen days previous to the opening of the Exhibition 
will be otherwise allotted, and all payments made in respect 
thereof absolutely forfeited. Exhibitors will have to pay all 
expenses of conveying, delivering, arranging, fixing, and 
removing their Exhibits, and also the cost of the erection of all 
fixtures, screens, and counters when required ; and they must 
personally, or by a representative, superintend the transmission, 
reception, unpacking, installation, and (at the close of the 
Exhibition) the removal of their goods. The Executive 
Committee reserve to themselves the right of doing whatever 
may be considered necessary at the expense of the Exhibitor, 
unless this regulation is strictly complied with. Should any 
goods be deposited in the Exhibition premises during the 
absence of the Exhibitor or his representative, the Directors 
will not be responsible for any loss or damage from whatsoever 
cause arising. 

Motive power, steam, gas, or water, will be supplied by 
the Directors at cost price, and subject to certain regulations. 
Exhibitors requiring such motive power must fill up the Special 
Application Form which has been prepared for that Section, 
and which will be supplied on application. Exhibitors requiring 
counters, shafting, pulleys, and belting, must supply them at 
their own expense. 

Schedules and Applications for Space may be had from 
the Secretary, or any of the Official Agents. These must be 
filled up and returned on or before the ist of September, 
1894, to ensure the Exhibits being entered in the Official 
Catalogue. 

The nature of the articles which it is proposed to exhibt 
must be fully specified in the Form of Application for Space, 
and no article which is not clearly described in the Application 
Form will be allowed in the Exhibition without the special 
permission of the Directors. 

The Directors reserve the right to refuse any Exhibt 
without stating any reason for so doing. 

Foreign and Colonial Commissioners or Official Agents 
are invited to communicate with the Secretary. The Directors 
will place at their disposal all information, plans, or documents 
that may be useful to them. 

Applicants for space from countries in which no Com- 
missioner or Official Agents have been appointed will corres- 
pond direct with the Secretary. 

The Directors will endeavour to obtain from the various 



The Hiininiinvr Bird. 65 



railways, carriers, and steamship companies special terms for 
the conveyance of Exhibitor's goods to and from the P^xhibition, 
and these arrangements will be communicated to intending 
Exhibitors. 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION IN SAN 
FRANCISCO (CALIFORNIA). 

I have just received the following letter from the Chief 
Director of the International Exhibition of San Francisco : 

" Monsieur le Rédacteur, 

*' Quelques nouvelles concernant l'Exposition Hiver- 
nale, Internationale de Californie intéresseront probablement 
vos lecteurs, et nous vous serions bien obligés en faisant bon 
accueil à notre lettre et en reproduisant ce que vous jugerez 
utile, le plus tôt possible. 

THE SCOPE OF THE EXPOSITION. 

What the California Midwinter International 
Exposition is and what it isn't. 

An account of the plan and scope of the Midwinter 
Exposition has been requested verbally and orally by so many 
people that the writer believes that he cannot fail to interest 
his readers by giving answers to some of the questions which 
have been asked. 

It must not be forgotten that while the California Fair 
will be essentially international in character, it will not be as 
great in sizes as the Chicago Fair. The Midwinter Fair has 
been modelled upon entirely different lines. The difference 
in the character of the tw'o Expositions will be quite as marked 
as the difference in size. At the World's Fair is shown all 
that human effort has accomplished. The Midwinter Fair 
will show all that is best in the art, science and industry of the 
world. The great fault found with the World's Fair is that it is 
too large and the multiplicity of the exhibits makes it impossible 
for anyone to see everything. One of those men, who 
have a fondness for queer calculation, has discovered that if 
but two minutes were allowed to each exhibit, it would take 
thirty-two years to see the Fair. The visitor who can remain 
in Chicago but a few days, must waste much of his time seeing 
things of but little interest to him. So w'ell is this recognized 

E 



66 The Humming Bird. 

that numerous guides enabling visitors to tell the wheat from 
the chaff have been prepared under such titles as " What to 
see at the Fair " " The best things to see and how to find 
them," etc. 

There will be no necessity for any such guides at the 
Midwinter Fair. Everything will be worthy the careful 
attention of the visitor ; anything else will not be shown. 
The best and most interesting exhibits in each department 
will be removed from Chicago to San Francisco after the 
close of the World's Fair. In addition to this, many interest- 
ing displays, which are entirely original, will be made. An 
exposition such as this, is a novelty in America where there 
are no exhibitions between a State fair on the one hand, and 
such a world's wonder as the Centennial or the Columbian 
Exposition on the other. But in Europe International Ex- 
positions, comparatively small in size but extremely select in 
character, are of almost yearly occurrence. They have been 
established upon the single basis of merit, and in the scores 
which have been held, but verv few are marked as failures. 
Each has been a profitable investment and all have possessed 
a great influence upon the industrial life of the nation within 
whose borders they have been held. 

There are many people in the Unitcfd States of moderate 
circumstances who have been all their lives desirous of paying 
a visit to the '^ Land of Fruit and Flowers." These have 
been prevented from accomplishing their wish by the large 
amount the railroad were, on account of the distance, forced 
to charge. Now, however, the railroads have promised to 
make a one fare rate for the round trip, and the passenger 
fares may be cut still lower. This will bring the cost of a 
trip within a sum which even those with poorly lined purses 
may be able to afford ; and the double attraction of a winter 
without snow or ice, and a wonderful International Exposition 
will prove irresistible. 

THE SITE OF THE EXPOSITION. 

The site selected for the Midwinter Exposition is one to 
which the San Franciscans point with justifiable pride — 
Golden Gate Park, one of the largest and most beautiful 
pleasure reservations in the world. A hundred acres of the 
best portion is set aside as the site of the Midwinter Exposi- 
tion. This splendid reservation is only two miles from 
Kearney and Market Streets, the practical centre of San 



TJic H II mini 11 (^ Bird. 67 

Francisco. 1 Ik- grounds will be easy of access from any 
part of the city. Five railway lines will run directly to the 
gates. 

The park extends west to the ocean and is three miles 
long: and a half-mile wide. In it are miles of beautiful walks 
and drives bordered by flowers and shrubbery, the result of 
years of labour and a most generous expenditure of money. 
Here and there are statues, and spanning the driveways are 
artistic bridges, and among the buildings that are a permanent 
part of the park are the Lodge, Casino and the cosy Observa- 
tory on the shore of the Pacific. The highest point and 
picturesque centre of the park is Strawberry Hill, below which 
a waterfall dashes down several feet into a lake covering six 
acres. There are two main drives to the ocean ; and the 
entire arrangement of the park is upon elaborate plans. A 
more picturesque setting for an Exposition could not be found 
anvwhere, and everv natural advantag^e will be made use of. 

Executive Departmeni", 

Sacramento, Cal. 

''As Chief Executive of the Sovereign State of California. 
I desire to «"ive notice to the official heads of the various 
Governments, States and Departments of the world, that the 
people of this State will hold an International Exposition in 
the City of San Francisco, commencing January ist, 1894, and 
I would most respectfully invite the same hearty support of 
your citizens, if possible, as was so generously given to the 
Columbian Exposition at Chicago. 

Given this the sixth day of September, at the Capitol at 
Sacramento, California, United States of America. 

H. H. Markham, 
Governor of the State of California." 

There exists in California the greatest enthusiasm in 
favour of the Exposition. Rich and poor have gladly, willingly 
and spontaneously given their assistance as far as lav in their 
power. 

The insured success of the California Midwinter Inter- 
national Exposition bridges over the doubts that eastern 
people have had that the undertaking was greater than 
California could accomplish. The x\tlantic and Western 
States have had their electric storms in fearful a-randeur, when 
the elements lash with fury, but the people of the Pacific 



68 The Hiunmin^ Bird. 

Coast have their cyclones in brain and muscle. Midwinter is 
the spring-time of this favoured land. 

In regal splendour the valleys and hills are clothed in 
vernal beauty, and the sun smiles patronizingly upon the earth. 
The oranges hang upon the branches in all the wealth of a 
golden hue, and the landscape is bedecked with flowers. 
There is a charm of bloom everywhere. The valleys teem 
with industrial machinery, and nature invites to a feast of joy. 
Here the tourist can enjoy the beauties of the landscape, 
while his eyes may rest upon the white-capped mountain 
crests, and enjoy the beauty and grandeur of a state upon 
whose mountain peaks the eternal snow never melts, and 
in whose valleys the perennial rose ever blooms. 

THE EXPOSITION'S INTERNATIONAL 

CHARACTER. 

Twenty-Five Nations will be Represented when the 
Fair opens in San Francisco on New Year's Day. 

The scope of the California Midwinter International 
Exposition is broadening daily. The work of securing 
exhibits, which has been prosecuted here under the direction 
of Assistant Director-General Cornely, has been progressing 
quietly, and although it is by no means finished, the adminis- 
tration know^s that there will be at least twenty-five nations 
represented at the Fair when it opens in San Francisco on 
New Year's Day. An enormous number of applications for 
space have been made to the Commissioners representing the 
various countries which will take part. It is feared indeed 
that there will be too many applications. So well is this 
understood, that even after the Commissioners have rejected 
a number of applications as below the high standard which 
has been made for the Midwinter Fair, it has even now been 
found necessary to build annexes to two of the buildings. 
Those which have been arranged for are to the Fine Arts 
Building and Palace of Mechanical Arts. 

Besides the principal buildings, many of the foreign 
countries will have buildings of their own. Among those 
which it is positively known will erect their own houses are 
Honduras, Costa Rica, Brazil, China, Japan, Ceylon and 
Guatemala. A number of other nationalities are arranging 
for buildings, but the plans have not been perfected. 



The Hiininiing Bird. 69 

The International character of the Exposition is therefore 
assured. But besides the main buildings and the buildings 
erected by the different nations there is another feature. In 
those buildings there will be the products of the country, 
but a number of concessions have been granted to those who 
wish to show Americans these strange people themselves. 
The subjects of the Mikado will, for instance, be seen in the 
Japanese village, not only as they are to-day in that most 
picturesque of nations, but as they were in distant times. 
Pictures of the life, customs and manners of the Chinese, 
Turks, Egyptians, Algerians, Persians, Dahomeyans,Hawaiians 
and other residents of countries, the customs of which are 
more or less unknown to us. 

Manufacturers in all parts of the world are taking great 
interest in the Exposition, and applications for space in which 
they may make exhibits are daily pouring in at the offices, 
both here and in San Francisco. The exhibitors will not be 
content to reproduce their exhibits at the World's Fair, but 
most ot them promise novelties. 

The display made by Great Britain and Colonies will be 
extremelv interesting and contain many novel features. The 
Englishmen are taking great interest in the Fair. Sir Edmund 
Elten, Bart., the famous potter, is designing some china 
especially for the display, and Arups, of London, is at work 
on some terra cotta ware which will astonish the people of 
the Pacific Coast. Kate Reilly, the Queen's dressmaker, has 
promised an original exhibit which will fill the heart of many 
a women with covetousness. The Colonies will also offer 
specimens of their handicraft, which will include many new 
features. East India, Ceylon and Jamaica will be strongly 
represented. Sir Henry Trueman Wood, the Executive 
Commissioner of Great Britain at the World's Fair, is taking 
quite an interest in the Midwinter Exposition, and has 
expressed his intention to aid Mr. J. H. Stiles, the British 
Commissioner for the California Fair, in every way possible. 

A. C. Goldenberg, Canadian Commissioner to the Mid- 
winter Fair, has received applications for space from some of 
the most important of his country's exhibitors at the World's 
Fair. The Carlin Ale Co., and Hiram Walker & Sons, are 
among the forty business houses from the Dominion which will 
be represented at San Francisco. 

The revolution in Brazil happens at an unfortunate time 
for the Fair. Admiral Joaquim Antonio Cordevil Maurity 
says, however, that if it should be impossible for the Govern- 



yo The Humming Bird. 

ment to be officially represented, the exhibitors at the World's 
Fair will probably take the matter in their own hands and build 
a building of their own to hold their exhibits at San Francisco. 

Manuul M. de Peralto, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary from Costa Rica, has promised to endeavour 
to secure official representation by his Government at the 
Exposition, Should he fail in this, the Costa Rica Exhibitors 
here will take their Exhibits to California on their own account. 

Commissioner W. T. Thackeray said yesterday that 
Honduras would have a building of its own. Indeed, the plans 
have already been made of it, and the masons and carpenters 
will soon be engaged in its construction. The building will be 
50 by 20 feet and surmounted by a roof garden. 

Prof. V. I. Shopoff, Bulgarian Delegate to the World's 
Fair, has written to his Government requesting permission to 
transfer the exhibit of his country to San Francisco in its 
entirety. 

Theodora H. Mangel has been appointed Commissioner- 
General for Costa Rica to the California Midwinter Inter- 
national Exposition. Mr. Mangel will return to that country 
after the close of the W^orld's Fair. He expects that his 
country will be largely represented at the Midwinter Fair, 
and it will surely have a building of its own. 

The French citizens of San Francisco, at the suggestion of 
Mr. de Lylando, Consul of France, held a meeting in behalf of 
the California Midwinter International Exposition. As a 
result, an Auxiliary Committee was appointed, which sent a 
letter to the leading French Exhibitors at Chicago, urging 
them the importance of representation at San Francisco, and 
offering their individual and collective assistance in the matter 
of transportation, allotment of space, insurance, customs, etc. 
As to the importance of a large representation of- French 
industry, they say : '' We have the assurance that a participation 
of the French is very much desired at San Francisco, and that 
the French Exhibitors will find an impressive and cordial 
welcome, not only by the French Colony, but also by the 
American population. We think it but right to inform you 
that the importation of French merchandise has always been 
considered here as of the greatest importance. The rich and 
well-to-do classes have always appreciated and looked out for 
the products of our national industries ; therefore there is a vast 
field open for trials, and we think that the participation of our 
compatriots will bear beneficial results for them as well as for 
France." 



The Hîinniiino- Bird 



A 



Auxiliary Committees have been formed by the natives of 
Franee, Sweden, Mexieo, Roumania, Servia, Montenegro, 
Switzerland, Italy, and Germany, residing in San Francisco. 
The object of these organisations is to assist Exhibitors from 
their countries in the matter of transportation, allotment of 
space, insurance, customs, etc., at the California Midwinter 
International Exposition. They are also designed to stimulate 
interest in the Exposition in their respective countries, and 
furnish any information requested. 

W. E. Von Johannsen, Commissioner of the Californian 
Midwinter International Exposition for Roumania, Servia, and 
Montenegro, writes Assistant Director-General Cornely that 
the entire Servian and Monteneefrian Colonv of San Francisco 
is enthusiastic over the Fair. The Servian newspaper, The 
Slobada, of San Francisco, is publishing a special edition for 
transmisssion to Servia and Montenegro. One of the features 
of their participation at the Midwinter Fair will be parades in 
the picturesque costumes of Servia and Montenegro, the 
participants giving exhibitions of national games, national 
dances, etc 

The Italians will be largely represented at the Fair. At 
a recent meeting of the Italian Exhibitors when they were 
addressed by Royal Commissioners, Dr. Ettore Candiani and 
C. Pogliani, all but three of the sixty present declared their 
intention of removing their exhibits to San Francisco. Dr. 
Ettore Candiani will shortly leave for Italy to prepare for the 
sending out of fresh exhibits solely for the San Francisco 
display. 

Among the exhibits promised are Ferrari's famous statue 
of the death of Lincoln, Froubetzkois' marble group of ''American 
Red Men," Majilica pictures valued as highly as §20,000 each, 
ivory and ebony inlaid furniture costing as much as §6,000 for 
a single cabinet, Florentine Mosaics, Etruscan wares in end- 
less variety, reproductions of ancient Pompeiian jewellery, 
the product of the finest silk looms in Italy, tapestry, filigree 
work and carved marble in abundance. In addition to all 
this, Signor Bacigalupi, of San Francisco, contemplates some 
sort of an exhibit where the different States of Italy shall be 
historically and industrially represented by tableaux, in which 
the costumes of each province will be faithfully introduced. 

V. Zeggio, Royal Commissioner to the World's Columbian 
Exposition, who has been appointed Commissioner of Fine 
Arts at the California Midwinter International Expositon, has 
left for Rome. Signor Zeggio expects to have a most 



72 Tlie Humming Bird. 

interesting exhibit of the works of Italian artists and sculptors. 
His intention is to expose in the Italian section only the work 
of those artists who have been awarded medals by the Fine 
Arts Jury at the World Fair. This will make the display well 
worth a visit, easily eclipsing the one in the Fine Arts 
Building here, which has attracted so much attention. During 
Signor Zeggio's absence in Rome, his private secretary, 
Giovanni Almagia, will represent him as Fine Arts Commis- 
sioner for Italy. 

The Mexican Consul at San Francisco has promised to 
co-operate with Col. Geo. M. Green, Commissioner Genera 
for Mexico, in obtaining an excellent display from that 
country. 

Vladimir Artsimovitch, the Russian Consul at San 
Francisco, has been appointed President of the Commission 
in charge of the Russian Exhibits at the Midwinter Fair. 

Diaro Official, the official paper of Mexico, prints a 
Prospectus of the Midwinter Fair upon which it comments 
favourably. 

A committee has been formed by the German citizens of 
San Francisco in aid of the Midwinter Exposition. They 
have decided to send an address to the authorities of the 
empire at Berlin, through Secretary of State Gresham and 
the American Legation at the German Capital. In that 
address the German Government will be asked to give its 
official recognition to the Midwinter Exposition, and to send 
all or part of its exhibit now at Chicago to San Francisco. 

I am of opinion that all those who will be able to go to 
San Francisco next winter will not regret the expenses and 
time required for visiting that wonderful country, which climate 
is really delightful during the months of January, February 
and March. 

Not only will they be able to enjoy the numerous and 
interesting sights of San Francisco and surrounding countries, 
but also the most remarkable sights of the Rocky Mountains 
and Sierra Nevada. They can easily also, visit the wonderful 
Salt Lake, and the chief city of the Mormons. Having 
travelled in all these countries, I guarantee to the visitors of 
the International Exhibition of San Francisco that they shall 
have no regrets of having undertaken this somewhat long 
journey; because I consider California as one of the most 
interesting sights of the World. A. B. 



BOUCARD, POTTIER & CO., 

1Raturali6tô anî) Jfeatbcr flDeicbante, 

225, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, W.C, ENGLAND, 



Messrs. BOUCARD, POTTIER and Co. offer to sell on commission. Objects of 
Natural History, Collections of Mammals and Birds, Skins, Skeletons, Human and 
Animal Skulls, Insects of all orders pinned and set, or in papers ; Marine, Fresh 
Water and Land Shells ; Reptiles and Fishes in spirit ; Crustaceae and Arachnidae in 
spirit; ICthnological Collections from all parts; Showy Bird Skins and Feathers for 
Plumassiers and Naturalists ; Mammal Skins for Furriers ; Bright species of Insects 
for Artificial Florists ; Rare Old Stamps, used and unused ; Curios of all sorts ; 
Pictures and Works of x\rt, etc., etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting 
Messrs. Boucard, Pottier and Co., who having a large connection with Amateurs in all 
parts of the world, are able get the very best prices for them. 

About 6,000 species of Birds, 30,000 species cf Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, 
Mammal Skins, from New Guinea, West Africa, South America, etc. ; Land, Fresh 
Water and Marine Shells, « large numher of species : Reptiles and Fishes in spirit; 
Crustaceœ, dried and in spirit; Insects of all orders; Skeletons; 5,000 different 
varieties of Postage Stamps, etc., etc. 

A very fine collection of Shells, especially rich in Land Shells, and containing 
many types and new species, about 40,000 specimens. For Price, etc., apply at 
225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 



ST'Ji.i^i^s, isrEimr srr^v'iLiE:. 



No. I. For Humming Birds and Small Birds 

,, 2. For Small Birds, up to Tanagers 

„ 3. -For Tanagers up to Magpies 

,, 4. For Magpies up to Crows or Small Hawks 

,, 5. For Small Hawks to Large Hawks and Owls 



at 20S. per hundred 
at 24s. 

at 28s. ,, 

at 32s. 

at 40s. ,, 



A.f&T*IFICIA.i:^ Ei^V^EIS. 



Black 

Per Gross. 

No. I to 4 6d. 

,, 5 to 8 8d. 

„ 9 to 10 IS. od. 

,, II to 13 2s. 6d. 



,, 14 to 16 3s. 6d. 
,, 17 bs. od. 
,, i8 I2S. od. 



Coloured. 



IS. 6d. 
2s. 6d, 
4s. od. 
7s. od. 

Per Dozen Pairs. 
2s. 6d. 
3s. od. 
4s. od. 



xj'i?e:n^siil.s f'oiei 



quart 

... ,1 

lb. 

from i/- to 

from 

from 24/- to 

from 2/6 to 

large 



Bicarbolic Acid 

Rectified Benzoline 
Boucard's Insecticide ... 
Collecting Corked Box 
Pocket Corked Box 
Corked Box for Museums 

Botanical Box 

Pin Box, with 1,000 pins 
Collecting Bottles with 

opening from 

Boucard's Tin Collecting Box, with 

two partitions 
Straight Scissors 
Curved „ 
Taxidermist Knives ... 

Long Forceps 

Small ,, 

Insects' Nippers 

Sieve 

Blowpipe for cleaning eggs 

Digger 

Folding ditto 



2/- 
2/- 

4/- 

5/- each 
2/- each 
36/- doz. 
6 - each 
3/- 

6d. 



from 



2/- 
2/- 
2/- 
1/6 
3/- 

ly- 

1/6 
2/- 
2/- 
2/- 

6/- 



CORNERED. 

Per Dozen Pairs. 
No. 4 to 6 



7 to 9 



3s. 6d. 
5s. od. 



10 to II 8s. od. 
12 gs. od. 



Cornered and 
Veined. 
Per Dozen Pairs. 

4s. 6d. 
6s. od. 

los. od. 
IIS. od. 



,, r3 to 15 13s. od. 15s. od. 

Larger Sizes can be made to order. 



COILiILiElCflNrG, 

Insect Pins. English, 

or German . . 
Setting Boards ... 
Butterfly Nets complete 
Sweeping and Water Nets 
Cork in Sheets 
Magnifying Glasses 
Hammers ... 

Naphthaline 

Botanical Grey Paper 



French 
...from 1/6 per 1000 
from i/- to 2/- each 

„ 1/6 to 5/- 
from 2/6 to 10/ - 

. . from 3/- doz. 
from i/- to 5/- 

„ 1/6 to 5/- 

„ 4/- per lb. 

,, 6/- ream 



Folding Umbrella for collecting 

Insects from 10/- 

Cutting. Pliers „ 2/- 

Flat Pliers „ 2/- 

Arsenical Soap ,, 2/- per lb 

Glass Tubes ,, i/- doz. 

Taxidermist Case, containing 
I Pair of Scissors, 2 Knives, 
I Lime, i Grater, 2 Pliers, 
I Hammer, i Pair of Forceps, 
1 Brush, 3 Gimlets, etc. com- 
plete from 12/- to 40/- 



TO BE SOLD OR EXCHANGED, 

For Properties of equal value in London, Brighton, or 

the Isle of Wight, 

SEVERAL PROPERTIES AT SAN-REMO, 

The Celebrated Winter Resort on the Riviera, 40 Minutes 

from MONACO. 




VILLA MARIA LUIGIA. 

Three Villas, known as Villa -Maria Ltiigia, and Villas Rondo: the first 
one, detached with a beautiful garden of 2200 square yards ; the last", semi- 
detached with front and back gardens. Villa Maria Ltiiga consists of three 
floors, with fifteen fine room, offices, kitchen, etc. Ten of the rooms are full 
south, facing the sea. 

Villa Rondo n*^ 25, corso Garibaldi, consists of two floors, with nine 
rooms, kitchen, office and cellar. N*^ 27 has two kitchens and two more 
rooms on the underground floor. 

Villa Maria Luigia and Villa Rondo n^ 25, the smallest, are actually let 
unfurnished, 3800 francs per annum, for several years. — Villa Rondo n^ 27, 
is also let at 1400 francs per annum. Furnished, they will produce between 
£400 amd ;^5oo per annum. 

All applications to be made at Mr. Boucard's, 225, High Holborn, 
London, W.C. (England), v\^here photographs of the Villas can be seen. 



JUST ARRIVED. 

A very interesting collection of Beetles and Butterflies from Syria. 
Another of Beetles and Butterflies from Haiti (Antillae). It contains some 
very fine species of Buprestidae and Curculionidae, and one rare species- 
of Gymnetis. Collections of Coleoptera from Java and Japan. Large 
collections of Butterflies and Moths from Assam and Japan. Several inter- 
esting collections of Bird skins from Japan, British Guiana, Borneo, Gaboon, 
Congo, Guatemala, etc., etc. Specimens of Ceriornis caboti, and other 
rare species of birds. A collection of shells from Australia, and many others, 
also Australian Echidnae, in spirit, which can be seen at the 

N at uiiaJij§ts' Agency, .225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 



Pardy & Go., General Printers, 8, The Triangle, Bournemouth. 



T 








OF A 









L 





B'' 



BY 



A. BOUCARD. 



London, 1894. 



BOURNEMOUTH: 
Pardy & Son, 8, The Triangle. 



OF A 




A Record of Adventures, Discoveries, History and 

Customs of Americans and Indians, Habits and 

Descriptions of Animals, chiefly made in 

North America, California, Mexico, 

Central America, Columbia, 

Chili, etc.. 

During the last Forty-Two Years. 



BY 

A. BOUCARD, 

naturalist. 

Officier d'Académie, Knight of the Royal Military Order of the Conception^ 

Knight Officer of the Royal Order of Cambodia, Knight Commander of 

THE Royal Order of Isabel, Corresponding Member of the Zoological 

Society of London, of the Geographical Society of Lisbon, of the 

Museum of Madrid, Member of many Scientific Societies, 

Etc., Etc. 



London, 1894. 



TRAVELS OF A NATURALIST. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

PREFACE I.-II. 

CHAPTER I. 

Departure from Havre — Tempest in the Channel — Harbourmg 
in Weymouth — Nearing the Tropics — Dead Sea — Wonderful 
Sunsets — Baptism of the Line — Crossing the Equator — Fly- 
ing Fishes — Dolphins — Shark and Pilot Fishes — Sucking 
Fishes — Fishing Petrels — Giant Albatross — Cape Horn — 
Whalebone Whales — Cachalot Whales — Tempest — Juan 
Fernandez Island. . . . . . . . . 1-9 

CHAPTER n. 

Arrival at Valparaiso— Excursions in the Suburbs — Humming 
Birds — Gold Mines of Quillatas — Conquest by the Spaniards 
— Dutch Expeditions in Chili — Description of Chili — Boun- 
daries — Topography — Climate — Earthquakes — Volcanoes — 
Lakes and Rivers — Actual Population — Santiago — Valpar- 
aiso — Mercantile Marine — Railroads — Commerce — Principal 
Articles of Importation and Exportation — Remarkable Ani- 
mals — Llama and Alpaca — Chinchilla — Mole- Armadillo — 
Condor — Chilian Humming Birds — Chilian Insects^Future 
of Chili . ' 10-22 

CHAPTER TIL 

Departure from Valparaiso — Islands of San Felix and San 
Ambrose — Phaeton and Frigate Birds — Bonito Fish — Eclipse 
of the Moon — Dorado Fish — Passage of the Tropic — Tunny 
Fish — Floating Varec — In Sight of San Francisco — Heavy 
Fog — Pelicans, Porpoises, Sea Lions, or Seals — Bay of San 
Francisco — Guillemots — Arrival at San Francisco . . . 23^32 

CHAPTER IV. 

San Francisco ini85 1 — Population — Frequent Fires — Summary 
Justice — Abundance of Rats — Commerce — Desertion of 
Sailors — Gold Placers — Exorbitant Prices of Certain Com- 
modities — Gambling Hells in San Francisco — Free Fights — 
Murder of Successful Miners — Expeditions of Marquis de 
Pindray and Count Raousset Boulbon in Sonora — Death of 
Marquis de Pindray — Capture of Hermosillo — Death of 
Garnier — Battle of Guaymas — Execution of Raousset Boul- 
born — Magnanimity of General Yanez 33-44 



vi. CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER V. 

Principal Buildings of San Francisco — Iron House — Chinese 
Consulate — Immigration of Chinese — Derbec— Collecting 
Objects of Natural History — Humming Birds — Remarkable 
Animals peculiar to California — The Californian Vulture — 
Elks — Bears — Californian Salmon — Insects peculiar to Cali- 
fornia — Giant Trees— Climate— Aspects of the Country . 45-54 

CHAPTER VI. 

History of California — Its Discovery by the Europeans — 
Several Expeditions to California— Spanish Missions — Ex- 
traordinary Size of Plants — Pearls — Russian Colony — Cap- 
tain Sutter — His Biography and his Extraordinary Adven- 
tures 55-61 

CHAPTER VIÎ. 

Battles between Mexicans and North Americans — Declaration 
of Independence of California — Colonel Fremont — Annexa- 
tion of California by United States— Discovery of Gold — 
Sacramento — Gold Diggings — Modes of Extraction of the 
Mineral .,,...,.... 62-69 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Departure from San Francisco — At Sea — Arrival at Acapulco— 
Acapulco — Its Population — Department of Guerrero— 
Prmcipal Rivers— Pearl Fisheries— Chilpancingo^Ruins of 
Xochicalco^ — Quetzalcoatl — Expeditions of Cortez— -General 
Alvarez — Pintos — Mineral Wealth 70-82 

CHAPTER IX. 

Sailing from Acapulco— At Sea— Arrival at Nicaragua- — San 
Juan del Sur — Its Climate — Population— Tropical Forests- 
Luxuriant Vegetation — Animal Life— Birds and Butterflies- 
Transformation of Species— la Virgen— Lake of Nicaragua 
— Mountains of Ometepeque and Madera .... 83-90 

CHAPTER X. 

Granada^ — The French Consul, M. Rouhaud— Nicaragua in 
1852-1853 — Intermittent Fevers — How to Cure Them — 
Natural History of Nicaragua — Remarkable Animals found 
in Nicaragua — Howling Monkey — Humming Birds — 
Manakins— Rare Insects peculiar to Nicaragua — Vegetable 
Kingdom— Cacao and Siphonia Trees— Commerce — Mines 
Climate— Volcanoes— Rivers — Lakes — Principal Towns— J 

Population .......... 91-112 ^ 



I 



CONTENTS. vii. 



CHAPTER XL 

History of Nicaragua — Its Discovery by the Spaniards^ — Their 
Expeditions — Gonzalez de Avila — Hernandez de Contreras 
Wholesale Slaughter of the Natives — Oviedo— Pedro de 
Alvarado — History of the Independence of Central America 
— Morazan — Presidents of Nicaragua — Civil Wars — Expedi- 
tion of Walker — Walker — His Fall and Execution in Honduras 
— The Mosquito Kingdom ........ 113-125 

CHAPTER XII. 

Projects for Opening Interoceanic Canals by Nicaragua, 
Panama, Darien, and Tehuantepec — Manuel Alfonso de la 
Cerda — John Bailly — Pierre Rouhaud — Napoleon Garella — 
Napoleon Bonaparte — Vanderbilt Company — What the 
South American Republics ought to do — Felix Belly — The 
Maritime Canal Company of Nicaragua — My opinion about 
the Cost of Opening a Canal — Certainty of the Opening of 
the Panama and Nicaragua Canals in the Future. . . 126-137 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Departure from Granada — The Lake — River San Juan — San 
Juan del Norte — Sailing from San Juan del Norte — At Sea 
— Arrival in New York — New York in 1853-1854 — Inter- 
national Exhibition of New York — Adelina Patti — Natural 
History of New York — Humming Birds — The English 
Sparrow — Population — Climate — Industry — Commerce . 138- 161 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Is America part of the Atlantis of the Ancients ? — The first 
European Discoverers of that Continent — Prophecy of 
Tasso of the Discovery of America by Christopher 
Columbus — European Expeditions in North America — 
Discovery oi Labrador by Sebastian Cabot — John Vervazani, 
the first Discoverer of North Carolina and the harbours of 
New York and Newport — Discovery of Virginia by Captain 
Philip A mid as d.nd Arthur Barlow, acting for Sir Walter 
Raleigh — Colonization oi North America by the English . 162-168 

CHAPTER XV. 

First Settlements in New York by the Dutch — Wars between 
the Dutch and the English — Old Description of New 
Netherland and New Amsterdam — Of the Country and 
its Natives — Inhabitants — Their Customs — Vegetable and 
Animal Life — Mineral Ore — Definitive Occupation of New 
Netherland and New Amsterdam by the English — War 
of Independence — Treaty of Peace signed by the English 
and the North Americans — Declaration of Independence 
of the United States — George Washington elected 
President of the United States. ...... 169-178 



viii. CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Presidents of the United States since the declaration of its 
Independence : — Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jeffer- 
son, James Madison, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, 
Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren,Winiam HenryHarrison, 
John Tyler, James H. Polk, Zachary Taylor, Millard Fill- 
more, Franklin Pierce, James Buchanan, Abraham Lincoln, 
. Andrew Johnson, Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford Hayes, 
James Garfield, Chester Arthur, Grover Cleveland, Benja- 
min Harrison, Grover Cleveland 179-203. 



TRAVELS OF A NATURALIST. 



A Record of Adventures, Discoveries, History, and Customs of 

Americans and Indians, Habits and Descriptions of Animals, Chiefly 

Made in North America, California, Mexico, Central America, 

Columbia, Chili, etc., etc., during the last Forty-two Years. 

By a. BOUCARD. 



PREFACE. 



Although forty-two years have elapsed since I sailed from 
Havre to San Francisco, via Cape Horn, as I have kept 
a diary of all my peregrinations, I think the best plan is to 
follow the same, and to relate successively all the wonderful 
adventures and discoveries as they were made during this 
long period of time, which embraces some of the most won- 
derful events of the nineteenth century, such as the discovery 
of gold in California, resulting in the opening of an Inter- 
oceanic route, via Nicaragua. Immense loss of property in 
San Francisco, the result of frequent conflagrations, which 
have only been equalled since, by the great fire of Chicago, 
Gambling hells of San Francisco. Expeditions of Marquis de 
Pingret and Count de Raousset, Boulbon in Mexico. Murders, 
frequently committed on returning successful miners from 
California. History of California, Acapulco, and Nicaragua, 
International Exhibition of New York, 1854. Epidemics of 
yellow fever in New Orleans, Habana, and Vera Cruz. History 
of Mexico. Reigns of Santa Anna, Comonfort, Alvarez, Zuloaga, 
Miramon, and Juarez. Mexican revolutions between the 
liberal and clerical parties, Intervention of England, France, 
and Spain in the affairs of Mexico. Occupation of Mexico by 
the French troops. Return to Europe. Second voyage to 



11. PREFACE. 

Mexico. Reign of Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico. Evacuation 
of Mexico by the French troops. Battles between Maximilian, 
Miramon, and Mejia, against Juarez and Escobedo. Capitu- 
lation and tragic deaths of Maximilian and his faithful generals. 
Second return to Europe. Stay in Europe, International Exhi- 
bition of Paris, 1867. Third voyage to New York, International 
Exhibition of Philadelphia, iSjo. Excursions to Boston, Cam- 
bridge, Niagara, Baltimore, Washington, etc. Scientific 
expedition in the Republics of Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicar- 
agua, and Guatemala. History of these countries. Second visit 
to California. Return to New York, via Salt Lake City, Omaha, 
and Chicago. Third return to Europe, International Exhibition 
of Paris, 1878. Excursions in Belgium, Holland, Spain, 
Portugal and Italy. Second stay in England, International 
Exhibition of Paris, 1889, etc., etc. 

A.B. 



TRAVELS OF A NATURALIST. 



CHAPTER I, 



AT SEA. 



Departure from Havre — Tempest in the Channel — Harbouring in 
Weymouth — N earing the Tropics — Dead Sea — Wonderful Sun- 
sets — Baptism of the Line — Crossing the Equator — Flying Fishes 
— Dolphins — Shark and Pilot Fishes — Sucking Fishes — Fishing 
Petrels — Giant Albatross — Cape Horn — Whalebone Whales — 
Cachalot Wales — Tempest — Juan Fernandez Island. 



WE EMBARKED at Havre, on the 19th of January, 185 1, 
^§ in the sailing ship, l'Union, commanded by Captain 
Morley. From the igth to the 26th we had very stormy 
weather, the rudder was broken, several yards were carried 
away, and we were compelled to put into the port of 
Weymouth to repair damages. A sad beginning for a voyage 
from Havre to San Francisco, round Cape Horn. We stayed 
at Weymouth five days. This was my first landing in 
England, the hospitable country, which, afterwards, I selected 
as a residence for many years. 

In reading my diary, after forty-two years, I am 'very 
much amused with the juvenile remarks which I made then on 
Weymouth. The first thing I mention is that Weymouth is 
a pretty town, with pi6luresque green walks, from which a 
fine sea view is enjoyed. We went to the market, which was 
kept then on Wednesdays and Saturdays. On Saturdays, 
ladies finely dressed, were seen marketing, and I did consider 
it a very pretty and agreeable sight for visitors. As I have 
never been again to Weymouth, I don't know if it is still so. 
In the market we bought some fine and good apples, eight for 
twopence, which I thought cheap. We had a glass of beer 
at the Crown Hotel, and I made the remark that the ale was 
sweet and nice, and the porter very bitter and strong. I also 
noticed that the saloon was a fine room, and well heated, 
that there were no balconies to the houses, and lastly, my 
attention was called to the coaches ; as of very good make 
and fine appearance, with accommodation for about fifteen 
people, the outside being reserved for gentlefolks. 



2 At sea. 

Having completed our repairs, we left Weymouth on the 
ist of February, with fine weather and a good breeze, which 
lasted until the 14th, during which time we made 1350 miles, 
leaving Madeira far back. During those days we saw many 
birds, porpoises, fishes, heteropods (Nautilus), and seaweeds, 
with large quantities of shells attached to them. 

During the 15th, i6th, 17th, and i8th, we had very foul 
weather, and ran great dangers, all the passengers being 
sea-sick all these days, but fortunately, on the 19th the wind 
abated. We were then close to the Canary Islands, which 
coasts we saw plainly during several hours. Birds and tor- 
toises were plentiful. Up to the 2nd of March we had 
beautiful and warm weather. On the 3rd of March we saw, 
for the first time, the Southern Cross, an indication that we 
were nearing the Equator. Up to the 9th, the wind left off 
entirely, and, during that time, we lost many miles, carried 
away back by adverse currents. Nothing is more tedious at 
sea than a complete calm ; although I must say that I enjoyed 
it very much, fishing every day, notwithstanding the heat. 
We hooked many fishes, among which was one shark, measuring 
thirteen feet in length. It was rather an exciting scene to 
hoist the monster on board. When young, the flesh is eat- 
able but not succulent. The one we caught was cut to pieces, 
the dorsal fin, skin, and jaw cleaned, and sold to a passenger 
as curiosities. Sticks are made with the dorsal fin. The 
vitality of these fishes is wonderful. After being cut into 
many pieces, the inside emptied of its contents, the head cut 
off, this last part retained sufficent strength to close its jaws 
on some objects if put into its mouth. It is also prudent not 
to approach its tail, with which it can give a blow, strong 
enough to break arms or legs of the careless looker-on. To 
avoid these dangers, the tail is securely fastened, and a stick 
of some sort is introduced between the jaws during the pro- 
cess of cutting and skinning. The skin is very hard, and can 
be used for the manufacture of bags and such like. These 
fishes are usually caught with a large hook baited with salted 
pork. 

On the evening of the 9th of March we had the mag- 
nificent spectacle of a tropical sunset, which lasted about 
half-an-hour. The sky was covered with black clouds, lined 
with fiery gold and silver, and surrounded with every variety 
of colour, blue, rose, pink, orange, and red. Every minute or 
so there was a change of scenery, now representing animals 
of gigantic sizes, changing as quickly into castles, cathedrals, 



BAPTISM OF THE LINE. 3 

towns, mountains with snowy peaks, lakes, and the like, as in 
a kaleidoscope. It is so magnificent that it must be seen to 
be believed. Some travellers say that the sun-rises are still 
more wonderful to look at, but for myself I can hardly see any 
difïerence between the beauties of both. We were enthusi- 
astically admiring the conclusion of this grand sight, when 
we were disagreeably surprised by receiving on our heads 
showers of water, poured over by some sailors concealed 
among the yards, on the top of the masts. There was a 
momentary panic among the passengers, but it was soon ex- 
plained to us that these showers of water was poured over 
by the assistants of Neptune, KiNG OF THE Sea, to greet us 
with the welcome knowledge that the next day we were ex- 
pecting to pass the Line, the domain of his Majesty the King, 
who forbade travellers to pass that part of his realm without 
being first baptised. I think that this ancient custom, so dear 
and producive to sailors, is dispensed with now. This baptism 
is administered only once ; so the old hands, who knew all 
about it, had taken care not to be on deck with the other 
passengers. 

On the loth of March, between lo and 5 p.m., the sailors 
do nearly as much as they like. Knowing what is coming on, 
the passengers dress as scantily as possible. At 10 o'clock sharp 
the fun began by throwing water, flour, rotten eggs, and 
other missiles on the passengers and officers, who, including 
the captain, take part in the fun. Then a carnavalesque pro- 
cession, headed by Neptune, strident in hand, and followed 
by Lucifer, policemen, verger, assistant carrying a basin of 
water, Father and Mother Line and follow^ers, all of them in 
more or less eccentric costumes, made its appearance on deck 
and took position. A letter was then delivered to the captain 
by Neptune's secretary, with the injunction to read it to the 
passengers, w^hich was forthwith done. In this letter King 
Neptune offers his felicitations to the captain for the safe 
arrival of the ship in this part of his domain, and requests him 
to deliver all the passengers and sailors who have not passed 
the Line before, reminding him that those who should try to 
pass without receiving the usual baptism would be condemned 
to be thrown overboard at once as food for the sharks. Of 
course, no one being willing to undergo that fate, all con- 
sented to be delivered into King Neptune's hands and receive 
the usual baptism. Then one by one was conducted to a 
mock chapel, erected on empty barrels, where those of wild 
tempers are rather badly treated, first by being shaved with a 



4 AT SEA. 

gigantic wood razor, anointed with tar in guise of soap, after 
which ceremony, by cutting a rope maintaining your chair, 
standing over a barrel full of dirty water, you fall inside 
taking an involuntary dirty bath. Then it is the turn of 
another, until all the passengers and sailors have undergone 
the same ceremonial. Durino- all that time there is a con- 
tinual throwing of buckets of water, flour, eggs, etc., on one 
another. At 5 o'clock it concludes, and all go to wash and 
dress for a gala dinner, with champagne and other delicacies, 
which is usually given on that day, which ends with a comedy 
of some sort, acted by sailors and amateurs willing to help. 
As a rule this day of carnival is rather enjoyed by all, as, by 
giving a piece of four shillings to Father Line, you can escape 
from the worst parts of the day's proceedings. For my part 
I must confess that I did enjoy it thoroughly, these showers 
of water being rather agreeable with the hot temperature as 
we had on that day. On our ship all went well, and even the 
ladies took an active part in the fun of the day ; but some- 
times it happens that some of the passengers are not willing 
to part with their four shilling piece or oppose themselves to 
the baptism. In that case they are generally overpowered by 
the sailors and come out the worse for it. 

On the 14th of March we felt the shock of a submarine 
earthquake. On the 15th, we crossed the Equator with a 
good breeze and splendid weather. Fish were plentiful, 
and many were harpooned. On the 21st we met the English 
ship Ellen, with whom we spoke. Flying fishes (Exocœtus 
volitansj , were very abundant. It is one of the most extra- 
ordinary sights of the tropical seas. The power of flight 
possessed by these flshes is not very great ; but they can 
fly to a distance of about one hundred yards, and frequently 
fly so high that they fall on the deck of ships. This 
happens often enough when persecuted by large flshes, such 
as dolphins, albicores, and others. We also saw many sharks 
(Galeocerdo arcticus) , some of a very large size. They were 
usually surrounded by pilot flshes (Naucrates diictor). This 
last flsh is about the size and shape of the mackerel, and is 
marked with dark blue transverse bands passing round the 
body. Its name of pilot fish is derived from the belief that 
sailors have, that it acts as a pilot, directing sharks were to 
obtain a good meal. Certain it is, that when sharks are about 
the ship, there the pilot flshes are also, swimming round about 
and underneath them with perfect impunity, a good under- 
standing existing apparently between them. Another flsh, 



DOLPHINS. 5 

which we have always found attached to sharks, is the suck- 
ing hsh (Echeneis rémora) . This genus of fish is distinguished 
from all the others by the top of its head being flattened, and 
occupied by a laminated disc, composed of numerous trans- 
verse cartilaginous plates, the edges of which are spiny and 
directed obliquely backwards. By means of this apparatus, 
these fishes are able to attach themselves to ships, large fishes, 
and the like. In some countries, the inhabitants make use of 
these fishes to capture turtles. A ring is fastened to the tail, 
and a rope being attached to it, the sucking fish is carried out 
by the fishermen in their boat in a vessel of water, and thrown 
into the sea, where turtles abound. In endeavouring to make 
its escape, the fish attaches itself to the nearest turtle, and 
both are handed in together. 

Another fish, v^^hich was very abundant, and often har- 
pooned for the delicacy of its flesh, was the dolphin (Cory- 
phaena hippurus) . It is a brilliant golden fish about four 
feet in length, and is so swift in its motions, that it darts 
throusrh the water like a radiant meteor. We have often seen 
them swimming round our ship when at full speed. Its dorsal 
fin is light blue, with golden reflections, the tail-fin and the 
body are green, and the belly is of a silvery lustre, separated 
from the back by a yellow lateral line. When swimming 
swiftly in the water there is an extraordinary display of 
colours upon it, and at night the effect is simply marvellous. 
After being caught, and shortly before dying, it presents a 
remarkable change of colour. The dolphins live chiefly upon 
the flying fishes. It is a grand sight to see, when a shoal of 
dolphins are in chase. 

On the 26th of March, by 30.20 of latitude, and 30.40 of 
longitude, we sighted TRINIDAD ISLAND, and shortly after the 
rocks of Martin Vas. 

On the ist of April we were near Rio Janeiro, the capital 
of Brazil. The heat was intense. Numerous gulls were hover- 
ing round the ship. 

On the loth we saw some white pigeons, and on the 15th 
some petrels for the first time. During the night of the 
1 6th we were overtaken by a tempest, which lasted twenty- 
four hours. Two sails were carried away, and the great yard 
was broken. 

On the 1 8th we saw immense shoals of sardines, and a 
large quantity of Cape pigeons (D apt ion capensis) , feeding 
.upon them. On that day w^e had a very particular enjoyment, 



6, AT SEA. 

that of catching these birds with fishing lines ! They were 
very easily caught by baiting the hooks with salted pork. 
Scarcely had the line reached the water when many of these 
birds pounced on the baits, and one was caught, the hook 
penetrating in its upper mandible. Then it was an easy task 
to hoist it on board. We skinned several specimens. The 
Cape pigeon, or Daption capensis, is a bird belonging to the 
family of petrels, or Frocellaridae. It is snow-white, beauti- 
fully spotted with brownish black. Hence their vulgar name, 
draught, or damier in French. The flesh of these birds is 
oily, and has a bad taste, nevertheless the sailors eat it. 

On the 2ist, we saw for the first time some albatrosses, or 
Cape sheep, as they are vulgarly called by sailors. We fished 
one of them, and made a fair skin of it. The albatrosses, 
the largest sea-birds known, belong also to the same family of 
Procellaridae. Many species are known; but the two usually 
met with in the South Atlantic are the Diomedea culminata and 
the giant albatross, or Diomedea gigantea. They are especi- 
ally characterized by their beak being as long as their head, 
formed of several pieces and sharply hooked at the tip, their 
nostrils tubular at the base or on the side of the bill, their hind 
toe elevated and consisting merely of a claw, and the tarsi 
being reticulated, and usually shorter than the middle toe. 
They are oceanic birds, and generally found at sea at great 
distances. Their flight is rapid and powerful, and apparently 
they can keep it for days and nights together. W^hen the sea 
is agitated, and the winds high, is when many are seen, seeking 
their food in the midst of the agitated waves. Sometimes 
they are seen resting on the waves, and it is with difficulty 
that they can take their flight again. They live chiefly on 
f shes, crustaceae, and carcases. They seldom seek the land, 
except at the breeding season, when they build their nests in 
the holes of rocks. The flesh is a very poor eating. From the 
bones of the wings, sailors make pipe stems. The palms of 
the feet are made into tobacco pouches, and very good pillows 
and quilts are made with the feathers. The heads are kept 
as curiosities. The specimen we caught was about thirteen 
feet wide from the extremity of one wing to the other. 

On the 22nd, we sighted PATAGONIA, Cape Blanc, and 
Pingouin's Islands were distinctly visible. In the evening we 
passed the Gulf of St. George. We saw many birds, vulgarly 
Q.?i}\ç.à. fools (Sula bassana) , and many stormy petrels (Procel- 
laria pelasgicaj , called satyrics by the sailors. This is the 
smallest known species of petrels. Seven species are known^ 



WHALEBONE WHALE. 7 

all of them very much alike, sooty black in colour, scarcely 
larger than a sparrow. They have the faculty of running 
liofhtlv on the surface of the water, and with considerable 
rapidity. Hence the derivation of their name petrel, the 
navigators comparing them, on account of their habit of walk- 
ing on the surface of the water, to St. Peter. Peterrill being 
a diminutive of Peter. It is very amusing to watch them 
when doing that exercise. Alike the other petrels they are 
voracious, and are easily caught with hooks. We secured 
several specimens, which were made into skins. 

On the 26th of April, we sighted TiERRA DEL FuEGO 
and the Bay of San Sebastian. The weather was getting 
cold, and winter dresses came handy. 

On the 29th, we sighted Bell's MOUNTAIN, which is 
1,250 feet high. New Island, Cape of San Diego, and Cape 
OF Good Success, all of them belonging to the Straits of 
Leaiaire, by which we wanted to cross to the Pacific Ocean, 
but, unfortunately, the bad weather that we experienced in 
these parts did not permit it. Up to the 4th of May we had 
very rough w^eather. 

On the 4th of May, which was a Sunday, we sighted 
at last the celebrated Cape Horn. It is a rock of several 
hundred feet in circumference, and seeming to rise about 
50 feet over the sea. It is usually covered with snow. On 
that day we saw our first whale. It was a grand sight for me. 
The species seen was a specimen of Balaena australis, or 
whalebone whale. This animal belongs to the class Mam- 
malia ; order, Cetacea ; family, Balaenidae ; and genus, 
Balaena. They are marine, viviparous, suckle their young 
as other mammalia, respire by lungs, and have distinct 
separate blow-holes. They have warm blood, and have 
no teeth ; these are replaced by plates of baleen, the 
well-known article of commerce. This familv contains the 
whales known by the name of whalebone whales, which 
are of immense size, reaching sometimes fifty feet in 
length. About twelve species are known. The name Balaena 
is derived from the Phoenician word Baalman^ which means, 
but incorrectly, the King of Fishes. It reigns over the in- 
numerable tribes of marine animals. One of the peculiarities 
of the whales is the blowing of steam that they eject when in 
the act of breathing. This column of steam, which rises to a 
good height, has usually been erroneously taken for water. 
The head of this whale is of great size, being a third, and 
sometimes more, of the whole body, and the upper jaw is 



8 AT SEA. 

furnished with plates of a horny structure, arranged trans- 
versally in rows of a triangular shape, and having their 
edges armed with long thread-like processes which hang 
loose in the mouth. These plates are from eight to ten feet 
long, and number about 300 on each side. These are the 
baleens, a valuable article of commerce, which sells in Euro- 
pean markets from ;{^200 to £2,00 per ton. Another important 
article of commerce procured from these whales is the oil, of 
which many thousand tons are annually brought to Europe ; 
but lately this trade has somewhat decreased, in consequence 
of the scarcity of these mammals, which is felt more and 
more every day. Its food consists of small marine animals^ 
crustaceae, molluscs, medusae, etc., the narrowness of its gullet 
preventing the passage of larger animals. With its bones 
harpoons and spears are made, and very good fishing lines 
with the threads of the whalebones. As a rule, it is a very 
quiet and tranquil animal, but when wounded, becomes quite 
furious, and very dangerous to approach. Its strength is 
prodigious, and occasionally, sailors, when fishing these 
animals, have been overturned, boat and all, and sometimes 
with loss of life. 

On the 7th May, we sighted the ISLAND OF DlEGQ 
Ramirez. It was excessively cold. Both water and oil were 
frozen. On that same day we sighted Hermite'.S ISLAND, 
explored in 1624 by the Dutch Admiral THermite. The pro- 
longation of these Islands is what forms the land known now- 
a-days on the maps, as Cape Horn. It was discovered by 
M.M. William Corneliszon and Jacob Lemaire in 16 15. It 
is situated in 55.58.41 latitude, and 69.30.17 longitude west. 
We sighted also Ildefonsos and Boat's Islands, and we 
ran great dangers between these islands, which is a very 
dangerous passage for ships. We met an English sail going 
in the same direction as ours. 

On the gth of May, we met large quantities of whales^ 
Cachalots or sperm whales, and whalebone whales. There is 
a great difference between these two mammals, which belong 
to two distinct families. The cachalot (Physeter macro- 
cephalus) is distinguished from the whalebone whale by 
not having baleens, or whale bones, which are replaced by 
numerous conical teeth, the upper portion of the skull is more 
or less symmetrical. The external respiratory organ is single, 
the two nostrils uniting before they reach the surface, and 
usually in the form of a transverse crescentic valvular aperture, 
situated over the top of the head. When the mouth is open 



TEMPEST. 9 

it presents a cavity capable of containing a merchant ships 
jolly boat. The cachalot is also a very large animal, attaining 
sometimes fifty feet or more in length, and about thirty to 
forty feet in circumference. One whale occasionally yields 
more than twenty tons of pure oil, known as sperm-oil, and 
much used in the manufacture of candles. From the great cavity 
above the skull is extracted the oil called spermaceti, 
which is also much used for the same purpose and for oint- 
ments. The sperm oil is obtained from the thick layer of fat, 
or blubber, lying sometimes several feet in thickness under 
the skin. The substance called ambergris, largely used in 
perfumery, is a concretion formed in the intestines of the 
sperm whale, and is found floating on the surface of the seas 
which they inhabit. 

On the 1 2th of May, we were again assailed by a tempest 
of wind, hail, and rain, which caused some minor damages. 
The hail stones were of a large pea size. Until the ist of 
June we had rough and cold weather. Sometimes the wind 
was so strong that waves of immense size constantly shipped 
over the deck. It was dreadful to see these gigantic waves 
seemingly on our heads, as if they were going to swallow up 
the ship and all. In one instant we were on the top of one of 
them, as on the top of a hill with a sort of abyss under, in 
another we were at the bottom with the waves above us. You 
must experience it to have an exact idea of that fearful 
spectacle. But by this time all of us were more or less sailors 
made, and it did not affect us so much as the first gale ex- 
perienced in the channel. The only inconvenience was to be 
obliged to remain in the saloon, and a little more or less fright 
with some of the passengers. 

On the ist of June, we were at the same latitude as 
Valparaiso and in sight of Juan Fernandez Island, the 
celebrated abode of Alexander Selkirk, so well known as 
Robinson Crusoe. 



ÏO CHILI. 



CHAPTER II. 




Arrival at Valparaiso — Excursions in the Suburbs — Humming-birds- 
Gold Mines of Quillatas — Conquest by the Spaniards — Dutch 
Expeditions in Chili — Description of Chili — Boundaries — Topo- 
graph}^ — Climate — Earthquakes — Volcanoes — Lakes and Rivers — 
Actual Population — Santiago — Valparaiso — Mercantile Marme— 
Railroads — Commerce — Principal Articles of Importation and Ex- 
portation — Remarkable Animals — Llama and Alpaca — Chinchilla 
— Mole- Armadillo — Condor — Chilian Humming Birds — Chilian 
Insects — Future of Chili. 

N the 8th of June we were at last in sight of VALPARAISO, 
after 142 days of navigation. We sighted the light- 
house at four in the morning. At that hour we had a fine 
breeze, and were going at the rate of eight miles an hour; but 
when only two miles from the bay, the wind suddenly abated, 
and we could go no further. The boats had to be lowered, 
and after several hours' hard rowing for the sailors, we entered 
the bay at one o'clock in the afternoon. After the visit of the 
sanitary inspector, we were allowed to land. I shall never 
forget the delightful impression which I experienced in land- 
ing for the first time on American soil. On that day we visited 
the city and the suburbs. When returning, we met a boy who 
had two humming-birds alive. We bought them for a few 
pence. 

We remained only a few days in Valparaiso, but we 
employed our time well, and we enjoyed it very much. These 
days passed on land, after our long navigation, seemed to us 
paradise days. We scarcely could believe that we were on 
land again. First we visited the churches, which are very 
fine, and we were quite surprised to see them devoid of seats. 
The ladies usually kneel on small carpets, carried for that 
purpose by their maids, the men remaining standing, apart 
from the ladies. At the conclusion oi the service, the young 
men group themselves in double file near the porch, so that 
the ladies have to pass between them, saluting and speaking 
to one another as they pass by. We visited the Tivoli 
Gardens, in the village of Polanco, and the Labadie's Garden, 
in the suburbs of the city. They are kept by French gar- 
deners. It was there that I saw humming birds \Eustephanus 



HUMMING BIRDS. II 

galeritus, Mol) for the first time. This I remember as 
one of the most remarkable epochs of my life. They were 
plentiful and flying about in all directions, from one flower to 
another, in search of food. When feeding, they introduce 
their bills, and sometimes the best part of their heads, in the 
calices of the flowers, and, during all the time, remain on the 
wing (exactly as the moths of the genus Sphinx do in Europe, 
on our flowers), and in a very short time extract the honey 
and all the minute insects, on which they feed, emerging from 
there with pollen, and even honey, on their foreheads. Not 
one single flower escapes detection. They continue this 
active exercise during the earlier hours of the morning, and 
until late in the afternoon. When the days are cloudy, they 
may be seen visiting flowers during all day ; but usually as 
soon as the heat begins to be felt, they retire on their favourite 
dry branches and rest there. Occasionally they are seen 
starting with the rapidity of lightning in a straight direction 
and returning a little while after. This means that an intruder, 
often of the same species, has passed near by, and that it 
started in pursuit. During the nuptial time, they are quite 
warlike. They don't allow any other bird to approach their 
nests. Many times I have watched these Liliputians battles. 
During that time the humming-bird is fearless. If it fights 
a larger bird, it makes good use of its sword-like pointed bill, 
with which it inflicts such blows as it can on the head of the 
intruder. When it is with another humming bird, the sight is 
still more interesting. First, it starts straight at the intruder 
provoking it to fight, then they both rise perpendicularly to 
a great height where they are lost to sight, and in like 
manner they descend with the utmost rapidity until nearing 
the ground. This is repeated over and over again until the 
sudden escape of the intruder. The male always sits near the 
nest, and, in many species, sings during the incubation. It 
sits sometimes on the nest. The nest, which is one of tbe 
most admirable and delicate structures, scarcely larger than a 
walnut, is made of moss, intermixed together, and the inside 
filled up with vegetable silk, usually the produce of {Bombax 
ceiba) cotton or suchlike. It always contains two white 
eggs, scarcely larger than a large pea, but oval in form. The 
incubation lasts about sixteen days. The young at birth is 
entirely naked and helpless, hence its classification in the 
division PsiLOPAEDES, Sundervall. A few days after birth, 
minute quills begin to appear all over the body, from which 
feathers grow little by little. On the twentieth day it is 
well furnished with them, and a few days after, it is able to fly 



12 CHILI. 

and feed by itself. During this time life is sustained by, the 
introduction of food into the throat by means of the parents' 
bill. It is incredible how much food they require during their 
growth, especially the first few days after birth. The parents 
are constantly seen bringing food to their young. Their 
digestion is very active, as can be seen by the numerous ex- 
crements accumulated outside their nests. 

m 

These charming creatures, although allied in some res- 
pects to the Picarian birds, are quite distinct from all, and 
in 1876, I proposed for them the name of a new Order, 
(Ttochili.) At first, I met with a certain opposition, but I 
am happy to say that it is now accepted by many ornitho- 
logists, and last year, Mr. Osbert Salvin, the eminent 
English ornithologist, in the Catalogue of Birds in the British 
Museum, vol. xvi., 1892, page 27, has made use of that name, 
TroCHILI, as a Suborder for them. The principal charac- 
teristics of these birds are : — The second, third, and fourth 
toes directed forwards, the hallux backwards, the body very 
small, the bill very slender, the nostrils basal, linear, covered 
by an operculum, sometimes hidden in frontal feathers, the 
tongue slender, filiform capable of great extension, the wings 
narrow and pointed, the primaries, ten in number, stiff and long, 
the secondaries very short, the sternum large, the tail, composed 
of ten feathers, varying greatly in shape and size. Their 
plumage is of the most brilliant metallic hues in the males, 
although in several species they are sombre, and in some few 
the plumage of the females, usually tern, is as beautiful as 
that of the males. They surpass in brilliancy, and in variety 
of colours, that of the most precious stones, such as rubies, 
emeralds, topazes, amethysts, turquoises, sapphires, garnets^ 
etc. They are the unequalled gems of Nature. Only in 
America and its adjacent islands, they are to be met with. 
Actually, we know over Jive hundred distinct species, and 
many more remain to be discovered. From immemorial 
times they have been admired, and their splendid feathers 
made use of for adorning the mantles of the Mexican and 
Peruvian Emperors, as also for the manufacture of superb 
mosaics, representing scenes of Indian life, portraits, and the 
like, and lastly, for millinery and jewelry purposes, such 
as mantles, soirées dresses, head gears, hat ornaments, ear- 
rings, brooches, etc. They are also used in the prepara- 
tion of groups for the adornment of drawing-rooms ; but, I am 
sorry to say, that a great destruction of these beautiful birds 
have been made of late for all these purposes, and I hope 



CONQUEST BV THE SPANIARDS. 13; 

that a strict regulation for the killing of these birds, only at 
fixed times, will be soon enforced by all the American 
Republics, or else, one day, we may have to deplore the total 
extermination of these splendid birds, one of the most con- 
spicuous and w^onderful sights, peculiar to the tropical countries 
of America. 

• 

Now-a-days that the mania of collecting is spread among 
all classes of society, and that everyone possess, either a 
gallery of pictures, aquarels, drawings, or a fine library, an 
album of postage stamps, a collection of embroideries, laces, 
fans, shoes, sticks, pipes, ethnological curios, arms, prints, 
handbills, watches, bronzes, buttons, and such like, a collection 
of humming-birds should be the one selected by ladies. It is 
as beautiful and much more varied than a collection of 
precious stones, and costs much less. Besides, it can be kept 
in one cabinet, which can be made to fit with the furniture of 
the most splendid palace, as that of the most modest home. 
Nothing can surpass in beauty and variety a collection of 
humming-birds. Many species of these charming birds can 
be bought at a nominal price, others are very scarce, and can 
scarcely be had in a life's time. Hence a constant and agree- 
able occupation for many years, and quite the thing for all 
those who have money, taste, and leisure. 

During our stay in Valparaiso we made many interesting 
and pleasant excursions in the country, and we saw many 
rare animals and plants. 

As I shall have no opportunity to speak again of this 
country, I shall give now a short description of Chili, its in- 
habitants, their customs, the rare animals found in Chili, and 
other facts which I consider of interest. 

Chili was discovered in 1536 by Diego Almagro. Alma- 
gro was of Spanish nationality, and inhabited Panama for 
some years. He first entered Chili by the valley COPAYAPA, 
through the Andes, where he lost many of his followers and 
horses from hardships and cold. 

Copayapa bears that name from the turquoises, which a 
mountain there produces in great abundance. This valley is 
said to be one of the most fruitful of all Chili. It produces 
the best maize {Indian corn), each ear being over one foot 
and the stalk five feet long ; each grain sown yields at least 
three hundred in harvest. 

Through the midst of CoPAYAPA runs a river of the same 
denomination, and twenty leagues in length from the Andes, 
and at its mouth has a convenient harbour. 



14 CHILI. 

From there he went in the valley Chili, which gives its 
name to the whole country. In that valley are the famous 
gold mines of QuiLLATAS, from whence Valdivia, in 1544, 
carried an invaluable treasure. The South Sea makes here a 
large and convenient harbour. 

Almagro did not remain long in Chili. In 1541 he was 
succeeded in his attempt to conquer that country by Valdivia, 
who was partly successful. When Sir Francis Drake visited 
this place in 1577, he was driven away, with great loss, by the 
Spaniards. 

In Valparaiso, which he also visited about the same time, he 
took a ship from VALDIVIA, laden with two thousand four 
hundred bars of gold. But the Netherland Admiral, Joris 
Spilbergejtj who went there in 16 15, had not such a good 
success. 

At the time when Oliver van Noort anchored there in 
1600, the Governor, Fra^tciso de Quinones, commanded seven 
hundred Spanish soldiers to reduce the revolted Chillians. 

Elias Herkmans was once nearly taking possession of 
Maria Island for the Netherlands. 

Mocha Island, belonging 'lo Arauco, was first inhabited 
by Juan Claeszoon, a Dutchman, condemned for some crime 
to be landed there. This was in 1600. 

Fifteen years after, Spilbergen landing there with four 
boats, found the shore full of people, who had brought all sorts 
of provisions to barter against axes and knives. The islanders 
going aboard wondered to see the soldiers drawn out in order, 
and much more when a gun was fired. They furnished the 
Hollanders with a hundred sheep, amongst which was one 
with an extraordinary long neck, and the body marked like a 
camel. This was certainly a specimen of llama [Auchenia 
lama). 

In this island a man could marry as many wives as he 
could maintain. They all lived peaceably with one another, 
and went clothed with a pair of breeches and frock without 
sleeves. The women tied their hair in braids ; but the men 
let it hang down carelessly. 

The Netherlands Admiral, Hendrick Brewer, when he 
landed on the coast of GuADALANQUEN in 1643, was informed 
by the Chilians that years before they had burned Valdivia, 
murdered the Spanish that were in garrison, and poured 
melted gold into the Governor's throat and into his ears, and 



BOUNDARIES. 1 5 

made a drinking cup of his skull, and trumpets of his bones. 
This is said to have been the sad end of General Valdivia. 

On the shore of the river Lebo, Garcia Mendoza built 
the town Canete, which, not long after, was deserted by 
reason of the wars with the Chilians. He built also the towns 
of Nueva Londres, in the province of Calchaqui, and 
Cordova, in the territory of the Juries ; but they were alsa 
soon deserted. 

After many cruel wars with the natives, the Spaniards 
conquered all the country, excepting Araucania, and retained 
it until 1810, when Chili, in conjunction w^ith Buenos Ayres 
and Colombia, raised the cry of Independence. Since, it has 
greatly developed, and is now one of the most prosperous of 
the South American Republics. 

In consequence of its very favourable climate, which is 
neither too warm nor too cold, Chili has been selected by 
many English, French, Americans, Italians, and others, as a 
place of residence, and they have much contributed to the 
welfare and prosperity of the country. Lately Chili has much 
suffered from a cruel and long civil war, with great losses 
on both sides; but it is to be hoped, now that it has concluded^ 
that a new and lasting era of peace and prosperity has com- 
menced for that country. 

The Republic of Chili occupies the narrow strip of 
country lying along the south-western part of South America, 
between the Andes and the Pacific Ocean. It extends from 
the Camarones River on the north, separating it from Peru^ 
to Cape Horn in the south. The treaty made wdth the 
Argentine Republic in 1881, gave to Chili the greater part of 
Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan, taking Cape 
Virgin, on the Atlantic, for its starting point, running directly 
south to the Ocean, and west to the summit of Mount Avmon, 
thence along the northern shore of the Straits of Magellan, to 
where it intercepts the 52nd parallel of latitude, in longitude 
70° west. Thence the lines follow the summit of the Andes to 
the northern extremity of the two countries. 

A lower range of mountains, called the Cordillera of the 
Coast, runs parallel with the lofty Andes, and walls in the 
great central plain, leaving only narrow^ passes for the rivers 
W'hich descend from the Andes. Its actual area is about 
300,000 square miles. 

The narrow fertile strip of land which forms the territory 
of Chili may be regarded as the skirt of the Andes, sloping 



l6 CHILI. 

rapidly towards the Pacific, and traversed by numerous rivers 
which fertilize it. The peculiarity of this territory, apart from 
the diversity of its climate, which varies from that of the tropics 
to that of the antarctic regions, is the variety of its geological 
and topographical structures. 

The first, or northern zone, which includes tlic provinces 
■Ol Atacama and Coquimbo, the territories of Antofogasta and 
Tarapaca, is the most sterile, but prodigiously rich in minerals, 
especially silver, copper, saltpetre, borax, and gypsum. 

The second zone, which commences at the Aconcagua 
river, and extends to Bio-Bio, the king of Chilian rivers, may 
be denominated the agricultural zone. It is formed of a series 
of extensive valleys of rich soil, yielding abundant crops of 
cereals. Fossil remains of extinct species of animals are 
frequently found in this zone. 

The breadth of these valleys vary from 25 to 50 miles, and 
occupies from 150 to 180 miles from the Andes to the Pacific. 

The third zone, which extends from Bio-Bio to the Tolten 
river, is still occupied by the valourous Araucanian Indians, 
who never were conquered by the Spaniards ; but the white 
race is rapidly encroaching upon these fertile lands, and 
before long these fierce and independent Indians will have to 
submit to the Chilian Republic, or to disperse in the Pampas. 
Actually they number about forty thousand. 

The fourth zone includes the system of lakes, not yet 
drained by plutonic action, as were those at the north. Of 
these, the Andina lake, Villa-Rica, the source of the Tolten 
river, 24 miles in circumference, is the most picturesque, 
and Lake Llanquihue, thirty miles from the coast, is the 
largest. It is triangular in form, twenty to thirty miles across. 
This zone includes all the southern end of Chili, and is the 
se6lion of the primeval forests. 

The climate of these sections has the same variety as 
their latitudes. In the deserts of Antofogasta and Atacama 
it scarcely rains at all ; meanwhile in Chiloe and Valdivia it 
rains nearly all the year. In general the climate is mild and 
healthy. 

The winter months are June, July, and August ; the 
summer months are December, January, and February. In 
the second zone, where are situated Valparaiso and Santiago, 
it seldom rains except during the winter months. 

The mean tempeature in that zone is 70° in summer, and * 
52° in winter, and for the year 61°. 



VOLCANOES, LAKES, AND RIVERS. I7 

Earthquakes are frequent, and have caused great des- 
truction. Those of 1647, 1730, 1 75 1, 1822, and 1835, have 
been terrific, and destroyed the cities of Santiago, Val- 
paraiso, and Concepcion. 

The Andes, of which the most southerly peak forms 
Cape Horn, (where they say that gold has just been dis- 
covered in large quantity), present in Chili an immense 
range, their course being north and south. Their base has 
a uniform breadth of about one hundred and fifty miles. The 
rivers rising in them run almost parallel at right angles to the 
Pacific, and cut the mountains with immense gorges and 
canons. The mean altitude of the Andes is from eight thou- 
sand to ten thousand feet. Not less than seventy volcanoes, 
extinft and 'a6live, crown the range of the Chilian Andes. 
The most noted peaks are the following : Mount Aconcagua, 
24,418 feet. Mount Tupuns^ato, 21,104 ^^^^^ Mount Maipo, 
17,660 feet, Mount San José, 18,145 feet, in activity since 
1 88 1. Mount Villa Rica, 15,990 feet, and several others, 
ranging from 6,000 to 10,000 feet. 

Chili possesses many islands, the most notable of which 
are JUAN FERNANDEZ, four hundred miles west of Valparaiso, 
Mocha Island, Pascua Island, and Chiloe Islands, with 
its numerous Archipelagoes. 

The rivers of Chili are counted by the hundred, but very 
few are navigable. The principal ones on the northern zone 
are the COPIAPO, watering the valley and city of that name ; 
the COOUIMBO, the Llmari, the Choapa, and the LiGUA. 

From the Maule, south, the larger rivers are navigable, 
but only for small vessels. The Maule is navigable to 

Perales, the Bio-Bio to Concepcion, the Valdivia to 
Valdivia City, at whose wharves the ocean steamers call ; 
and the BuENO to OSORNO. 

The population of Chili, according to the last census, 
1890 ? was 2,766,747, which shows an augmentation of 
690,776 since the census made in 1875, of which about 50,000 
are foreign born. There are 41 cities, 78 corporate towns, 
186 villages, 83 hamlets, and 35 ports belonging to seventeen 
provinces, 60 departments, 682 sub-delegations, and 2738 
districts. 

The principal provinces are those of SANTIAGO, VAL- 
PARAISO, CoouiMBO, Concepcion, Colchagua, Nuble, 
and Aconcagua, with a population of about 1,500,000. 



l8 CHILI. 

The principal cities are the following : — SANTIAGO, VAL- 
PARAISO, Talca, Concepcion, Serena, Copiapo, Iquique, 
and Antofogasta. First of all stands Santiago, the Capital 
of the Republic, with a population of about 200,000. It was 
founded in 1541 by the Conqueror Pedro de Valdivia. Its 
situation is in an extensive valley called Mapocho, bounded 
on the east by the Cordillera, on the west by the mountains 
Prado and Poanque, on the north by the small river Colina, 
and on the south by the river Mapocho, which passes the city 
on one side, and feeds many assequies, or small canals, for 
irrigation. It also supplies the city with water. 

The city is divided into squares, about one-hundred-and- 
fifty, marked out by the streets, which are well paved, broad, 
and clean. Besides many sumptuous private buildings, belong- 
ing to wealthy owners of mines, and large landed proprietors^ 
there are some important ones, such as the Mint, the Presi- 
dential Palace, the Cathedral, the University, with a Museum 
of Natural History, under the direction of the Venerable and 
well-known Scientist, Doctor R. A. Philippi, and many other 
Colleges, Hospitals, etc. Most of the private houses are 
built in the old Spanish style, and only one story high, as a 
precaution against the earthquakes. 

The bridge across the Mapocho is a handsome structure. 
Close by is the Alameda, or public promenade, forming a 
triple avenue more than half-a-mile long, and much frequented 
by foot passengers. The middle one, planted with a double 
row of Lombard poplars, serves for the carriages and horses. 

Mirth and gaiety preside in the Chilian society, and 
foreigners are received wdth much friendship and conviviality. 

Next in importance stands VALPARAISO, or Vale of 
Paj^adise, the most important port of Chili, with about 
120,000 inhabitants, according to the last census. The bay is 
of a semi-circular form, surrounded by very steep hills which 
rise abruptly almost from the edge of the water, particularly 
to the southward. The principal part of the town is built 
between the cliffs and the sea. The principal street faces the 
bay and forms the great artery of Valparaiso, and is skirted 
by elegant warehouses, banks, government and other private 
buildings. A great activity alw^ays reigns here. At the back, . 
the houses rise one above another, forming a species of 
amphitheatre, which, when first seen from the sea, have a 
most beautiful and picturesque appearance. At night the 
sight is more peculiar still, the lights being scattered about the 



VALPARAISO. Î9 

hills in every direction, giving the appearance of a general 
illumination. 

It is in this city that the foreign element in the popula- 
tion is more considerable. European and American are well 
represented, and French, English, Italian, and German lan- 
guages are heard on all sides as much as Spanish. The tone 
of society is very agreeable and friendly. Once introduced 
you are always sure of a hearty welcome. 

The bay of Valparaiso is large and beautiful, alive with 
fishes, but very badly protected from the north winds. Tem- 
pests are very frequent in the months of June and July, and 
the only way to avoid the danger of being wrecked is by 
going at large, and returning when it it has ceased ; but even 
by so doing, complete security is not always obtained, and 
many are the ships which are annually lost in these parts. 
In the winter of 1823, during a norther, as they are called, 
eighteen vessels were totally lost in twenty-four hours. There 
are fine steamship companies doing business on the coast, the 
principal is the Pacific Steam Navigation Company, of Eng- 
land, sailing weekly to England via Panama, and bi-monthly 
by the Straits of Magellan. 

In 1883, Chili had in operation 1,102 miles of railroad, 
and surveys were being made for the speedy construction of 
as many more. Chili is the first country of South America 
which inaugurated the constru6lion of a railroad, that from 
Caldera to Copiapo, in 1850. 

The commerce of the Republic is very prosperous, and by 
reason of its agricultural products for export, and its extra- 
ordinary mineral riches, is one of the great markets of the 
world. 

The importation of foreign goods can be estimated at 
about £10,000,000, chiefly in Articles of food, Textile fabrics, 
Clothing, Jewelery, Machines, Furniture, Tobacco, Drugs, 
Wines and liquors, Material for railways, etc., etc. England is 
the largest importer, France and Germany come next, and the 
United States holds the fourth place. The principal articles 
of exportation are wheat, flour, barley, wool, hides, skins, 
wines, silver and copper in bars, ingots, or ores. 

In the animal kingdom. Chili possesses some remarkable 
forms, some of them peculiar to that country, and others 
w^hichare also found in the neighbouring Republics of Bolivia, 
Peru, and Argentine. Among the Mammals the Huanaco 
and the Vicuna, usually called Llama and Alpaca, when 



20 CHILI. 

domesticated, are very conspicuous and remarkable, as closely 
allied to the Camels, although their backs are not humped. 
They are natives of the Andes, easily domesticated, and ex- 
tensively used as beasts of burden, but they cannot carry 
heavy loads. If overladen, they kneel on the soil, and will 
not rise until the load has been lightened. Their wool, 
especially that of the Alpaca^ is long and fine, and of 
considerable value for the manufacture of valuable clothes. 
In a wild state, the llamas keep together in herds, sometimes 
of one or two hundred. When disturbed, they gallop off with 
great rapidity. In many of their habits they are like a flock 
of sheep, and are not difficult to be caught. They have the 
habit of jumping and kicking with their hind legs. Unfortu- 
nately, these animals are fast disappearing. 

Next comes several species of Chinchilla or Lagotis, 
belonging to the Order of RoDENTS, or GNAWING MAMMALS. 
They are beautiful creatures, about the size of a squirrel, 
measuring" about nine inches, exclusive of the tail. Thev are 
remarkable for their fur, which is long, thick, close, somewhat 
crisped, very soft, and of a pearly grey. An extensive trade 
is carried on with these skins, which find their employ in the 
manufacture of muffs, tippets, lining of cloaks, pelisses, etc. 
They fetch a very good price in Europe. These interesting 
animals live in holes under ground, are very sociable and very 
timid. They are found in considerable numbers in the 
mountainous parts of the country. 

Another remarkable form among the Chilian mammals is 
the extraordinary Mole-Armadillo (Chlamydophorus trun- 
catusj J belonging to the family of Dasypodidac, a pigmy, 
when compared to his gigantic predecessor Glyptodon, a 
fossil species, which was certainly more than a thousand 
times larger. Like all the other species of Armadilloes, it 
leads a subterranean life. It is the smallest and the rarest of 
the species known, scarcely larger than a mole, hence its 
name. In structure it differs from the other Armadilloes in 
having the outer shield attached to the hip bones by a peculiar 
bony process; meanwhile, in Dasypus, the shield is imbedded 
in the skin of the body, with the central rings free and the 
tail exserted. About twenty living species are known, the 
largest being Priodon maximiis, the Giant Armadillo, measur- 
ing three feet in length. They walk on the soles of their 
feet, with the claws expanded, and are able to burrow in the 
soil with surprising rapidity, either to escape danger or in 
search of their food, which consists of insects, worms, etc. 



REMARKABLE ANIMALS. 21 

When surprised out of their burrows, they roll themselves up 
in the form of a ball, and easily escape detection from their 
enemies, but not from man, who secure them very easily. 
Its flesh, which is white and tender, is exquisite to eat. They 
are only found in the tropical countries of America. In the 
the old World, they are represented by the Manidae, or 
Pangolins. 

Amongthe Chilian birds, the most remarkable species is the 
Condor, Sarcoramphus gryphns, belonging to the family of 
Vulturidœ. This giant bird is a native of the Andes, choosing 
its breeding place between an altitude from 10,000 to 16,000 
feet ; but they are also seen frequently on the coast, especi- 
ally when in search of carrion. Flocks are never seen except 
around a large carcase. Otherwise they are met singly, 
soaring at great height in vast circles. Its flight is slow and 
majestic. Its head is constantly in motion as in search of 
food. To rise from the ground, it must needs run for some 
distance, then it flaps its wings three or four times, and 
ascends at a low angle, till it reaches a considerable elevation, 
when it seems to make a few leisurely strokes, as if to ease 
its wings, and moving in large curves it glides along without 
the least apparent vibratory motion. In walking the wings 
trail on the ground, and it has a very aw^kward gait. W^hen 
well gorged with food, it is slow in its movements and stupid, 
and is easily captured. Although a carrion bird, it also feeds 
on calves, sheep, dogs, or the like, when it has the chance. 
It has been said and written that children have been carried 
away by this bird ; but I doubt that any authenticated case 
has ever been proved. 

They are most commonly seen standing on rocks, around 
vertical cliffs, where their nests are. It lays two white eggs, 
three or four inches long, on an inaccessible ledge. It makes 
no nest proper, but places a few sticks around the eggs. It 
is verv difflcult to o-et at them, and thev are still rare in the 
collections. Incubation occupies about seven weeks, and 
takes place in the months of April and May. The young at 
birth are scarcely covered with a dirty white dovrn, and it 
takes a considerable time before they can fly. No one has 
ever been able to state satisfactorily how long thev are fed by 
their parents, but it is probable that it is not much shorter than 
a year. They are as downy as goslings until they nearly equal 
in size a full growm bird. During all that time they are very 
voracious, and the parents are constantly chasing for their 
support. 



22 CHILI. 

A second species, ^'âJrrf^r^m^/^î/i" aequatorïalïs, \ï2iS> been 
described some years ago by Mr. Sharpe ; but having actually 
in my possession one specimen agreeing exactly with the type 
now in the British Museum, I am of opinion that it is only a 
young male, aged three or four years, and that it is the usual 
plumage of that age. It is then brown, or ash colour, all over, 
meanwhile the fully adult plumage of Sarcoramphus gryphus 
is black, with secondaries exteriorly edged with white, and a 
downy white ruff on the upper part and sides of neck. This 
last is naked and of a good size ; the skin lies in folds in the 
male. The caruncles on the head of the adult males are 
well developed, and have somewhat the shape of a crown. A 
full grown bird measures from twelve to thirteen feet. The 
olfactory organs are well developed, and it has been said 
that it has an extraordinary power of scent ; but I am more 
inclined to attribute the faculty of detecting their proper food, 
at considerable distances, to their sight, which must be pro- 
digious. Life is scarcely extinct when flocks of these birds, 
invisible to naked eyes, pounce upon their prey. 

Another species of birds, peculiar to the Andes, is the 
Giant Humming-bird, Patagona gigas. It is about the .size 
of a swallow, dark brown all over, with a white patch on the 
rump. It is found at great altitudes. 

Four other species of Humming-birds, Eustephanus 
galeritus, burtoni, fernandensis, and leyboldi, are only found 
in Chili and the adjacent islands of Juan Fernandez and 
Mas-a-fuera. No other species of that genus has ever been 
found anywhere else. They are beautiful birds. 

Among the Insects many remarkable forms exist nowhere 
else, especially amongst the Carabidae, Lucanidae , and 
Scarabaeidae. The most interesting among these are those 
belonging to the common European genus, Carabus, which 
is represented by a fine series of about twenty species, most 
of them adorned with bright metallic colours, coppery-gold, 
coppery-red, or coppery-blue. Among the Lucanidae^ or Stag- 
beetles, I will mention the peculiar form of Chiasognathus 
Grantii, only found in Chili. Amongst the Scarabaeidae, or 
Lamellicorns, the interesting genera, Cotalpa, Oogenius, 
Modialis, and others, peculiar to Chili. The same can be 
said of the vegetable and mineral Kingdoms, all of which 
proves that Chili is a favoured country as regards its natural 
products, its climate, and its inhabitants, and has in per- 
spective a magnificent future. 



A MIRAGE. 23 



CHAPTER III. 



AT SEA. 




Departure from Valparaiso — Islands of San Felix and San Ambrose — 
Phaeton and Frigate Birds — Bonito Fish — Eclipse of the Moon — 
Dorado Fish — Passage of the Tropic — Tunny Fish — Floating 
Varec — In Sight of San Francisco — Heavy Fog — Pelicans, 
Porpoises, Sea-Lions, or Seals — Bay of San Francisco — Guillemots 
— Arrival at San Francisco. 

jN the 14th of June we sailed from Valparaiso, but for 
want of wind we were obliged to return to the bay for 
the night. On the 15th, which was a Sunday, the boats were 
lowered, and the sailors had to tow the ship for several hours, 
as there was no wind whatever ; but in the evening a good 
breeze, which lasted up to the i8th, took us a long way from 
the coast. 

On the igth, a northern overtook us, and we had several 
miserable days and nights to endure, besides the constant 
danger of being wrecked. Afterwards, we learnt that this 
northern had been also felt in Valparaiso, and that several 
ships were lost. 

On the 2oth, the northern abated, and we progressed 
satisfactorily. On the 22nd, we sighted San Felix, and San 
Ambrose Islands. When in view of these islands, an extra- 
ordinary mirage appeared to us. Ships were seen anchored 
in the bay of San Felix, a large town defended by a fortress ; 
country houses, etc., were visible on shore, and the captain 
was very much puzzled about the whole thing. He did not 
leave the marine glass for a moment. This extraordinary 
vision lasted all the time that we were in sight of the island, 
which is marked on the map as uninhabited. 

On the 28th, and following days, we saw many Phaeton 
and Frigate birds. The former one is a beautiful white bird, 
with two long narrow feathers projecting from the tail, from 
which it takes its French name of "Paille en queue." It 
belongs to the order Gaviae, and the family Phaetonidae. 
Only three species are known, Phaeton aethereus, flavirostris 
and rubricaudus. They are closely allied to the Petrels 
2 



24 AT SEA. 

and Sea-swallows. They have a long, pointed, and strong 
bill, slightly curved at the end, and denticulate on its edges, 
short feet, the toes all united by a membrane, like all the 
Palmipedes ; the wings are narrow and very long, the tail is 
short, but with two middle feathers very narrow and long, in 
consequence of which sailors usually call them " Boatswain 
bird.'^ The Phaetons, or Tropic birds, are Oceanic birds, 
and are generally met with far out at sea flying very high and 
very rapidly. They feed on fish, and are especially fond of 
flying-fish. They breed on the most unfrequented islands, 
and place their nests in the most inaccessible concavities of 
rocks. 

The Frigate bird belongs to the order of Steganopodes, 
and to the family of Pelecanidae. The sub-family Atageninae 
has been made for the two species known -.—Atagen aquilus 
and minor ; but I am of opinion that they ought to be 
separated from the true Pelicans, and united with Graculus^inà 
other allied genera, under the family name of GracULIDAE. 
They have also been named Tachypetes and Fregata by various 
authors ; the last name was given to them in consequence of 
the rapidity of their flight, from which the vulgar name of 
Man of war has also been bestowed on the bird. Atagen 
aquilus, the species seen by us, is found in all the tropical 
seas. It is entirely black, glossed with green and blue on the 
back of the neck. It has a red pouch of a good size. The 
body is light, the size of its wings immense in proportion, 
its tail long and much forked, so that it possesses not only 
great rapidity of flight, but can maintain it for a very long 
time ; its bill is longer than the head and hooked at the tip, 
the feet are membranous. 

The Frigate bird is very voracious, and is met far out at 
sea. It feeds on fish, and it has the very curious habit of 
attacking the gulls until these birds disgorge the fish they have 
captured, which is immediately swallowed by its persecutor. 
It is a very interesting and amusing sight. When flying high, 
and gliding apparantly motionless in the air, it has the 
appearance of a kite. Its sight is very keen. It builds its nests 
on rocks, high cliffs, or lofty trees in uninhabited islands. 
The eggs are of a carnation colour, dotted with crimson. 

On the 30th, we saw large quantities of birds — phaetons, 
frigates, gulls, and others, all of them feeding on flying fish, 
which were very abundant. Not only birds were persecuting 
these fishes, but also larger species of fish, principally dolphins 
and bonitos. 



BONITO AND DORADO FISH. 25 

We harpooned several of them. The bonito, Scamber 
pelaniys, is a hsli belonging to the order Acanthopterygi\ 
and to the family of Scombridac, or mackerels. It is very 
abundant, and is always seen in shoals. It is a very pretty 
fish of a fine blue colour, with four dark lines extending from 
the pectorals along the side of the belly to the tail. It reaches 
about two feet in length. Its flesh is delicious eating. 

During the night of the iith of July, we passed the 
Equator. On the 12th, we had the rare and magnificent 
spectacle of an Eclipse of the Moon, of which we could observe 
all the phases at leisure. The night was splendid, and the 
weather warm. On the 27th, we passed the Tropic, and we 
saw large quantities of John Dor y s (or Dorades in French) 
and Tunny fishes. We caught some of both. The John Dory 
belongs to the family of Scombridae, or mackerels. I think 
the species we caught was Zeus opah, or king fish. It is a 
superb fish brilliantly coloured, measuring between four and 
live feet in length. It is apparently destitute of scales, and 
perfectly smooth. The body is very high and compressed, 
and the mouth has a few small erect teeth. The scales are 
very small and satin like. They have one single dorsal fin, 
and a short tail. It has a metallic lustre of a gray-silvery 
■colour, traversed with yellowish bands, and has a black mark 
on each side of the back. It is very delicate and excellent 
eating. It is supposed that the fish which St? Peter took out 
from the sea, by command of Jesus Christ, and in whose body 
the piece of money required for paying the tribute was found, 
was one of these fishes. 

The tunny-fishes, ThynnuS, belong also to the same 
family, and one species Thynnus thynnus, is very abundant 
in the Mediterranean, where it is caught in very large 
quantities, preserved in oil and otherwise, and sent to all 
parts of the world. 

Up to the 1 2th of August we had very fair weather, a 
good breeze, and an average heat of about 30° Reaumur. It 
was excessively pleasant to all, and very different to what we 
had experienced in the Atlantic. Every day we could admire 
the magnificent sunrises and sunsets, which are constantly to 
be seen in the Pacific. The currents were also in our favour, so 
everyone was content. As we were nearing San Francisco^ 
many of the passengers were already making their plans with 
regard to their future movements. The majority of them were 
going to California, with the intention of trying their luck in 
the gold diggings ; we shall see later on how few of them 



26 AT SEA. 

succeeded ; but for the present everyone was in good health 
and spirits. Many friendships had been contracted on board, 
and some were sorry to think that in a few days they would 
have to part, each one on his own w^ay, perhaps never tO' 
meet again. 

We passed the time in playing chess, draughts, dominoes, 
cards and other games, while others were reading, writing, or 
seated in rocking chairs for hours, and on the w^hole very good 
harmony existed amongst the passengers, officers and sailors^ 
during the voyage. 

On Sundays, we had concerts, and sometimes comedy. 
The performers were passengers and sailors, some of whom 
were really good players, and time passed agreeably and 
quickly. 

On that day, dinner w^as more selected, and good wines, 
including champagne, were liberally given. During all our 
voyage, there was no death. Excepting sea-sickness, and 
that only for a short time, the health of all remained excellent 
all the time, a good proof of the excellent treatment bestowed 
upon us. In fact, all our officers were not only first-class 
mariners, but very cordial with all, and we liked them very 
much. For my part, like the boy that I was, I made friends 
with all, and I had a great time of it. From the Captain and 
other officers, I learned a great deal about the places that 
we passed, all the nautical terms used on board, etc. With 
their assistance, I pointed on a map, which I possess still, our 
track day by day, and now after forty-two years, it is a real 
treat for me to look over this map and peruse the route made 
then. With the sailors, I learned to climb on the masts, the 
names of the masts, yards, sails, cords, etc. I caught many 
birds and fishes, and enjoyed it more and more every day ; but 
it is time to go on with my narrative. 

On the 13th, we met with large quantities of floating varec 
and also some trunks of trees, proceeding probably from the 
Sacramento river, or its tributary streams. Many sailing 
ships going in the same direction as ours were in sight. 

On the 14th, ten different vessels, French, English,. 
American, Spanish, and Dutch, were in view. We could see 
the coast of San Francisco. Life was very active. Pelicans, 
porpoises, and other hsh were plentiful. The first we had not 
seen before ; but we often met shoals of the second, both in 
the Atlantic and Pacific. It is one of the most interesting 
sights of the sea. 

The porpoise is a Mammalia of the order Cetacea,, 



PORPOISIÎS. 27 

family Dklphinidak. This family consists of true dolphins or 
bottle-noses and porpoises. The larger species are dignified 
by the name of whales. The Narwhal, or sea unicorn, 
belongs to this family. Nothing can be more interesting at 
sea than to watch a shoal of porpoises disporting themselves 
round the ship. They swim with the utmost rapidity, and 
distance easily the fastest steamers. The agility and grace 
of their movements in the water are always watched with 
admiration. They are very abundant in all seas. Their 
principal food is fish. The species mostly met with, was the 
common porpoise, Phocaena communis, derived from the 
Italian name, porco-pesce, or hog-fish. It is about six feet in 
length, and is of a bluish-black colour on the back, and white 
underneath. The whole body is covered with a layer of fat, 
nearly an inch in thickness, and the flesh beneath is red and 
resembles that of the hog. It has numerous small sharp teeth 
in both jaws, and a dorsal fin in the middle of the body. For 
hours they will follow the same direction as the ship, con- 
stantly rolling and tumbling over the water, and passing from 
one side of the ship to the other. They feed on fish, and are 
seen sometimes on shore, searching for food in the soil, like 
hogs. Their flesh is considered very good, and tastes some- 
what like that of beef. The oil procured from the blubber is 
of the purest kind and very valuable. With the skin, duly 
prepared, coverings for carriages and wearing apparels are 
made. Lately I have had a pair of boots made of porpoise 
skin, and I have not been able to wear them out. It is quite 
impermeable, and the right thing for hunting or fishing 
purposes. 

The Narwhal, Monodan monoceros, belongs to this 
family, but differs greatly from all the others by its dentition. 
It has only tw^o teeth, both of which lie horizontally in the 
upper jaw. In the female, both remain concealed within the 
bone of the jaw, so that this sex is practically toothless ; but 
in the male, while the right tooth remains concealed and 
abortive in general, the left is immensely developed, attaining 
more than half the whole lenorth of the animal. In some, 
both teeth are fully developed, but this is very rare. The use 
of this tooth, or spiral twisted tusk, is not known, but I think 
it must be used as an offensive and defensive weapon. 

The Narwhals inhabit the Arctic récrions, where thev are 
abundant, and met with in shoals of twenty or more. They are 
often seen sporting about the ships, like the porpoises. They 
feed on fish, molluscse and crustaceae. 



28 AT SEA. 

They attain a length of from twenty to thirty feet, and 
have a tusk in proportion. A superior quality of oil is 
extracted from the blubber, and is considered as a gfreat 
delicacy by the Greenlanders. The ivory of the tusks is 
exceedingly dense and hard, white, and easily polished. It 
constitutes a valuable article of commerce, but it is getting 
scarce. The celebrated throne of the Danish kings is made of 
these tusks. 

In the evening of the 14th, the pilot arrived on board. It 
was great excitement for those who spoke English. Every- 
one was anxious to have news of San Francisco, the placers, 
etc. We were about thirty miles from that town, and with the 
hope of arriving there in the night, when we were surrounded 
by such a dense fog that nothing could be seen three yards 
ahead. It was just as bad as what we know as a London 
November fog. 

In the circumstances, the pilot said that it was quite 
useless to try the passage of the channel that night, so we 
had to bring down all sails and try to keep our position until 
the morrow. During the night, many whales were seen quite 
close to the ship, and earlv the next morning, when the fog 
cleared a little, we saw large quantities of birds, fishes, cetaceae, 
and seals around the ship. - 

Among the birds, the most conspicuous were gulls, terns, 
grebes, and guillemots, Uria grylle. This last species is 
found all over the world ; but this is the great place for them. 
All the uninhabited islands near the coast of California, and 
even in the bay of San Francisco, are crowded with these 
birds, and in the breeding season, boat-loads of their eggs 
arrive every day in the San Francisco market. 

The Guillemot belongs to the order of Impennes, family 
Uriidae. It is web-footed, and closely allied to the penguins^ 
and to the auks, which family includes also the now supposed 
extinct species Chenalopex impennis, or Great Auk. The 
actual value of a good skin of the great auk is between ;Ê300 
and £400, and the last ^<g^ of this species sold in London 
three years ago, fetched £\^o. 

The Guillemot is a bird of the size of a goose. It has a 
straight bill arched at the point and with a notch, its tail is 
short, the wings are extremely short. It is brownish-black 
above and white underneath. It breeds in vast numbers on 
the narrow ledges of rocks, where they may be seen in 
successive rows one above another. In some uninhabited 
rocky islands, they can be seen in thousands, occupying all 



GUILLEMOT AND GREBES. 29 

available spaces, and a passage can only be effected by tread- 
ing upon the eggs. They are supposed to lay from two to 
three eggs, but this is not quite certain, and I am of opinion 
that they are more prolific, because the amount of eggs 
gathered in their places of breeding is prodigious. They are 
of a large size, about one-third larger than that of a turkey, 
and pointed at one end. In colour they vary greatly, from 
white to pale blue, with brownish or black spots sprinkled all 
over, especially in the middle, and representing all sorts of 
arabesque figures. The young ones are sometimes eaten ; but 
the flesh of the adults is oily and has a disagreeable taste. 
They swim with great rapidity, and dive frequently, reappear- 
ing at a distance of fifty yards or more. They live on fish, 
crustaceae, and molluscae. 

Latelv thousands of these birds have been killed for the 
sake of their feathers ; but these have a very low^ market value, 
and are not worth gathering. 

The Grebe, Podiceps affinis, belongs to the order PvGO- 
PODES, and to the family of PODICIPIDAE or Divers. It is a 
web-footed bird of about the size of a water hen, browmish on 
the upper surface, and pure snow-white underneath. The bill 
is compressed at the tip, smooth, straight, and pointed. It has 
short wings, and a short pointed tail, which it uses as a rudder. 
The backward position of their legs causes them to walk with 
difficulty, and obliges them to remain upright when out of the 
water. Most of them fly badly, and their short wings aid them 
in swimming, so that they may be compared to fins. It swims 
very sw^iftly and for a long distance under the water. Its food 
consists of fish, crustaceae, molluscae and such like. They are 
valued for their white silky plumage. During the last twenty 
years large quantities of skins of these birds have been sent 
to the European markets, where they are bought and manu- 
factured into caps, muffs, pelisses, trimmings, etc. Sometimes 
they are found in inland waters. Their nests are generally 
placed among reeds, and rise and fall with the water. Its 
flesh is rank and nauseous. 

The Sea-lion, Otaria stelleri, belongs to the Fin-footed 
Carnivorous Mammals, or CarnivORA PiNNIPEDiA, and are 
distinguished from all the other members of the Order by 
possessing small external ears, and by being able to bend 
their hind feet forward under their bodies and to use 
them for walking on land. Otaria stelleri belongs to 
the family of Otariidae, which also includes the Northern 



30 AT SEA. 

Fur-seal, Callorhinus ursinus, from the North Pacific. It is 
the skin of this last species which is the most valuable. 

The principal characters of the family of seals are short 
limbs, which are so enveloped in skin as to be more like fins 
than legs. The neck is very short, so that the head appears 
united with the body, the nostrils are operculated, the 
animals possessing the power to open or close them at leisure. 
Their head in shape resembles that of a dog. Their body is 
elongated and uniform and their tail is very short. The teeth 
are those of a \Carnivore, four or six incisors above, and 
two or four below, the canines pointed, and the molars 20, 
22^ or 24, all cutting or conical. In colour, except the 
common seal, Phoca vitulina, which is generally gray, and 
sometimes white, the other species are usually dark brown, 
appearing almost black when wet. The valuable dark fur of 
commerce is only the soft under-fur, all the long coarse hairs 
having been removed. The young and females produce the 
finest furs. 

These animals are all aquatic, and pass most of their time 
in the water, and obtain their food in that element. It consists 
chiefly of fish, of which they can devour a large quantity at a 
time. 

They attain a length of about six feet, sometimes 
more, especially the males, which are always much larger 
than the females. 

Intermediate between the Eared and True Seals is the 
Walrus, or Morse, Trichechus rosmarus. It is remarkable 
for its one or two long canine teeth, or tusks, in the upper 
jaw, while the lower one has neither incisors or canines. 
These tusks are used for fighting, for climbing from the water 
on the ice, and for digging on the sea bottom for the moUuscae 
and crustaceae, on which it feeds. It is a large animal from 
ten to twenty feet in length. It is rather a fearless animal, ' 
but harmless, unless attacked. Great numbers are killed for 
the sake of their tusks, the ivory of which is very valuable. 
The oil they yield is more valued than that of the whale, and 
the skin is made use of for carriage braces, wheel-ropes, etc. 

The seals were known to the ancients from the remotest 
antiquity, and authors have made them the subjects of many 
legends. The names of tritons, syrens, nereides, mermaids, 
etc., have all originated from these animals, and even 
now some fishermen are still embued with superstitious ideas 
about them. They can be domesticated, and are very much 
attached to their masters, whom they obey with alacrity. 



SEA-LIONS OR SEALS. 3 1 

Many of them have been brought to Europe, and have 
contributed to the delight of the visitors to the Zoological 
Gardens, especially at feeding hours ; but, unfortunately, they 
cannot live very long when taken away from their native 
countries. 

They are always found on rocky shores of uninhabited 
■coasts or islands, and may be seen creeping up on the rocks 
to feed their young and bask themselves in the sun. They 
never eat their food on land, but always in the water. They 
are splendid swimmers, and no fish can escape them. 

In the arctic regions, in fine weather, they prefer the ice 
to the water, and vast herds of them are frequently found 
Iving on the field-ice. Here is where these poor animals are 
attacked by the sealers and killed in vast numbers. They are 
polygamous animals, each male having three or four females. 
They generally have a layer of fat which affords a good deal 
of oil, with which the Esquimaux delect themselves. In fact 
this animal is of the utmost importance to these people, it 
gives them light, food, and clothing. They make bags with 
the skins of the larger species, which they sew well all around 
and distend with air. Half a dozen of these bags they lay 
upon rushes of straw, attach them with ropes, and make them 
into small rafts, upon which they embark for long voyages. 
Arranged in that way they never sink. The flesh is used by 
them as food, the fat is partly dressed for eating and partly 
consumed in their lamps, and the liver fried is considered by 
them as a very agreeable dish. The skin is dressed by a 
process peculiar to them, so as to be waterproof. With the 
hair off, it is used as coverings for their boats and as outer 
garments. So equipped they can invert themselves and their 
canoes in the water without getting their bodies w^et. 

As everyone knows, the seal fishery is of considerable 
importance to all the world, and more especially to Russia, 
England, and the United States, and lately special measures 
have been taken by these countries for the protection of these 
valuable animals. The actual value of a line skin is about 
£,20. After the silvery fox, which fetches as much as £%o 
per skin, it is the most valuable fur, and it is of the utmost 
importance to edict stringent rules for its preservation. 

At 10 p.m., on the 15th of August, which was a Friday, 
and the day of the Assumption, we sighted the bay of San 
Francisco. Another twelve sails of distinct nationalities were 
also on their route for that port. In entering the mouth of 
the harbour which is rather narrow, w^e saw several wrecks, 



32 AT SEA. 

and we were glad that the pilot did not try to get in the day 
before. It is a dangerous entrance, and especially so when 

foggy- 

As soon as we had passed the mouth of the harbour, we 
enjoyed one of the most magnificent views to be seen. The 
bay of San Francisco has no rival in the world. It is about 
thirty miles long, and six miles wide, with several islands. 
All the vessels of the world could easily anchor there^ 
and many more besides. It is perfectly safe, being sheltered 
by hills from all sides. Occasionally, in consequence of its 
large size, the strong winds are felt more or less in the bay, 
the waves are agitated, but there is no danger, excepting for 
small canoes. 

At twelve, we anchored close to Yerba Buena Island, 
opposite San Francisco, but we could not land that day, the 
wind blowing too hard for small boats. More than 500 vessels 
were anchored in the port. 

At last we had arrived at the end of our voyage, after 209 
days of navigation. 

On the 1 6th, after affectionate farewells between pass- 
engers, officers, and sailors, we embarked in the small boats 
with our luggage, and landed in the celebrated town of San 
Francisco. 



CALIFORNIA. 33 



CHAPTER IV 



CALIFORNIA. 

San Francisco in 1851 — Population — Frequent Fires— Summary Justice 
— Abundance of Rats — Commerce — Desertion of Sailors — Gold 
Placers — Exorbitant Prices of Certain Commodities — Gambling 
Hells in San Francisco — Free Fights — Murder of Successful 
Miners — Expeditions of Marquis de Pindray and Count Raousset 
Boulbon in Sonora — Death of Marquis de Pindray — Capture of 
Hermosillo — Death of Garnier — Battle of Guaymas — Execution 
of Raous=et Boulbon — Magnanimity of General Yanez. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 




HEX I landed in San Francisco, California had be- 
longed to the United States for three years only, and 
a considerable change had taken place in that country, inhabited 
only by a few scattered missions during the domination of the 
Spaniards, San Francisco was at that time a city of 80,000 
inhabitants, living in about 10,000 houses, nearly all of them 
built of wood. Hence the frequency of destructive fires. About 
three weeks before our arrival, one of them, the fiercest of all, 
had destroyed about one-third of the buildings, and workmen 
were seen everywhere building new ones. Shortly after our 
arrival all of them were rebuilt. Cases of goods were to be seen 
everywhere in the streets, also pieces of furniture, in fact 
everything bulky, and with all that robberies were very scarce. 
It is true that justice was very prompt and effectual. Once I 
assisted at the catching of a thief, and in less than an hour 
he was condemned and hanged from the balcony of the house 
where the theft was committed. This summary justice was 
executed by a few citizens who had united together and formed 
a Committee of Public Safetv. 

I remained in San Francisco from the 15th of August, 
185 1, to the end of August, 1852, and during that time I saw 
manv fires ; but the burning of twenty to thirty houses was 
considered as of no consequence. From August to the end of 
December I lived at the small bav, about one mile and a half 



34 ' CALIFORNIA. 

from the town. The rent of the house was sixty dollars 
monthly, equivalent to £,\2. It was a place considered to be 
more secure and more healthy than the town, and it was 
inhabited by many merchants. 

It w^as a pleasant walk from the bay to San Francisco, 
but at night, the roads were invaded by a prodigious quantity 
of fearless rats, and it was nearly impossible to walk without 
treading upon some of them. I believe they were the common 
European rat (Mus decuinanus) , imported by ships ; but 
here it is about three or four times larger. Besides these 
animals, the streets and roads were always encumbered with 
all sorts of clothes, pants, shirts, etc. The reason of this 
was that it was cheaper to buy these articles of apparel new, 
than to have them washed. The usual prices of washing were 
four shillings for a shirt, and sixpence for a handkerchief, and 
so on in proportion. In consequence of large arrivals of 
goods of that description, you could buy them new, cheaper 
than the cost of washing. 

Life at home was not very expensive, if you chose to 
live on fishes, game, beef, vegetables, and fruits, but other 
commodities, as fresh eggs and chickens fetched extraordinary 
prices, such as two shillings for an ^^%^ and £,\ for a 
chicken. In dry goods, wines, and conserves, there was a 
great fluctuation in prices, varying one hundred per cent, or 
more in the week. Sometimes you could buy them cheaper 
than in the European ports, and at other times you had to 
pay very high prices for them. All depended upon the arrival of 
ships carrying the same provisions, so that the market was 
often overstocked with some sorts of goods, meanwhile others 
were scarcely to be had at any price. During my stay, I have 
seen good claret and other wines sold as low as tenpence per 
bottle, and at another time, at four shillings a bottle, and so 
on with all sorts of goods. Paper for the printing of journals 
cost occasionally as much as one shilling per sheet. Several 
sorts of fruit and vegetables also fetched good prices. But, 
as I said before, if you contented yourself with buying what 
was abundant in the market, you could live tolerably well 
and cheaply. Salmon of superior quality and many other 
good fishes, elks, and even bears, were common enough, and 
cheap at times. Eggs of Guillemots were always excessively 
abundant during the season, and could be had at two shillings 
per dozen. Although very different in taste to hens' eggs, 
they are very palatable and much larger. I have eaten them 
prepared in all manners, hard boiled, fried, in omelettes, and 



SAN FRANCISCO. 35 

otherwise ; but found them best made into omelettes. Thev 
keep good for a long time, so you can have some nearly all 
the year round. 

The population of San Francisco was very changeable in 
consequence of the new arrivals. Every day, ships of all 
nationalities arrived in San Francisco bringing passengers. 
Few remained in town, the majority of them were bound for 
the gold placers, which were all the rage at the time. There 
was such a run for them, that very often all the sailors deserted 
their ships, and it was impossible to find new hands, so the 
ships had to remain in San Francisco for several months. 
Nearly all the passengers of our ship did like the others, but 
I am sorrv to sav that verv few of them did well. One of 
them, Mr. Garnier, a non-commissioned officer who had been 
through the African campaigns, and whom I saw several 
months after my arrival in California, was partly successful, 
and showed me some fine specimens of gold nuggets ; but he 
said that it was verv hard work, scarcelv worth the trouble. 
It is a fact that very few of the diggers return with a fortune, 
a great many of them dying in the placers. Many others who 
are successful only come back to San Francisco to spend their 
money in all sorts of ways, and more especially in the magnifi- 
cent gambling saloons which are abundant in the town, and 
where they leave the whole, or the better part of their gold. 

Many of these houses were flourishing at that time, and 
they offered all sorts of attractions to allure the miners; drink^ 
women, concerts, etc. With good reason they were called 
Gambling Hells. Scarcely a day passed without murders 
being committed in these infernal abodes, the place of resort 
of all that was bad. Pistols were taken out from their cases, 
and shots freely fired for nothing at all, and unfortunatelv 
sometimes missed their aim, and inoffensive lookers-on were 
murdered. The body was carried away immediately, and left 
in the street, and five minutes after the gambling was resumed 
as if nothing had happened. Occasionally, there was a free 
light, everybody shooting one another, until several were 
killed or wounded. 

Another enemy of the miners was the decoying shark, 
who waited for them on the quays, and after making friends, 
as compatriots or something else, drugged and murdered 
them. So that after all, with few exceptions, the only ones 
which I heard of having made a fortune in the placers were the 
hotel and bar keepers, and others of the same category, who 
established themselves at the diggings, exchanging their 



36 CALIFORNIA. 

commodities for gold dust or nuggets ; but even these were 
liable to be murdered by the suspicious and lazy characters 
which always abound in such places. 

Add to that, the insalubrity of the country where the 
placers are, especially the intermittent fever reigning during 
the rainy season, the exorbitant prices paid for everything, 
such as one dollar for a fresh egg, or for a glass of brandy, 
and everyone will be convinced that the profession of miner 
in California, in the year 1851, was not such a Paradise as 
many thought. 

About the time when Garnier came back from the placers, 
there were two French celebrities residing in San Francisco, 
where I had the opportunity of seeing them. One was the 
Marquis de Pindray, the other Count Raousset de Boulbon. 
The last one was young, active, and ambitious. He was of a 
good French family. Young and rich, but eager of emotions, 
Tie engaged as a volunteer in the African army in which he 
served as attaché to the Duke d'Aumale. Later on, being 
nearly ruined, he went to California with the hope of 
remaking his fortune ; but when I saw him he was far from it. 
In fact, he had to work at everything to make a living. For 
a time he subsisted by hunting elks and bears ; but naturally 
no fortune could be made that way. At that time rumours 
circulated in San Francisco that very rich gold placers had 
been found in the Sonora. The Marquis de Pindray and 
Count Raousset Boulbon were very anxious to go there with a 
number of followers. Meetings were called to that effect, and 
Count Raousset, who was a good talker, convinced many of 
the unfortunate and unsuccessful miners who were in town 
at that time, to accompany them. Garnier, who had known 
'Count Raousset in Africa, was one of the first to enlist as an 
officer. About two hundred, chiefly French, were willing to 
go with them. Shortly after, they embarked and sailed for 
Guaymas. I do not know exactly what happened there 
between Count Raousset and the Marquis de Pindray, but 
there must have been some misunderstanding between them, 
as. they separated- The Marquis de Pindray went with his 
followers in the Alta Sonora, and Count Raousset, ac- 
companied by Garnier went to Mexico, and soon after returned 
to San Francisco. 

Some days after his return, he convoked several meetings 
asking 200 followers to go with him, to work the gold mines 
of the Upper Sonora. Six hundred replied to his call. On 
the ist of June, 1852, they arrived at Guaymas. His troop 



COUNT RAOUSSF/r BOULBON. l^J 

was militarily organized. Garnier was his first lieutenant. 
The population of Guaymas made them quite welcome, but 
not so the authorities, who were not reassured at seeing so 
many strangers well armed, and having two pieces of field 
artillery with them. 

Governor-General Blanco, who resided at Hermosillo, 
close to Guaymas, was not pleased with their arrival, 
and tried all that he could to oppose their march into the 
interior, but ultimately permission was accorded to them to go 
to the mines ; but they w^ere scarcely gone when General 
Blanco regretted his former decision, and sent an order to 
Count Raousset to come back and confer with him. 

Things had reached the point wished for by Count 
Raousset. Although he went away, exasperated by the 
tardiness of attention given to his solicitations by the Mexican 
General, the losses which these delays caused to the Company, 
and the contrarieties of which his troop were the victims — ^in 
his own mind he was glad of it — all these annoyances giving 
him a show of reason for the aggression which he meditated, 
and the spirit of his soldiers, cleverly managed by him and 
the officers who were in his confidence, was so exalted already, 
that Count Raousset in taking the offensive seemed to obey 
the oreneral suffras^e. 

He refused to go to the conference proposed by General 
Blanco, to whom he sent one of his officers, Garnier, who 
came back with the following propositions made by the 
General. 

The French could continue their route on the condition 
of losing their nationality and becoming Mexican soldiers, 
with Count Raousset as their captain, or reducing their number 
to fifty, or lastly, waiting until their security cards had come 
from Mexico. 

The last of these conditions was the only one acceptable, 
but as they had already lost over two months in parleys and 
w^ould probably have to lose as much more until the arrival 
of the cards, there was unanimity in the camp to reject the 
ultimatum of General Blanco. 

In the meanwhile, forty men of the French Colony, 
Coscopera, founded a few months before, in the Upper 
Sonora, by Marquis de Pindray, who died soon after, and 
whose death brought about desertion amongst the colonists, 
under the leadership of Mr. de la Chapelle, joined the 
volunteers of Count Raousset. 

The latter, who thought that he had a sufficient force for 



38 CALIFORNIA. 

the success of his plans, took the war-path, and visited all the 
villages in the neighbourhoods, inviting the inhabitants to 
declare their independence from Mexico. Several influential 
Mexicans made appointments with Count Raousset, offering 
their co-operation, with the result that several villages took 
part in his favour. 

But money was scarce, the soldiers were destitute of 
clothes and shoes, the armament alone was complete. In 
consequence of his contests with the Mexican General, he 
could not discount a draft of 10,000 dollars, even for 6,000. 
Pressed by necessity, he seized a convoy of thirteen mules 
loaded with victuals for the soldiers of General Blanco. War 
was declared. His soldiers thought they defended a good 
cause and were full of spirit. The Sonorienses admiring 
their intrepidity proclaimed them heroes. Raousset gave 
them a French standard with this inscription, " Independence 
of SonoraP The French had only 184 infantry soldiers, 50^ 
horsemen, 25 artillery men, and 4 field pieces. With this 
small force, they attacked an enemy four times more numerous, 
and entrenched behind walls. 

On the 14th of October, they were close to Hermosillo,. 
when a deputation of merchants came to the camp and offered 
to Raousset the sum of 60,000 dollars if they consented to 
abandon the attack of the town. This offer was refused, and 
immediately after they entered the town, but scarcely had 
they passed the first houses of the suburbs when they were 
fired upon from an isolated house. They deployed as skir- 
mishers, surrounded the house, and took it by assault. 

In the public garden, 500 National Guards detained them 
for a quarter of an hour ; the impetuosity of the two first 
sections well maintained their fire until the artillery took part 
in the action and obliged the National Guards to evacuate the 
place. The fight continued street by street, ending in the 
complete defeat of the troops of General Blanco, who had to 
retreat in the direction of Guaymas. During this action, two 
casualties worth recording, took place. The first was that of 
a volunteer named Hill who came to close quarters with 
General Blanco. He shot at him, but missed ; he then 
ran upon him, bayonet in hand, but before reaching him, he 
was made a prisoner and shot on the spot. The other casualty 
was that of poor Garnier, a brave fellow, who secured a small 
howitzer, at the cost of his life. 

In half an hour Raousset conquered the town, at the cost 
of seventeen killed, and twenty-three wounded, seven of which 
died several days after. 



COUNT RAOUSSET BOULBON. 39 

Although complete order reigned after the action, the 
inhabitants fled in all directions, carrying their valuables with 
them. The volunteers only laughed at them, and although 
the men composing their troop contained many of the worst 
characters, without clothes or money, they were satisfied with 
the glory of triumph, and no excesses were committed. Mr. 
de Raousset thought that the influential merchants, who had 
promised their co-operation, would hasten to meet him, but in 
that he was deceived. No one appeared, and all his hopes of 
conquest vanished. He sent several of his officers to the 
State Governor, Mr. Gandara, offering him all sorts of things 
if he supported him, but the only reply sent was to evacuate 
the town, and to submit to the laws of the country. Now his 
soldiers began to complain of his inactivity, and he was taken 
very ill. Seeing that his position was getting worse every 
day, he gave the order to retreat on Guaymas. 

They left Hermosillo twelve days after the capture of 
that towm. Their retreat was only opposed by a few bands 
of peasants who were afraid to approach, firing upon them 
from such a distance that no casualties occurred. They 
stopped at nine miles from Guaymas, and decided to enter 
that city on the morning. But the same night, some emissaries 
of General Blanco were sent to Raousset, inviting him to 
come and see him. This he did, escorted by Blanco's soldiers, 
and was received in Guaymas with all the honours accorded 
to a Chief Commandant. 

However, his illness did not permit him to negotiate with 
Blanco as soon as convenient, and his volunteers, anxious to 
learn their fate, sent two of their officers to negotiate directly 
with General Blanco, if Raousset was not able to do so. Not 
hearing from these officers, the troops deputed a sailor and 
another illiterate volunteer to negotiate directly with Blanco. 
These delegates first went to Raousset, who refused to receive 
them. Offended at this, and proud of their mission, they went 
to Blanco, who received them well, and passed a treaty with 
them, by which they acknowledged in the name of all that 
they had been deluded and abandoned by their chief, and 
agreed to leave the country, and deliver to the General 
their arms, amunitions, cannons, etc., provided that a sum of 
11,000 dollars should be paid to them. In fact it was a sale 
of their armaments, enabling them to return to California. 
, These conditions were executed on both sides, and so ended 
the first part of what is known as the Guaymas drama. 



40 CALIFORNIA. 

Recovered from his illness, Count Raousset, to whom life 
and liberty had been granted by General Blanco, returned 
to San Francisco. Unfortunately for him, instead of desisting 
from his projects, which were scarcely reliable, and piofiting 
by the experience acquired in his former venture, he convoked 
what remained of his old confidants, and told them that he 
was determined to pursue his projects on Sonora. He opened 
some offices for enlistments ; but this time he asked not less 
than 1,200 to 1,500 men. The renown of his exploits in 
Hermosillo had acquired him many sympathisers, his brilliant 
combinations and his eloquence seduced a rich banker of 
San Francisco, who put his fortune at his disposition. At the 
same epoch he received a letter from Mr. Levasseur, French 
Minister at Mexico, inviting him to come to that capital to 
confer with Santa Anna. Raousset asked for a safe-conduct, 
which was forthwith sent to him. He went to Mexico, had 
several interviews with the President, but the offers made to 
him did not satisfy his ambition. After a sojourn of four 
months in Mexico, tired of conferences without issue, he 
suddenly departed. 

Havinor returned to San Francisco, he tried to renew the 
affair with the banker ; but the latter, who had had time to 
reconsider the scheme and its probable success, retired from 
it altogether. Raousset was sorry to have left San Francisco 
four months before, and said that his calling to Mexico, by 
Santa Anna, had been made with the sole object to miscarry 
his projects. 

Count Raousset made an appeal to all those who wished 
to enrich themselves quickly. " Arm yourselves and go to 
Guaymas, and I will join and guide you in the Sonora^ I 
will make you landlords of large properties, and you will 
become the nobility of the Mexican Province." This brilliant 
perspective fascinated many, and they volunteered to go with 
him. Already the Challenge, a small brig, was ready, and 
the armament was prepared slowly, and at night, to evade 
the watch of the American police. At the same time the 
Mexican Consul in San Francisco, Mr. del Valle, received 
instructions from his Government to send to Sonora the same 
men that Raousset had engaged, offering, after one year 
of military service, to distribute to them portions of land 
corresponding in size, to the rank that each one should occupy 
in the army, that those who had had high grades in their 
country should enjoy a corresponding grade in the colony, and 
lastly that the immigrants would not lose their nationality. 



COUNT RAOLSSET BOULBON. 4 1 

On learning that the Consul, Mr. del Valle asked for i,ooa 
immigrants, Count Raousset rejoiced, thinking that the 
Mexican Government would soon tire of supplying the 
necessary funds for the maintenance of so many immigrants, 
and the dissatisfaction produced amongst these men would 
facilitate the success of his projects. But things did not take the 
course he thought. Mr. del Valle sent only 300 immigrants of 
all nationalities ; although the French were still in the majority. 
Count Raousset not considering this number as sufficient and 
not being able to depend upon all of them, relinquished for a 
short time his projects against the Sonora, but a casual cir- 
cumstance compelled him to leave San Francisco. 

An American colonel of the name of Walker, had also 
attempted the conquest of Sonora and Lower California, but 
beaten by the Californians, he had been obliged to return to 
the United States and to appear before the authorities of his 
country. His deposition incriminated Count Raousset as an 
accomplice of the Colonel, engaged to act in accord with him. 
Warned in time, Raousset fîed to escape arrest, and perhaps 
condemnation. 

At that time, many of his former followers who had gone 
to Sonora, trusting in the promise he made that he should 
meet them there, wrote to him to come. He bought a schooner 
and left San Francisco at night. The ist of July he arrived 
in Guaymas. 

On landing, he learned that the new Governor was a 
good and generous man, who had won the affection of the 
French, and that his influence with them was such, that for a 
moment he was disconcerted, but he quickly rallied, and went 
directly to see the Governor, Mr. Yanez, and told him that he 
had come to avenge himself on the Mexicans ; but that he 
had been so noble in his conduct respecting his compatriots, 
that he renounced his designs, and offered him his spade and 
services. Governor Yanez, well aware of the services that 
such a man could render to his country, if it was possible to 
gain him over, praised him for his good resolve, and told 
him that he was going to ask instructions from his Govern- 
ment. The volunteers of the foreign regiment, who did not 
know the character of the new comer who posed himself as 
their chief, distrusted him at first, but soon rallied entirely 
round him, convinced that he desired peace, which gave them 
all that which the conquest could procure, but a minority, 
composed of bad characters, ambitious, and illiterate, were 
hostile to Yanez and so arrogant towards the Mexicans, that 



42 CALIFORNIA. 

the last, in a moment of exasperation, fired several shots 
at them. 

Immediately after, the French assembled ; they had 
smelt powder, and they claimed vengeance. This incident was 
the cause of the events of the 13th of July. 

From that time, the two chiefs knew that the projected 
alliance was impossible, the spirits of the men were too much 
irritated against one another. However negotiations took place. 
Mr. de Raousset acting in the name of all, wrote to General 
Yanez, complaining of the aggression made the day before, and 
asking for the safety of the men whom he commanded, that 
the General should deliver to him two cannons, and that the 
National Guard should be disarmed. Yanez, who was expect- 
ino^ reinforcements from Hermosillo, leno-thened the negrotia- 
tions as much as he could, and although he acquiesced to the 
demand of cannons, he refused to disarm the National 
Guard. Notwithstanding the irritation of the men's spirit, he 
replied to the daring visit of Count Raousset by another 
more audacious. He went alone to the French quarters, in- 
forming them beforehand of his projected visit. They decided 
to keep him as a prisoner. In so doing, Guaymas was bound 
to fall into their hands without fighting. 

Arrived at the French quarters, Yanez gave orders to 
the troops to form themselves into a square. He reminded 
them of all the kindness he had bestowed upon them, and 
implored them to give up their rebellion, and to abstain from 
sheddino^ blood, and that he should treat them in the future as 
he had done in the past. He told them that they had been 
treated by him as his children, that they were ungrateful, that 
God would know how to punish them, and so forth. His speech 
was delivered with such spirit and tenderness that it over- 
came the ill-feeling of the men, who replied with hurrahs. 
Yanez making a good use of the enthusiasm which his speech 
had produced, ordered Captain Desmarais to open the files, 
and he went aw^ay free, to the great astonishment of Raousset 
and his followers. 

It has been affirmed that the subsequent victory he gained 
over the French, was partly due to that bold deed. From that 
time discord prevailed among them, some inclining for peace, 
others for an immediate declaration of war. A commission 
w^as appointed to confer with the Governor. 

The conference took place on the 13th of July. Yanez 
was well willing on many points, except that of the disarming 
of the National Guard. The delegates, in favour of war, 



COUNT RAOUSSRT BOULBON. 43 

made a very poor appearance before Yanez ; they hastily 
concluded the conference, ?nd gave a wrong account of what 
had taken place between them and the General. Count 
Raousset was undecided what to do when the sudden query 
from one of his followers, " You ARE NOT WHAT YOU 
WERE?" made him start, and rising his head he only said. 
En avant. 

Yanez with 300 men shut himself up in the barracks. 
The National Guard occupied the neighbouring houses and 
four cannons were placed in such a way that they could fire 
■effectually on all sides. To the watchword of Raousset, many 
volunteers at first refused to march, but they were won over, 
took their arms and followed him, manv aorainst their will. The 
advance was made in three different directions. Raousset at 
the head of the two first companies marched in the principal 
street, and went straight to the cannons, but the firing of two 
case shots caused great havoc among his men. None the less, 
with thirty men, they slowly advanced, and disabled all the 
artillerymen ; the least assistance would have secured the 
victorv. But the two other columns had not executed their 
plan of attack, besides which Yanez was there, and being short 
of men, he loaded one of the guns himself, fired it, and left 
onlv ten valid men to Raousset, who tried to escalade the 
barracks, but his efforts were useless. He sought for death 
but found it, not. 

At the same time the dispersed French thought less of 
fighting than to beg for mercy ; downcast and repentant, they 
took refuge in the house of the French Vice-Consul, imploring 
his protection. Raousset left almost alone, returned to the 
sea shore with the hope of finding his schooner there, but those 
who had charge of it were gone. 

He went to the house of the Vice-Consul, tried to persuade 
his men to renew the fighting, did not succeed, gave up his 
sword, and waited. Yanez came out with his men and attacked 
the Sonora Hotel, still occupied by the French. They forced 
an entrance, and the slaughter began. Every one of them 
would have perished if the Vice-Consul, Mr. Calvo, an 
influential man, had not interfered in their favour. They 
were all made prisoners. Pistols were left to Raousset with the 
hope that he would kill himself, but he did not do so, and 
from that moment the intrepid adventurer became a mild 
and peaceful Christian. He felt what he owed to his name 
and to himself, and disdaining to defend his own life, he only 
thought of his honour, and declared that all his acts were 



44 CALIFORNIA. 

political, having no other aim than the civilization of the people 
and the welfare of humanity. He was sentenced to be shot. 
From that moment he was very quiet, and the Mexican priest 
was very much surprised to find in him an eloquent Christian, 
speaking of religion with the profound respect that only true 
faith imparts. He came to comfort him, but the words expired 
on his lips, dominated by a great emotion. It was Mr. de 
Raousset who comforted the priest. He spoke of the vanities 
of the earth with the accent of the soul, free from delusion, and 
when speaking of the other world, he did so in such brilliant 
expressions of hope, blessedness, and divine misericord, that 
the good ecclesiastic listened to him in estacy, and after the 
last kiss, he went out from the chapel, exclaiming, '' This man 
is a Saint.'' 

Mr. de Raousset went to the place of execution without 
showing any emotion. On the way he took his hat to protect 
his head from the sun, and when he arrived at the fatal spot, 
he indicated his heart to the soldiers, and placing his hands 
behind him he looked upwards and fell .... 

The noble character of General Yanez appeared again 
after the battle of the 13th of July. It was due to his 
magnanimity that the lives of all the prisoners were safe. 
Yanez followed the impulse of his heart to the cost of his 
interests. He was relieved of his functions, and brought up 
for trial by Santa Anna in consequence of his generosity. 
Part of the rebels were sent to Mexico, and from there directed 
to Vera-Cruz and embarked for France. The name of Yanez 
will always be recorded by them as one of the best of men. 
Before leaving Mexico, officers and soldiers sent him farewell 
letters, in which they expressed their most eager feelings of 
gratitude for his admirable conduct towards them. 

The idea of Count Raousset Boulbon was to conquer the 
Upper Sonora, to declare its independence, and place himself 
at the head of the Government of that Republic. 

For a while, it seemed as if this audacious plan of his 
would succeed and probably it would have come to that, if 
money had been coming in, and if the population had helped 
him ; but unfortunately for him, it did not, hence the drama ! 

It is a great pity that such an active and able bodied man, 
did not content himself with being a subordinate of the 
Mexican Government. I have no doubt, that if he had 
accepted a command from the Mexicans he could have 
achieved great renown in the war against the wild and 
ferocious Indians of Sonora. 



SAN FRANCISCO. 45 



CHAPTER V. 



CALIFORNIA. 

Principal Buildings of San Francisco — Iron House — Chinese Consulate 
— Immiiîration of Chinese — Derbec — -Collecting Objects of 
Natural History — HunininigBirds — Remarkable Animals peculiar 
to California — The Calitornian Vulture — Elks — Bears — Californian 
Salmon — Insects peculiar to California — Giant Trees — Climate — 
Aspect of the Country. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 




PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS. 

^HE principal buildings which existed in San Francisco in 
1 85 1, were the Tov\n Hall, the ancient theatre, a large 
and hne building, the frontage being of white marble. The 
Government had just bought it for the sum of 500,000 dollars. 
The Custom House, which was not quite finished, a very large 
brick building, erected at a cost of 300,000 dollars, two play- 
houses, the Jenny Lind, and another in which French companies 
w^ere usually playing, many music halls, and a large number 
of gambling houses, some of which were sumptuously furnished, 
the California Exchange, several banks, one of which w^as 
entirely constructed of iron sheets, sent from New York. A 
heavy rent was charged in that bank for the keeping of 
valuables, documents, and the like, and I have no doubt that 
it paid well ; fifteen Catholic and Protestant churches, several 
colleges and schools, hotels, nearly all of w^hich were built of 
wood, a private Museum, containing a fine collection of 
minerals, chiefly specimens of auriferous quartz, gold nuggets, 
and gold dust. There was also a collection of Californian 
birds and mammals, especially rich in Anatidae, or Ducks. 
Specimens of cereals, vegetables and fruits were also ex- 
hibited, and I was much impressed wàth the beauty and size 
of some of them. I saw there a specimen of potatoe weighing 
fifteen pounds. The entrance fee w^as one dollar. In conse- 
quence of the frequent fires, they were beginning to build 



46 CALIFORNIA. 

houses of bricks and mortar. During my stay in San Francisco^ 
about two hundred of them were built. But the principal 
curiosity amongst the useful and important buildings was the 
great Wharf, at the end of Montgomery Street. It was the 
wildest and longest of all, over one mile in length, and they 
were still adding to it. 1 think it was the longest wharf known. 
Hundreds of ships were constantly waiting their turn to dis- 
charge their cargoes or take in fresh ones, although a great 
many of them were obliged to sail without any return freight, 
as the commerce of exportation was nearly nil at that time. 
The said wharf was built on the sea for the most part, and 
they were gradually filling the sea with the detritus of the 
town. Very often I went fishing from that wharf, and I 
caught large quantities of fish belonging to many different 
species. 

At the end of December, I removed from the small bay 
to another part of the town, at the top of Stockton Street, 
close to the Chinese Consulate. There were only two other 
houses in that part of the suburbs. In fact we were quite in the 
country. The small Villa, built entirely of wood, w^as divided 
into three fine rooms on the ground floor, and a very large 
room above. The cost was twenty-five dollars monthly. There 
was a front and a back garden. I remained in this house 
eight months. The Chinese Consulate, which w^as also a 
museum and a bond house, where the goods of many Chinese 
merchants were kept, being near, I wxnt there very often, and 
made friends with the inmates. I received many Chinese curiosi- 
ties from them in exchange for fish which I usually caught 
from the great Wharf. I remember particularly a species of 
Siluridae, or Cat-fish, which I caught abundantly. I did 
not care for them, so I always gave them away to my friends 
of the Consulate, who were very fond of that fish. On these 
occasions they took me in their store-rooms, which were 
crowded with all sorts of goods — ^umbrellas, fans, pipes, 
beautifully lacquered chests of all sizes, straw hats, crackers, 
idols, etc., etc. In fact, to me it was like a museum of 
Chinese curiosities, and I found great pleasure in looking at 
all these pretty things, and they always gave me something, 
so that little by little I made a small collection of them, some 
of which are still in my possession. 

Chinese immigrants were very numerous at that time, 
and they had already their own district, the centre of which 
is Sacramento Street, occupied with hotels, boarding houses, 
opium dens, gambling houses, shops, playhouses, temples^ 



CHINESE. 47 

etc. It was a most interesting sight for an European, although 
I must confess that their district was the most crowded and 
dirty. Chinese women were scarcely to be seen, and the 
very few residing in San Francisco were exhibited as great 
curiosities. Not so with the men, of whom there were about 
ten thousand, all of them finding occupation soon after their 
arrival. Servants were so scarce, and so dear at that time, 
that there were no end of applications to the Consulate for 
Chinese servants and cooks, and I really believe that they 
contributed in some way to the rapid prosperity of San 
Francisco. 

From the intercourse that I had with them, I consider this 
Asiatic race very enterprising, willing, easily contented, 
patient, good workers, and even affectionate to those who 
treat them well. In all these respects they resemble extra- 
ordinarily the American Indians. Anyone who has studied 
the two races cannot believe otherwise that they belong to 
the same race of men, the only differences existing between 
the two being the result of a long separation and I should 
not be much surprised if one of these days a good linguist 
wdll hnd analogies between their languages. In 185 1 and 
1852, the Chinese were welcomed to San Francisco, because, 
as I said before, servants, male or female, were not to be had 
easily, and the price of all the indispensable necessities of life 
was excessive. As soon as the Chinese arrived in numbers, 
an immediate change took place. The price of servants 
dropped from 50 to 75 per cent, and became accessible to 
many; the same with the washing, which the Chinese understood 
and did well. They were employed for all purposes, and 
usually gave general satisfaction. Those who were not 
employed as servants, established themselves as merchants 
or traders. In their special district all kinds of merchandize 
were offered for sale. Close to the merchants of dry-goods 
w^ere barbers, laundries, coffee houses, bathing establishments, 
restaurants, opium houses, and even a theatre was built by 
them. Many made a living that way, others went to the gold 
placers, and as a rule were more successful than the Europeans, 
because they contented themselves with less, were more 
patient, more tenacious in their purpose, and more moderate 
in their wants. They did not drink, they ate sparingly, and 
at a small cost, and they gambled only between themselves. 
Their compatriots who had also gone to the placers and 
established themselves there as hotel keepers, charged them 

4 



48 CALIFORNIA. 

moderate prices for their food and lodgings. Hence their 
better success, even at the placers. 

It was a well-known fact that many of them had success- 
fully worked diggings abandoned by European miners. But 
there was a dark side, that of the hatred which the Europeans 
had against them, and in these out-of-the-w^ay places it was 
considered of very little consequence to murder a Chinaman 
for nothing at all, or to rob him of his gold. Nevertheless, 
many were lucky, either as miners or merchants, and traders, 
and returned to their country with sums of money which 
were considered fortunes there. 

This excited the covetousness of their countrymen to a 
high degree. Hence the constant departure of new immi- 
grants from China to California. 

In this they were helped by their countrymen residing in 
San Francisco, who advanced them money for the payment of 
the passage. For the very low sum of five to ten dollars they 
were transported from China to San Francisco. The ships 
on which they embarked were literally crowded with human 
lives, and for months they were scarcely able to move about ; 
but nothing intimidated them. Many died during the passage, 
but it made no difference to them, although the wish of a 
Chinaman is to be buried in his own country. 

This Chinese custom gave the idea to enterprising 
Americans to start agencies for the transport of corpses from 
California to China, and many were the ships which were 
freighted exclusively for that purpose. 

I witnessed several Chinese burials, the Chinese cemetery 
being on the road from San Francisco to the Mission of 
Dolores, not far from my house. During the whole distance 
from the house of the dead to the cemetery they fired crackers, 
burned odoriferous papers, and usually the mourners w^ere 
numerous. 

About that time I made the acquaintance of Mr. Derbec, 
a clever man, who, after trying his luck with the placers like 
so many others, came back to San Francisco and started 
the newspaper V Echo du Pacifique. He was the proprietor 
and the editor of that journal, one of the best French 
newspapers ever published in San Francisco. He was a 
learned and modest man, and of agreeable society. We wxre 
good friends, and when I left San Francisco I regretted 
parting from him much. He was then publishing his journal 
and doing fairly well. It was from him that I learned that 
paper became so scarce for a few days that one shilling per 



HUMMING BIRDS. 49 

sheet had to be paid, and I remember that many times he 
had to print his newspaper on all sorts of coloured papers, 
light brown, blue, or any other light colour. 

From March to August, I collected specimens of Natural 
Historv. Many were the species of beetles and butterflies 
that I collected in the suburbs of San Francisco. During my 
rambles I very often met another Frenchman, the well-known 
collector Lorquin, who was chiefly searching for insects. 
Lorquin was an enthusiastic collector, who had already 
done good work in Philippines, Celebes, and New Guinea. 
I also collected many species of birds, and more particu- 
larly Humming-birds. Two species were abundant, Calypte 
annae and Selasphorus rufiis. I found many nests of these 
two species during the months of March and April, and at 
one time I had as many as sixty of them alive, all taken from 
the nests. I fed them with fresh flowers and small insects. 
Some of them lived four months. At first I had them all 
together in a large cage made on purpose, but as soon as they 
were grown up, they began to fight so much that I was obliged 
to put them in separate cages. I put one pair in each, and I 
succeeded in keeping them alive and w^ell for a long time. 
My intention w^as to send them alive to Europe, but even the 
most robust died at sea, and it was a complete failure. 

Nevertheless, I think if the same experiment was re- 
peated in Florida, New Orleans, or NeW' York, with Trochiliis 
colubris, there are many probabilities that they would arrive 
alive in Europe ; but, of course, they could not live long there. 
Since 1852, I think one experiment of that sort has been made 
with the Columbian species, and many of them arrived safely 
in Paris ; but thev died soon after their arrival. There is 
more chance with the northern species. 

Calypte annae, and Selasphorus rufus are two very fine 
species. C. annae has the head and throat of the most 
beautiful metallic crimson ; the upper surface is golden-green, 
the breast and abdomen gray, and the flanks w^ashed with 
green. Selasphorus rufus has the upper surface bronzy- 
green, the throat metallic coppery red, very brilliant, and the 
undersurface w^hite. Thev have the same habits as the other 
species. They breed in California. I think that Calypte annae 
is a species peculiar to California and the surrounding 
countries ; but not so with Selasphorus rufus, or the Flame 
bearer. The latter migrates as far south as the State of 
Oaxaca, (Mexico), where I collected many specimens. They 
are also found abundantly in the Rocky Mountains and 



50 CALIFORNIA. 

Colorado; but the bulk of them go to Mexico. In Mexico, the 
capital, they are very abundant in the months of July and 
August, and they arrive in South Mexico at the end of October, 
at which time there is an abundance of flowers in the mount- 
ains. They are found at high altitudes and it is probable that 
they follow the slopes of the Cordilleras, as I have never seen 
the bird in the valley of Oaxaca, or in any other valley, except- 
ing the table lands of Mexico, which altitude is about 7,500 
feet above the level of the sea. 

My friend, Léon Laglaize, grandson of Lorquin, also well 
known as a successful collector in West Africa, Philippines, 
and New Guinea, has witnessed the departure of these birds 
from California to Mexico (?) He told me that one day in 
August, when collecting insects in the neighbourhood of 
San Francisco, he saw thousands of these birds assemble on 
a large oak tree and depart together in a southerly direction. 
This being the period of their migration, it is very possible 
that he witnessed that rare and extraordinary sight. My 
favourite excursions were from San Francisco to the Mission 
of Dolores, a hilly country, destitute of forests and rivers. 
There was not much vegetation, only shrubs and small trees 
scattered amongst small plants, the soil being rocky and 
particularly favourable to insects, especially Carabidœ, Tene- 
brionidae, and Curculiom'dae, and to rabbits and partridges. 
Of the last, Ortyx californicus was very abundant. 

The climate of San Francisco is mild and healthy, but 
northerns are very frequent. The rainy season lasts from 
December to March, and during these months some of the 
streets were sometimes impassable. On the other side of the 
bay, where I made several excursions, the aspect of the country 
is more picturesque. Many rivers have their outlets into the 
bay, and forests of pine and oak trees are conspicuous. 

Animal life is abundant on both water and land. Many 
species of Geese and Ducks are extremely abundant. I 
collected twenty different species : Anser hiLtchinsi, Chen 
hyperboreiLS, Aix sponsa, Mareca americana, Dajila acuta, 
Querquedula carolinensis, Chaulelasmus st repéra, Spatula 
clypeata, Aythya wallisneria, Bucephala americana albeola 
and histrionica, Oidemia americana, perspicillata, and 
de^laiidei, Querquedula discors, and cyanoptera, Mergus 
œthiops and serrator and Lophodytes cucullatus. Pelicans 
were also abundant. On land, Lophortyx californicus, and 
gambeli diXià Oreortyx picta were also plentiful. Of the firsts 
L. californicus, large quantities are brought to the markets^ 



BIRDS AND MAMMALS. 5 1 

and sell at a moderate price. It is a pretty bird, and easily 
domesticated. There are also a large quantity of songsters, 
finches, sparrows, etc. 

Among the RaptORES, Aqiiila chrysœtos Butco borealis, 
lineatiis ^x\à swainsoni, Cathartes aura, Falco peregrrnus, 
Tinnunculiis sparverius, Strix pratincola, Bubo subarticus, 
Speotypo cuuicularia, and manv others were occasionally 
found ; but the rarest of all, the Californian Vulture, Pseudo- 
orryplius californicus, was seldom seen. It is a very rare 
bird, peculiar to California. It is the largest of the North 
American species, rivalling the Condor. It is dark brown, 
with the head and neck naked. It is very voracious, and 
when manv are tosfether the carcase of a horse or cow is 
devoured in a very short space of time. The smaller species, 
Cathartes aura, does not dare to approach them. It is not 
uncommon to see them assemble with the gulls, and greedily 
devour the carcase of a whale which has been cast ashore, 
and they will even pursue weak and wounded game. Among 
Mammals, squirrels and rabbits were the most abundant, but 
occasionally deer or bears were seen. The Wapiti deer, 
Cervus canadensis (?), could be bought in the market nearly 
every day. It is a large animal measuring four to five feet at the 
shoulders. It is red-brown, the tail is short, and the horns 
are round and erect, branching in serpentine curves, measuring 
six feet and weighing about thirtv pounds. They live in 
small families of six or seven individuals, inhabiting clumps 
of woods, and feeding upon grass and young shoots of trees. 
The flesh is coarse ; but if left for a few days to mature good 
roasts can be made with it. 

The bears are not so common, but nevertheless many 
were sent to the market, and the meat fetched a good 
price. A bear-steak was considered a great delicacy by 
connoisseurs. Occasionally a grizzlv bear, Ursus ferox, was 
also to be seen. It is a large species measuring nine feet in 
length, and weighing sometimes 800 pounds. It is the most 
ferocious species of bear, very powerful, and extremely 
dangerous to approach w^hen w^ounded. It feeds some- 
times upon fruits and roots, but at others it preys upon 
animals. The bison is said to be no match for this ferocious 
animal. After killing it, it will drag the carcase to some 
retired place where it digs a pit for its reception, and returns 
to feed upon it till the supply is exhausted. Probably, like 
the other species of Ursidae, they lay in caves during the 
winter, which they pass in a dormant state, and without food. 



52 CALIFORNIA. 

Many are the tales of narrow escapes of hunters from falling- 
a prey to these ferocious animals. 

Fishes are also very abundant in California, but the most 
valuable is the Californian Salmon, which is now acclimatized 
in many European rivers. A good friend of mine, the late 
Professor Baird, of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 
sent fecundated ovae of that and other species to all the 
European Aquariums. 

Like all the other species of salmon, they grow to a large 
size, weighing sometimes forty pounds. In entering the 
mouth of the rivers in order to spawn, the females are always 
observed to precede the males, depositing their ova in little 
holes or nests, which they form in the sand, at the bottom, 
for the males to fecundate. The young grow very rapidly. 
When first hatched they are about an inch in length, and 
during the first year are called parr. When they remove to 
the sea they assume a more brilliant dress, and then become 
the smelt, varying from four to six inches in length. After a 
residence in the sea, from two months to ten wxeks, they 
revisit the fresh waters, and weigh then from two-and-a-half 
to four pounds, and are called grilses. During the ensuing 
winter they spawn, and are then known as salmon. 

Many species are found both in Europe and America. 
Trout and Char, of which many species are known, belong to 
this family. Some are migratory, others are not. It is one 
of the most valuable fish. Many valuable fisheries exist in 
Europe and America. The Scotch fisheries are the most 
important, giving employment to many thousands of people. 

Among the Californian Insects the most remarkable 
forms are those of the Tiger beetles, or Cicindelidae, which 
are represented by various species of Omus, peculiar to 
California. Several species are known, Omus calif ornicus, 
dejeani, audouini, and others. Among the Carnivorous 
beetles, or Carabidae, several genera are peculiar to 
California: Opistus richardsoni, M etrius contractus, Callis- 
thenes discors, breviusculum, reticulatum, and others; but the 
European genera Carabus, Calosoma, and Cychriis, are also 
well represented. Of the last many fine species, are peculiar 
to California, Cychrus interruptus, ventricosus, alternatus, 
?iXid pnnctatus, are abundant. Another species, the smallest 
of all, Cychrus raimus, is still a rare species. In the 
Staphylinidae, Thinopinus pictus is a very curious species, 
peculiar to the country. 

Among the Lamellicorns, or Scarabaeidae, many curious 



RARE INSECTS AND GIANT TREES. 53 

Species of Lachnosterna are abundant. Macranoxia, a genus 
peculiar to California and Mexico, is represented by one 
species, M. crenita, but the rarest are Pleocoma, a genus 
peculiar to California, and still very rare, and Megasovia 
thersites, the smallest species of that genus. The Tenebrio- 
nidae are represented by many species of Eleodes, a genus 
peculiar to California and Mexico. The Curculio7iidae, or 
Weaver beetles, are represented by many small and obscure 
species belonging to interesting genera. Among the Ceram- 
bycidae, or Longicorns, I found several species of Prionus, a 
genus found also in Europe, and many small species of 
Acniaeops, Leptura, Tetraopes, Monilema, and others, but 
the rarest was a species of ROSALIA, R. funebris, of which 
genus one species, R. alpina, is found in Europe. Of 
Chrysomelidae there was a large number of species, usually 
abundant on shrubs and leguminous plants. 

Minerals I shall not mention, as everyone knows that 
California is a Paradise for the mineralogist. There is such 
an abundance of them that a mere list would fill several pages 
of this book. 

In the Vegetable Kingdom it will suffice to mention the 
celebrated colossal specimens of Wellingtonia gigantea, so 
abundant in the Yo-Senite Valley, which tourists never fail to 
visit. There are over six hundred of them, close one to 
another, forming one of the most imposing forests of the 
world. 

The Grizzly, the finest of the lot, has a diameter of 
twelve yards, and attains the height of 120 yards. The first 
branch spreads at eighty yards from the soil. All those sur- 
rounding it are nearly of the same size. Several of them 
have been cut or have fallen. The inside of one of them is 
burnt, and in the tunnel formed by the bark, which still 
remains, horsemen can pass through easily, and cannot reach 
the top with uplifted hand. On the trunk of another, four 
men abreast can walk easily to a distance of seventy yards. 
Banquets and balls have been given in the interior of another, 
and several hundred people found ample accommodation. 
How many thousand years old are they ? It is one of the 
most extraordinary sights to be seen in California. 

On the fourth of July, I witnessed the rejoicings held in 
honour of the Independence of the United States. Flags and 
banners were conspicuous on all sides, and thousands of 
spectators were on the balconies and windows, witnessing 
the immense procession which paraded through all the 



54 CALIFORNIA. 

principal streets, and also taking part in the festivities by 
firing shots and crackers at random. 

Many thousands of people joined the procession, and it 
was a grand sight to see all the different banners carried by 
representatives of all nationalities. The Chinese looked 
extremely curious and gaudy, and were numerous. Many 
were the barrels filled up with crackers and fired by the shop- 
keepers. What with the gun and the pistol shots, and the 
uproar of the people, it was an infernal noise ; but fortunately 
there were no accidents nor fires, a fact which can be con- 
sidered as remarkable in a town built of wooden houses. 

At night there was a general illumination, which was also 
well worth seeing. The effect was magnificent. 



DISCOVERY OF CALIFORNIA. 55 



CHAPTER VI, 



-" CALIFORNIA— {continued) 

History of California — Its Discovery bv the Europeans — Several 
Expeditions to California — Spanish Missions — Extraordinary Size 
of Plants — Pearls — Russian Colony — Captain Sutter — His Bio- 
graphy and his Extraordinary Adventures. 



§|ALIF0RNIA, w^hich was for a long time thought to be an 
1^^ island, was discovered in 1532 by Die^o Hurtado de 
Mendoza, Diego Becerra, and Hernando de Grijalva, sent 
especially tor that purpose by Hernan Cortez. Cortez, not 
being quite satisfied with the result of these expeditions, 
started himself for these regions, and explored the coast and 
the Gulf of California, which has been known since as Cortez 
Sea. For want of provisions he soon returned, and very little 
more was heard of that country until 1539, when a rich 
Spaniard, of the name of Francisco Ulloa, set out at his own 
expense, and explored the eastern and western coasts. He 
landed at last, but not without opposition from the natives, 
who w^ith much clamour and gestures set upon him and his 
followers with stones and arrows with such fury, that they 
would have met with a serious repulse had it not been for the 
valour of the mastiff dog^s which he carried alonor with him. 
At last, he got such a good footing, that he was able to take 
possession of the country in the name of the King of Spain, 
with the usual formalities, setting up a cross as a memorial 
and a testimony of his having been there. Ulloa, during his 
expedition, which lasted two years, went as far as the mouth 
of the Rio Colorado. The map published in Mexico by the 
pilot Castillo, in 1541, represents the outlines of the coasts 
of California, nearlv the same as we know them to-dav. 

About the same time, Marco de Nizza, or Niria, 2l 
Franciscan, who visited that country, on his return re- 
ported the wonders that he had seen. Stately cities with 
mas^nificent buildino-s, the verv p-ates of which were enriched 
with turquoises and other precious stones, and whose in- 



56 CALIFORNIA. 

habitants went glittering in gold and mother of pearl, rich 
mines, and the flourishing condition of the kingdoms of Acu, 
Tonteac, and Mareta ; whereupon the Governor of New 
Gallicia was sent by the Viceroy of Mexico, with great hopes 
of receiving a confirmation of these reports ; but either out of 
spite, or because he had real cause to do so, he represented 
all things as mean and despicable. 

The next expedition was made by Ferdinando de Alarcon, 
who is reported to have sailed many leagues up a river called 
Buena Guia, and there to have received homage of Nauca- 
gatus, one of the chiefs of the Californian tribes. 

In 1542, the intrepid Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, to whom 
the conquest of California has been attributed, explored the 
Californian coasts, and discovered the Island of San Lucas, 
and another called the Island of Possession. 

Thirty-five years later, in 1577, Sir Francis Drake"^ 
landed in Upper California, in a region considered to be 
situated north of San Francisco, which he called Neiv Albion, 
and took possession of it in the name of QuEEN Elizabeth. 
Here is the description which he gave of that country. 

" The country is well stored with deer, grazing up the 
hills by thousands in a company ; the men generally went 
naked all over, the women using only a piece of mat, or some 
such thing, instead of an apron ; their houses were built only 
of turf and osier, yet so wrought together that they served 
very well to keep out the cold. In the midst of it was their 
hearth, where they made their fire and lay all round about it 
together upon several beds of bull-bushes. What their towns 
were, or whether they had any, is altogether unknown." 

This description applies well enough to the northern 
parts of San Francisco, known formally under the name of 
QuiviRA. 

Since the Jesuits established themselves in that country, 
in 1683, it has been better known, and it was considered 
as an arid country, and poor in precious metals. In fact, 
it was thought that the Jesuits concealed what they knew 
about the riches of the country. These considerations 
decided the enterprising Visitador, Don José de Galvez, 
to go to California. He found arid mountains, water scarce, 
the vegetation chiefly consisting of Mimosae, and no 
traces of gold or silver. But he saw what good work the 
Jesuits had done since their establishment in the country. 



'See Humming Bird, Vol. 2, p. 113. 



FERTILITY OF THE SOIL. 57 

In this expedition he was accompanied by a talented and 
remarkable man, Chevalier d' Asanza, his secretary. This 
last stated freely what they had seen, and dared to speak of the 
Viceroy as a visionary, the result of which was his arrest, and 
his incarceration in the village of Tepozotlan, where thirty 
years after he made a solemn entry as Viceroy of New Spain. 
The Jesuits are the first who have thoroughly explored the 
Gulf of California. Father Kin, in 1701, attained the junction 
of the large rivers, Gila and Colorado. He fixed its latitude 
to 35^ 30 ^ In 1769, very little remained of the establish- 
ments of the Jesuits, and the Franciscans established themselves 
in the country. Under the direction of Father Junipero 
Serra, they laid the foundation of the mission of San Diego. 
One year after, the same missionary took possession of 
Monterey. During the next three years Father Serra laid 
the foundations of seven more missions. All of them were 
successful at the tim.e of his death, which took place in 1784. 
His successors continued his good work, with the result that 
in 1822 twenty-one of them had been established, amongst 
them that of Dolores, established in 1776, close to the actual 
San Francisco which existed in 1851, but was no longer in- 
habited by the friars since their secularisation by the Mexican 
Government in 1831. The buildings were still there, but they 
will be soon lost to view among the numerous villas and 
cottages that they are fast building. 

The peninsula of California, which occupies a surface of 
land of the same size as England, was sparingly populated 
during the domination of the Spaniards. In fact, the whole 
population of that country was scarcely that of Ipswich in 
England. The centre of the peninsula is traversed by a long 
ridge of mountains, the highest of which is the Cerro de los 
Gigantes, or Giant's Mountain, about 5,000 feet high. 

The soil is usually sandy and devoid of vegetation. 
Cactuses and mimosae are conspicuous. Water is scarce. When 
it is present, the fertility of the soil is prodigious. All the 
graniferous plants and fruit bearing trees produce abundantly, 
and give large returns. Onions have attained twenty-one 
pounds in weight. Cabbages have reached a diameter of 
thirteen feet. Turnips of one hundred pounds have been 
raised ; but of course these are exceptions. Vines prosper, 
and a very good wine is made with them. Everyone is aware 
of the well-known size of one plant of vine at Sacramento, 
which gave ten thousand bunches at a time. It is now 
dead, but is replaced by some of its sprouts, Avhich are 



58 CALIFORNIA. 

already producing a large number of bunches. The stem of 
the mother plant was exhibited in Philadelphia in 1876. 

Of all the natural productions of the peninsula, or old 
California, the pearls are the most valuable, and have attracted 
many merchants to that country ; but now it is chiefly 
restricted to Mazatlan, in Mexico. The oyster which pro- 
duces the pearls has been chiefly found in the bay of Ceralvo, 
and close to the islands of Santa Cruz and San José. During 
the visit of Galvez in the gulf, 1768-1769, a soldier of the 
presidio of Loreto, made a rapid fortune by fishing for 
pearls on the coasts of Ceralvo. Since 1827, the population 
of old. California decreased to about 5,000, and so it remained 
until 1850. 

It was the same in Upper California until the time of the 
taking of that country by the P'Jorth Americans in 1848. In that 
year the population of Upper California consisted only of 7,000 
inhabitants of Spanish origin and several thousand Indians. 
They lived in the villages of Los Angeles, San José de 
Guadalupe, Santa Barbara, Monterey , and San Francisco. 

North of San Francisco, a. Russian colony of about 600 
individuals lived entirely by themselves. They argued that 
they had an authorisation from the Spanish government to 
occupy the harbour of Bodega, the Ross's fortress, and thirty 
square miles of arable land. They remained there from 18 14 
to 1842, and it was vainly that the Mexicans tried to retake 
possession of the land. But what the Mexican government 
could not effectuate was brought about by the intrigues of the 
Hudson Bay Company. When leaving, the Russian sold to 
Captain Sutter their houses, cattle, and cultures for 30.000 
dollars, althouorh thev had no leeal title, the concession of the 
Spanish government having never been ratified or confirmed 
by the Mexican Republic. 

This Captain Sutter had himself established a sort 
of independent dominion in California. The history of 
this enterprising pioneer, whose name is associated with the 
discovery of gold in California, is extremely curious and 
interesting. 

John A. Sutter was born in Switzerland. Like many of 
his countrymen, a military career was his sole means of 
existence. He soon volunteered in the Swiss regiment that 
Charles X. in 1830 raised against the wrath of the French. He 
conducted himself with the characteristic loyalty of the Swiss. 
During the revolution of July he served as a lieutenant, and 
was wounded in the face. 



JOHN A. SUTTER. 59 

Dischareed with his comrades by the victorious nation, 
the voune officer went to seek his fortune in the New World. 
First he resided in the State of Missouri (United States), and 
adopted the American nationality. Then he went west, 
traversed the American Continent to Ores^on, and from there 
to Sitka, from which place he embarked for the Sandwich 
Islands. In 183g he came back to California, and with the 
permission of the Government of that territory he settled 
there. 

For several days he explored the bay of San Francisco, 
searching for the mouth of Sacramento River. Having found 
it and explored the course of that river, and its two affluents 
known now-a-days as Feather and American Rivers, he built 
a farm at the junction of Sacramento and American Rivers. 
What amount of resolution, perseverance, and daring he must 
have had to accomplish this, with a small number of followers, 
cannot be easily conceived when we think of the difficulties 
standing in his w^ay, against making a permanent establishment 
in the midst of the hostile Indians, with whom he had to 
fight ; but he was more than equal to this arduous task, and 
not only was he successful in repelling successfully the un- 
remitting attacks of the Indians, but he subjugated them 
entirely, and after this he never had better and more peaceful 
labourers than these same Indians. The narration of all the 
perils to which he was exposed daily would fill a volume, and 
no one better than himself could write it, and that w^as what 
he w^as doing when I lived in California, but I do not know if 
it has appeared in print. At one time he was constantly 
fighting against the Indians, at another, scarcity or provisions 
compelled him and his followers to feed on wild roots. Wliat 
energy and capability he must have possessed to escape from 
all these dangers is one of those problems which are not easv 
to solve, and which look more like fictions than realities. Around 
his farm he built a high and thick wall with adobes (very large 
dried mud bricks), which made it impregnable to the military 
art of the wild Indians. He named it in memory of his native 
country. New Helvetia. Of the Indians w^hom he subjup-ated, 
partly by might, partly by persuasion, some he made 
labourers, others he educated and disciplined as soldiers. He 
cultivated immense tracts of land, and soon acquired thousands 
of horses and cattle. Toavoid attacksfrom the Indians, he made 
now and then military expeditions against the hostile Indians, 
and made himself fearedand respected among all the neighbour- 
ing tribes. On one occasion he shot nine Indians who had 



6o CALIFORNIA. 

rebelled, and had their scalps put on the frontage of his fort. 
To the right of life and death over his people he added that of 
coining money. He paid his men with tin coins, exchangeable 
in his stores for clothes, kitchen utensils, eatables, and the 
like. 

The Mexican Government acted with Captain Sutter as 
the Turkish Government with the revolted and redoubtable 
Pachas. They confirmed his authority by appointing him 
Commandant of the frontier. But an American emigration 
developing itself around New Helvetia, the Mexican Govern- 
ment, remembering the annexion of Texas, and fearing the 
same fate for New Helvetia, propositions were made to 
Captain Sutter to exchange New Helvetia for the mission of 
San José, and 50,000 dollars cash. But Sutter, who was fond 
of his establishment, rejected these advantageous terms. 

The brilliant epoch of the existence of Captain Sutter 
continued until the arrival of the North Americans. His 
power was not able to resist this invasion. Everyone would 
suppose that wealth should have been the compensation of a 
power destroyed by the transformation of a semi-wild society 
to that of a civilized one. In his position of first pioneer of 
the country, owner of a vast territory and of thousands of 
heads of cattle and horses, how to believe that Sutter was 
not placed better than anyone else on the road to wealth, 
especially when, by the construction of his saw mill, gold was 
discovered. But it did not come to pass so. Thousands of 
individuals invaded his territory in search of the subterranean 
treasures before he had time to take his share ; the frequent 
robberies of his animals during the first invasions, reduced con- 
siderably the number of his cattle and horses, as also the size of 
his domain, occupation being the only title of that epoch. The 
Indians also deserted him, or wanted to impose unacceptable 
conditions. Captain Sutter could have acquired a high position 
among the North Americans if from the beginning he had been 
in favour of them by giving the signal of insurrection, but in- 
stead of that, the faithful Swiss of Charles X. repudiated all idea 
of a revolutionary initiative, and with a certain number of 
his faithful followers and Indians, all well armed, he tried to 
repulse the Americans ; but he did not succeed, and he 
remembered only too late that he had been a naturalized 
American before coming to Mexico. 

Nevertheless, the conquerors admitted him into their 
army, and treated him with great respect. Dazzled by such a 
generous reception, Sutter, although a bad scholar in the 



JOHN A. SUTTKR. 6 1 

English language, offered himself as a candidate for the post 
of Governor of California. His candidature, which was un- 
successful, took a great part of his time, and all his affairs 
were partly abandoned, with great loss to himself, so that his 
situation of a rich landlord was reduced to that of a modest 
farmer. 

Meanwhile, the well-known name of Captain Sutter will 
remain inseparable from that of California and of the discovery 
of gold in that country, a circumstance which has completely 
transformed that part of the world, and if it is not done yet, 
a statue of this celebrated man ought to be made and placed 
in the most conspicuous part of San Francisco. 

Jean A. Sutter, familiarly called the old Captain, left New 
Helvetia in 1847. ^^ was then a town of 15,000 inhabitants. 
He retired to Hock Farm, a property situated on the confine 
of Rio de las Plumas, Feather's River, near Marysville. In 
1852, Captain Sutter was a fine man still, with hairs just 
commencing to turn gray. In spirit he was quite young, and 
very hospitable. Travellers in these parts were always 
cordially welcomed. 

About 150 Indians of different sexes and ages resided on 
his farm. His' wife, a son, and a daughter, were wdth him at 
the time. 



02 CALIFORNIA. 



CHAPTER VII. 



Battles between Mexicans and North Americans — Declaration of 
Independence of California — Colonel Fremont — Annexation of 
California by United States — Discovery of Gold — Sacramento — 
Gold Diggings — Modes of Extraction of the Mineral. 



IjlJipHE annexation of the rich country known as California 
SK was expected a lonp; time before it took place. The 
maritime voyage of Captain Wilkes and the bold expedition 
of Colonel Fremont, contributed much to that result. 

The debates of the Federal Congress, in respect to the 
frontier of Oregon, called the attention to that part of the 
New World, of which General Cass in his speeches indicated 
San Francisco as the most important place on the Pacific 
Ocean. The conquest of that country was not the pretext but 
the real object of the Mexican campaign. 

As to the colonists of Spanish nationality, in the midst of 
which lived several North Americans, for years back they 
were prepared for a change of domination, which nearly took 
place in 1836. Inspired by the example of Texas, Isaac 
Graham, a North American citizen, commanding thirty 
of his countrymen and sixty Mexicans, took possession 
of Monterey and proclaimed the Independence of California. 
A civil war was the result, and Commandant Alvarado, rein- 
forced with troops, sent from Mexico, routed the enterprising 
Graham. Since that epoch, the native population expected 
every day the renewal of another such attempt. A revolution 
headed by General Miguel Orena, which brought about the 
expulsion of the Mexican Governor, preceded the declaration 
of war between the United States and Mexico. 

Amongst the principal movers of this local revolution, 
M. M. José Castro and Pio-Pico manifested their intention to 
put their country under the protectorate of France or of 
England ; but General Guadalupe Vallejo, the most influential of 
them, declared himself in favour of an immediate annexation 
to the United States, but not being able to gain his point, 
retired to his property near San Francisco. Francisco Castro 
and Pio-Pico, the first as Commandant General, the second 



COLONEL FREMONT. 63 

as Civil Governor, ordered the North Americans to evacuate 
the country during the next forty days under penalty of death. 

In reply, a certain number of North Americans took 
possession of Sononia, and hoisted a flag with the following 
inscription : Republic of California. This revolution, known 
afterwards as the Bear's Revolution, coincided with the 
arrival of the celebrated Colonel Fremont, who took the 
command of his countrymen. Castro, at the head of a 
numerous force, came to oppose him, but dared not attack 
him. Joined by Pio-Pico they retreated to Los Angeles, 
where they contented themselves by issuing martial pro- 
clamations. 

At the same time Commodore Sloat arrived at Monterey 
on the frigate. Savannah, hoisted the American flag, and 
informed the inhabitants that their territory was going to be 
annexed to the United States. Commodore Stockton, who 
succeeded to Commodore Sloat, landed his sailors, and with 
Colonel Fremont, marched against Castro and his troops. 
Without even trying to defend Los Angeles, Castro and his 
followers fled to Sonora. By mistake. General Guadalupe 
Vallejo, the partisan of the annexation, was made prisoner by 
the North Americans, but was soon released. 

After this, a Mexican named Flores, at the head of 600 
men and four cannons, attacked the Americans near los 
Angeles ; but he was completely defeated, leaving a large 
number of killed and wounded on the field of battle. 

After several other encounters of little consequence the 
Mexicans capitulated, the campaign ended, and soon after they 
assisted with the Americans at a popular assembly convoked 
in Monterey for the making of a Constitution for California. 
The first Governor of California was Colonel Fremont, 
nominated by Commodore Stockton. No one could fill better 
this exalted position than the Colonel, to whom the conquest 
of that magnificent country was chiefly due. But for all that, 
although all the life of Colonel PVemont had been devoted to 
public utility and to his country, after a series of altercations 
with Colonel Kearny, he was arrested and sentenced by a 
council of war. The new state of California shortly after 
avenged him by sending him as Senator to the Federal 
Congress. 

John Charles Fremont, was born January, 18 13, in 
South Carolina. He was the son of a Frenchman and a 
Virginian mother. Although his parents were poor, he 
received an excellent education in the college of Charleston, 

5 



64 CALIFORNIA. 

For a time he was a professor of Mathematics. After that he 
was nominated in Washington, Officer of Engineers, and 
entrusted with the making of geographical maps. It was he 
who sug-ofested to the American Government to send a com- 
mission of exploration through the Rocky Mountains to the 
Pacific Ocean. He was entrusted and appointed Chief of the 
Commission. With less than one hundred men, chiefly French, 
born in Canada, he successfully accomplished his first expe- 
dition in 1842. Two more successful expeditions followed 
the first. If it had not been for him, it is probable that the 
annexation of California would have been not only delayed, 
but possibly would not have taken place at all. Soon after 
the annexation gold placers, silver, and- quicksilver mines 
were found, from the Sierra Nevada to the Pacific, and from 
Oregon to los Angeles ; but Sacramento and San Joaquin 
were the first countries explored. It is between these two 
rivers that most of the gold has been found. Sacramento is 
the route to the northern mines. San Joaquin that of the 
southern ones. Sacramento River is navigable to a distance 
of ninety miles up to the new town of Sacramento, built on 
the precise site w^here Captain Sutter had formed his establish- 
ment called New Helvetia. By its commercial activity, its 
population of 15,000 inhabitants, and its marvellous prosperity, 
Sacramento was considered in 1851, as the second city of 
California. Ships went direct from Europe or United States 
to Sacramento. Several steamers ply daily between that 
town and San Francisco. Others run from Sacramento to 
Marysville by Feather's River. Stage coaches run between 
Sacramento aud the neighbouring places, pertaining to its 
territory. Hotels, Theatres, Gambling Houses, Concert 
Rooms, etc., are nearly as abundant as in San Francisco. 

Sacramento, by its peculiar and favourable position on 
the route from San Francisco to New York, is the centre of 
the gold placers, and has in perspective a great future, as also 
has San Joaquin, with its river, navigable for about 120 miles 
up to Stockton. On a length of 400 to 500 miles, gold is 
found everywhere, either as dust nuggets, or contained in 
quartz. All the tributaries of Sacramento and San Joaquin 
contain gold, and great finds have been made where the 
course of the river suddenly change its direction, forming a 
curve. Gravel, lime, clay, all of them contain gold. In 
fact, it is found more or less everywhere, even close to the sea 
shore. How all that gold has come there is a problem which 
has not been satisfactorily solved yet. it is only by the 



KIRST I)ISCO\'KRV OF GOLD BY A RUSSIAN. 65 

stubbornness of the chief of the Russian Colony that all this 
wealth has not been acquired by Russia. 

As I related before, between 18 14 and 1842 a Russian 
colony, the same which sold its houses, cattle, etc., to Captain 
Sutter, had been formed in California. It was despotically 
ruled by Commandants appointed by the Russo-American 
Company. 

One dav one of the colonists appeared before his Com- 
mandant, and told him that he had seen in a rivulet close by, 
some brilliant grains, looking like gold. 

"■ Nonsense," replied the Commandant, who did not think 
that such a thing was possible. ^^ Go on with your work, and 
dont occupy yourself with what is not business of yours." 

If that Commandant was alive when the first discovery of 
gold in California was reported to all the world, and exactly 
on the site of the colony, what remorse he must have felt at 
his own foolishness ! ! 

That discovery came as a truly unexpected event, and 
took the world by surprise. 

The scientific explorations formerly made in California 
by the celebrated geologist, Mr. Dana, Attaché to the 
expedition commanded by Captain Wilkes, did not ascertain 
the presence of gold in that country. He only remarks that 
the rocks of the districts Uruqiia and Sliasté resemble in 
many respects the auriferous rocks of the other regions, 
concluding with : ^' But gold, if it exists, remains to be 
discovered." It is not a positive affirmation, but the indication 
of a possibility. Mr. Dana had, however, studied wdth much 
care the minéralogie character of the country from the river 
Columbia to San Francisco, through the valley of Sacramento, 
at about 40 miles from the place where an accident brought 
about the discovery which has had such an influence on the 
destinies of the whole world. 

This great discovery took place in January, 1848. Tw^o 
workmen, Messrs. Marshall and Bennett, were working at the 
construction of a saw mill for Captain Sutter, in the meridianal 
branch of the American River (Rio de los Americanos) , about 
fifty miles from New Helvetia, now Sacramento. The place 
was covered with oaks, pines and cedar trees. The saw-mill 
being concluded, it was found necessary to widen the space 
required for the wheel. Amongst a lot of accumulated mud, 
Marshall saw something^ brilliant. 

'Tt is gold," said he, and in a short space of time, he and 
his fellow workman collected one hundred and fiftv dollars 



66 CALIFORNIA. 

{£3^) worth of this metallic dust. An assayer from San 
Francisco confirmed the opinion that the two workmen had 
made of their find. 

Vainly Captain Sutter tried, in accord with his workmen^ 
to keep this secret. The new^s was propagated with rapidity 
from one to another. A gold fever took possession of all the 
inhabitants of California, who abandoned their houses and 
families, and invaded the beautiful valley Coluna, as it was 
called by the Indians. Shopkeepers deserted their shops^ 
doctors abandoned their patients, sailors their ships, soldiers 
their flag, farmers their farms and cattle. It was nothing less 
than madness amongst all classes of society. The Governor 
himself, Colonel Mason abandoned San Francisco, accom- 
panied by his staff, and all of them worked the placers. Seven 
inhabitants in all remained in the abandoned town. 

At first they w^ere very successful, and the daily average 
of the god-send for each was about £20. A few of them made 
a large fortune in a very short time, such was the abundance 
of the metal which had never before been touched since its 
formation. 

Soon after, many of the most enterprising miners explored 
the tributary streams of Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, 
and found also a large quantity of gold, but this did not occur 
without many extraordinary events taking place, such as 
disputes of possession, settled by the murdering of one of the 
two engaged in litigation, and sometimes the death of both. 
When the Indian in his turn protested against the violation 
of his land w^ith his arrows, the miner replied with a rifle shot, 
and carried away the bloody scalp. 

The passion of getting much gold had arrived at such a 
paroxysm of madness, that life was accounted as of no value, 
and many were the atrocious murders committed for the sake 
of Gold. Some, in the anxiety of gathering as much as they 
could when they found a good place, forgot to make the 
necessary provision of food, and died of hunger close to their 
treasure. 

The forsaking of all occupations for the finding of gold 
w^as followed by the scarcity of victuals, and all necessaries of 
life fetched a fabulous price. Four pounds sterling were paid 
for an ordinary breakfast consisting of sardines, bread, butter,, 
cheese, and one pint of ale ; beef fetched eight shilling per 
pound, eggs four shillings each, coffee sixteen shillings per 
pound. A bottle of brandy £10, one barrel of flour £'^, one 



GOLDEN AGE. 67 

drop of laudanum four shillings, etc., etc. In consequence of 
bad and salted food, scurvy and dysentery prevailed in the 
miners' encampment, and many died from these diseases. 

In 1 85 1, all this was altered. There were hotels every- 
where, and a miner could lodge and board for about twelve 
shillings a day. Strong boots, for which he paid ;£io before, 
could be had at about the same price as in New York. So 
many were the goods exported from all countries to California, 
that sometimes the price of some of them was even lower 
than the cost price, and many were the speculators who ruined 
themselves. Others became rich in a short time. 

Immigrants from all countries were arriving every day, 
and I do not think that in the history of the world, such an 
immigration has ever taken place before. Every nation, every 
creed, every class were represented more or less, and for once 
harmonized together. Ignorance and education, nobles and 
plebeians, all mingled and worked together, and the lower 
classes accustomed to work and privations, succeeded better 
than the upper ones. At that time carmen were paid £2 per 
day, cooks £30 weekly, w^asherwomen were thought much of 
and gentlemen were anxious to marry them and so forth. It 
was the golden age for many. 

One year after the discovery of gold, there were over 
50,000 artisans in the mines. In 1851, they reached 150,000. 
Such an affluence of people in a few months made a large 
town of San Francisco. The lots of land which had been sold 
in the beginning at £.2 los., soon reached from ;£5oo to 
/^i,ooo. Houses were rapidly built and let at high prices. 
Parker House , the hotel situated in the Square was let at 
^40,000 yearly. The same rise in the value of land took 
place in Sacramento also. 

The principal mines wxre soon transformed into towns, 
and Nevada City, Grass-valley, Rough and Ready, Coloma, 
Sonora, Mariposa, had, in 1851, between three and five 
thousand inhabitants each. Now^ that the o-old dust and 
nuggets are getting more scarce, mines of auriferous quartz 
are worked with machines, mills, etc., galleries and wells are 
dug, and everything is done on scientific principles, canals for 
the washing of gravels containing gold are constructed, 
activity reigns supreme, and the works will soon reach the 
bowels of the earth and extract from it a large quantity of the 
precious metal. Many are the companies which have been 
formed for that purpose. The mines are divided in two 
categories, the w^et-diggings and the dry-diggings. In the 



6S CALIFORNIA. 

wet-diggings gold is collected in the slime of torrents, rivers, 
and brooks, the gold is distributed equally, and the result is 
certain. They are worked in a very simple manner, and 
require very few apparatus. One tin basin is all that is 
necessary. 

As much auriferous earth is put in the basin as it will 
contain, and sunk in the water, being shaken about with the 
hand. All pebbles are taken away by hand, and by moving 
the basin in a semi-circular way, the light earth is gradually 
carried away. Gold, being heavier than the earth, has a 
a tendency to remain at the bottom, where it lays mixed 
with black sand. This is easily disposed of by blowing upon, 
and the gold dust is put away in a leather bag which the 
miner always carries in his belt, along with his revolver and 
bowie knife. 

As can be seen, it is very primitive, and much gold is 
lost by such a process. That is the reason why several 
companies have been formed for the washing of the refuse 
of the first miners with mercury, and have been doing well. 

In the dry-diggings it is only a matter of looking for the 
nuggets in the interstices of rocks. Sometimes much gold is 
found, and at others none at all. It depends entirely on 
chance, although there are some miners called buscoiies 
(searchers), who have had great experience, and know more 
or less where to look for the metal. Some laro^e nuo-prets of 
pure gold, weighing several pounds, have been found in that way. 

From 1848 to the middle of 1852, 174 millions, 780 
thousand, 877 dollars are said to have been extracted from the 
mines of California ; but it is probable that it is under- 
estimated, because a large quantity of gold must have been 
found in the years 1848-49 on which no report has ever been 
made. It is estimated that the extraction of 1852 alone 
reached the fabulous amount of sixty millions of dollars, or 
£12,000,000. All the other mines of the world did not pro- 
duce half that sum during the same year. The ordinary pay 
for miners when working for companies was £,1 per day for 
outdoor work, and £1 los. for underground work. 

In the dry-diggings, the work can be done profitably only 
during six months, March to July. In the other months, the 
scarcity of water makes them unprofitable. The best season 
for working the wet-diggings is during the fall of water from 
June to November. During the remainder of the year, less 
profit is made, and the melting of snow in the spring stops 
all the works. 



MINING LAWS. 69 

To be a good miner requires strength and moral 
energy. One must know a little of several handicrafts, such 
as digger, stone-cutter, ploughman, bricklayer and wood- 
cutter, be able to resist the intensity of the sun's rays, the 
humidity of the dew and rain, and so forth. In fact it requires 
a fine constitution and the habit of hard working, as well as 
to be able to fight against the Indian or others, for the preser- 
vation of one's property. 

No other title is required than possession. Everyone has 
a right to forty five feet in length on the bank of the river or 
elsewhere with the power to follow the gold vein as far as it 
goes in the adjacent hills. For a larger site, it requires the 
association of several individuals. In the quartz mines, no 
special rule is fixed about the size of the claim for each indi- 
vidual. Property exists as long as work is resumed. But if 
work is entirely abandoned during ten days, anyone can take 
possession of it. To this simple and rational system is due 
the extraordinary extent of the excavations on all sides. 

Soon after the discovery of gold, all sorts of bad characters 
from all countries invaded the mines. Robberies and murders 
were very frequent, in consequence of which committees of 
public safety were formed and the Lynch Law was applied 
with excessive severity. In a very short time, judgment and 
execution were carried out. 

But as a rule a cordial understanding existed between all 
the miners. Close together you found representatives of all 
countries, American, Indian, German, Russian, French, 
English, Spanish, Italian, Chinese, etc. The latter is the 
most patient, the French the gayest, the German, American 
and English the most industrious and obstinate. Never before 
has such a cosmopolitan work as that of the Californian mines 
ever been seen, and there is no doubt that the discovery of 
gold in California opened a new era in the history of the 
world. 

As I shall have to write ag^ain about California in des- 
cribmg my second voyage to that countrv, in 1877, I shall 
leave it for the present, and continue the relation of my 
travels. 



yo ACAPULCO. 



CHAPTER VIII. 




Departure from San Francisco — At Sea — Arrival at Acapnlco — 
Acapulco — Its Population — Department of Guerrero — Principal 
Rivers — Pearl Fisheries — Chilpancingo — Ruins of Xochicalco — 
Quetzalcoatl — Expeditions of Cortez — General Alvarez — Pintos — 
Mineral Wealth. 



^N the 1 8th of August, 1852, I embarked on the ship 
Heva, Captain Magne, bound for San Juan del Sur. 
At first, we had very bad weather and contrary winds, and 
made little progress. After that, we had some calms, w^hich 
were very trying, although fish was very abundant. We 
caught doradoes, bonitas and another called black-fish, or 
Sea Perch. These fishes were in such plenty that we caught 
over two hundred of them in a few hours. It was a welcome 
addition to our diet, which was very limited, and consisted 
chiefly of preserves, salt meat and pork. 

Although its flesh is rather tough, we liked it, and we ate 
them fried, boiled in bouillabaise, and in matelotes. 

Every day it rained at certain hours, and in such abund- 
ance that it was scarcelv credible. 

When in the latitude of Acapulco, and very near that 
port, where we had to call in order to renew our provisions, 
the wind abated suddenly, and for eight days we experienced, 
in a certain way, the torment of Tantalus, that of seeing the 
harbour without being able to effect an entrance. There are 
only two channels to effect an entrance in the harbour, one 
wide, but very dangerous on account of the many rocks wdth 
which it is strewed ; the other safe, but so narrow that scarcely 
two ships can pass at a time. 

Every day we came close to that pass but could not get 
in, and we were obliged to go at large again. 

After eight days of these manoeuvres we were at last 
successful, and entered the bay of Acapulco on the loth of 
October. This bay is very fine, and about six miles in 
circumference. It is sheltered from all sides, which makes it 
very safe, but very warm. It looks more like a lake than 



ASPPXT OF THE TOWN. 7 1 

anything else. The water is always calm and fish is extremely 
abundant. 

The town is small and built at the foot of the hills 
which surround the bay. Excepting the military residence 
and churches, very few good houses were to be seen, the bulk 
of them being more like Indian huts than anything else, the 
best made of adobes and covered with palm leaves. In 1852, 
its population was about 3,000, but it had been rapidly increas- 
ing for the last few years, in consequence of its having been 
selected as a port to put into, by the American company 
of steamers plying between San Francisco, Nicaragua, and 
Panama. 

During the domination of the Spaniards this port was 
celebrated as the one from which all the Spanish galleons 
w'ent to, or returned from Mexico to the Philippine Islands. 
It was also an important military station and the centre of the 
pearl fisheries. Its population was composed of four classes 
of inhabitants, white, black, Indian and Chinese, with all their 
varieties. The blacks are robust, but very indolent, and the 
others more so. There were four large American hotels 
receiving the passengers, who were constantly passing through. 
Gambling houses were also conspicuous. 

In the rainy season it is considered unhealthy, in conse- 
quence of the marshes which surround the town. Fevers are of 
a bad character and common ; but I did not hear that the vomito, 
or yellow fever had ever made an appearance. In the dry 
season it is healthy enough, but always very warm. Close to 
the town is a mountain called the Telegraph, in consequence 
of one of those establishments built on the top of it. It is a 
fine walk, and there is a splendid sea view from its summit. 
This mountain has been partly cut by the Spaniards. If the 
work had been completed, it is certain that the salubrity of 
Acapulco would have greatly benefited by it, as it would have 
been the means to bring over sea breeze to the town. Even 
what has been done by the Spaniards is remarkable, and has 
done some sfood. 

There is another fine walk, that of the town to the fort 
which defends the entry of the harbour. It is planted with 
fine trees and is a great resort for the population. 

Indian women have drinking stalls placed along this 
walk and supply lemonade and other refreshing drinks at a 
moderate price 

The market is well supplied with provisions, especially 
chickens, eggs, and fruit of all descriptions. Plantains, 



72 ACAPULCO. 

oranges, and cocoanuts are abundant, and can be had at a 
nominal price. The Indians who sell these commodities are 
very interesting to look at. 

The aspect of the country is pleasant, and in the dry 
season many pleasant excursions can be made in the suburbs. 

That part of the town inhabited by the Indians is 
spangled with rocks and stones, as if it had been destroyed 
one time or other by earthquakes. Besides the steamers 
plying between Nicaragua. Panama, and San Francisco, there 
was a line of small steamers plying between Acapulco, San 
Bias and Mazatlan. This gave a certain animation to the place. 

From Acapulco to Mexico there is 340 miles. It can be 
done in eight days on horseback, but the road is rather bad 
in the rainy season, although safe enough, excepting near 
Mexico. They are actually building a railway between the two 
cities. The principal towns between Acapulco and Mexico are 
Chilpancingo, Iguala and Cuernavaca. Several villages and 
haciendas are also met with ; the principal are : Hacienda de 
Buena Vista, Mescala, Tepecoalcuilco, Hacienda del Plata- 
nillo, Puente de Ixtla, Alpuyeca, Huitzilac, Cruz del Marqués, 
Topilejo and Tepepa. 

Acapulco belongs now to the State of Guerrero. 
Formerly it formed part of that of Mexico. As I shall not 
have to speak again of that country, I shall give a history of 
it now. 

The State or Department of Guerrero occupies in latitude 
from 16'^ 36' S.E., to ly*^' 6' N.O. ; in longitude, gS*^' 37' to 
100^ 22' of the meridian of Greenwich, forming a direct line 
of 400 coast miles. 

Its limits are, on the north, the Departments of 
Michoacan, Mexico and Puebla ; on the east, the Department 
of Oaxaca. Its coasts, which comprise about 400 miles in a 
north-western to a south-eastern direction, are washed by the 
Pacific Ocean. Its superficial area is about 17,724 square 
miles, attaining the length of 330 miles and a width of 159 
miles in its wider parts. Its actual population is about 
350,000 and Chilpancingo is the capital of the Department. 

Its principal rivers are Sabana, Papagayo, San Marcos, 
and Coyuca. The first has its source in the mountain of 
Brea, and empties itself into the lake of Naguala. The 
Papagayo springs from the mountain of Jaliaca, in the distri6l 
of Acapulco, and falls into the Pacific. It is the most 
important, and in the rainy season it can only be crossed in 
boats. During the domination of Spain a bridge was begun 



PEARL FISHERIES. 7J 

at the Peregrino passage, but it lias remained so until the 
present time, and tlie materials are scattered in all 
directions. Being on the route to the Capital, it would be 
very important to have it built, this being a dangerous 
passage for travellers. 

San Marcos river, which is only 21 miles long, springs 
from the mountain of Santa Elena and empties itself into the 
Pacific. Coyuca River springs from the Sierra and falls into 
the Pacific. There are three lakes in the district, that of 
Nacruala, San Marcos and Coyuca. Fish are abundant, and 
a large quantity are caught and sent in the interior. 

The only port of importance is Acapulco. The pearl 
fisheries, which scarceK' exist now, were at a time one of the 
principal industries of the district. They are of good water, 
and many splendid specimens have been gathered at different 
times. Some years later, south of Acapulco, between that 
port and Tehuantepec, I have seen many heaps of shells, 
which proves that pearl fisheries of consequence exist all 
alono- the Pacific Coast. I don't know if thev are there still, 
but if such is the case, it would be worth sending a vessel 
there and pick them up, these shells having a good market 
value in Europe. 

The chief market for pearls on the Pacific is Mazatlan, 
a port north of Acapulco. Large quantities are annually 
gathered in the coasts surrounding that port, but the bulk of 
them are small and called Mostacilla, or mustard seed. The 
large and perfect round ones are scarce and valuable, even 
there. 

The shell found on the Pacific Coasts which produces 
pearls appear to me to be a species of Oyster, Ostrea, and 
not a Meleagriiia , or Avicula, as in the Indian Seas. 

It is said that all shells containing pearls are easy of 
detection, having external excrescences corresponding to the 
internal cavities containing the pearls. Smooth and perfect 
shells do not contain pearls according to the fishermen. 

If this is true, and I am of that opinion, much time would 
be spared in the gathering of them, as also a great many 
could be returned to their element for future use, as explained 
under. 

It is a well-known fact that pearls are the product of a 
secretion of the animal, which is produced by irritation. 
When the shell opens its valves, if by accident sand or such- 
like finds its entrance inside, the animal is so much irritated 
by it, that it begins to secrete mother of pearl and covers the 



74 ACAPULCO. 

foreign matter with it. Hence the pearl ! This is so well- 
known in China, Japan, and other Asiatic countries, that the 
natives gather oysters, open them, and introduce round shots 
or beads, or such-like, for the animals to cover them with 
mother of pearl. 

After a certain time, they gather the shells, destroy them, 
and take out the pearls obtained by that process, which could 
be applied also to the Pacific oysters, and I have no doubt 
that the industrious, who should undertake to create pearls by 
the Asiatic process, on more scientific principles, would reap 
a good and valuable harvest. 

Pearl fisheries, as they are conducted at the present, are 
like a lottery. It may pay, or it may not. The fishermen 
sell the shells without knowing if they contain pearls, and 
the speculator buys them also without knowing what they con- 
tain. But if what I said above, about the exterior deformities 
to be seen on the shells containing pearls is true, with proper 
care it would be easy to distinguish at once the shells contain- 
ing the pearls, and probably the best of them would be found 
in the shells most deformed. It is a very interesting study 
to make, and I call the attention of scientists and merchants 
to it. 

The boats used for the fishing of pearls are about ten to 
twelve yards in length and having from four to six oars a side. 
A sufficient store of water and provisions for eight or ten 
days is carried. 

They start for the pearl banks from the beginning of 
June to the end of September, the usual time for fishing these 
molluscs. As many expert divers are taken as the boat 
can accommodate. They are under the command of 
the Arma dor or chief, who is generally well paid. He 
is responsible for everything. It is he who advances 
money to the divers, and who buys pearls from others, 
if he has the opportunity. He selects the banks to be 
worked, supplies food to all his men, and in fact is the 
representative of the merchant who employs him. When on 
the bank, he supplies the divers with victuals, a knife, and a 
quarter-of-a-yard of blue cloth or baize. He remains on the 
bank until the loading of the boat is completed. After 
deducting a fifth of the whole of the shells raised for the 
Government, two heaps are made wdth the remainder, the 
Armador selects the one he pleases, the other belongs to 
the merchant who supplied the money. 

Of late, I think that the Mexican Government has given 



PEARL FISHKRIES. 75 

up its share of the shells, and replaced it with a small tax of 
eight shillings for each diver employed. 

The divers are provided with two meals a day. The 
divine beeins about eleven a.m. and ends at two in the 
afternoon. The depth of the banks varies from three to 
twelve fathoms. The quantity of pearls procured by six 
boats is evaluate to four or five pounds weight, worth from 

;f 1500 to ;£2000. 

There are many places where the divers are afraid 
of going down on account of the sharks and rnantas, or 
large poulps. They are more afraid of these last than of 
sharks. It is very seldom that the sharks have the upper- 
hand of them. They keep them away wdth a small stick, and 
if necessary they make a good use of their knife. Opposite 
the Island of Tiburon, situated in la Paz, (Lower California) 
it has always been considered a good place for the fishing of 
pearl oysters. This island is inhabited by the Ceris Indians. 
These Indians guard jealously that part of their territory, and 
occasionally they bring pearls and careys (tortoise shells) to 
la Paz for sale. 

The capital of this department is Chilpancingo, nine 
miles from Guerrero, the former capital. It has a population 
of about 4,000 inhabitants, but the port of Acapulco, although 
with a less population, is the most important city of the 
Department. It is the residence of a chief magistrate, the 
Captain of the Port, a municipal council, and several judges. 
The Custom House gives employment to about fifty persons. 
The fort has a garrison consisting of one com.pany of infantry 
and one company of artillery. 

The chapel of Nuetra Senora da la Soledad is used 
as the parish church, since the destruction of the latter, bv an 
earthquake in 1790. 

The principal articles of exportation were cattle, sheep, 
pigs, fowls, turtles, eggs, beans, rice, sugar, vegetables, and 
fruits, amounting to about £5000 in 1852. Those of impor- 
tation w^ere flour, spirits and wines, conserves, furniture and 
all sorts of European fancy articles, but the demand was 
limited. 

It is in this department that the celebrated ruins of 
Xochicalco are situated at 60 miles from Mexico and 271 
miles from Acapulco. It is one of the most important and 
finest ruins of the primitive inhabitants of that countrv. 

Xochicalco, in Mexican, means flower's house" It is 
thought that it was dedicated to Quetzalcoatl, the white 
bearded man supposed by some to be Saint Thomas, 



yô ACAPULCO. 

Here is a revised and enlarged description of that which I 
gave of tliis ruin in the Etnographical Review of Paris, in 1887. 

The hill on which the palace or temple of Xochicalco was 
built is the work of men, or at least it looks so ; because it is 
■entirely covered with stones, so that if the centre contains 
natural earth or rocks, it is impossible to know it from the 
outside. It occupies about three miles in circumference. 

It is surrounded with a wide and deep ditch. In form, it 
is conical and divided into five strata or terraces of different 
heights plastered with large stones. It is about 330 yards 

The said terraces are not horizontal, but inclined to the 
south-east. On the summit, there is an oblong platform, 
which from the north to the south is 92 yards wide against 
98 from east to west. This platform is circummured to a 
height of over two yards, but, unfortunately, little remains of 
of these walls, the stones having been carried away and made 
use of in the building of their haciendas (large farms) by the 
landlords of the neighbouring lands, and not only they have 
taken away the stones of the walls, but also many remarkable 
carved stones which adorned the walls of the temple. 

In the middle of the platform is the temple of Xochicalco, 
a very old ruin supposed to have been built by the Toltecs, 
the first inhabitants of Mexico, of which a record exists. This 
temple, which was probably also a fortress, is still called, the 
Castillo, or fortress. 

Alzate, the well-known Mexican historian, says : that the 
temple was five storeys high, but according to Nebel, who 
says that he has seen the ruins of three portals on the second 
storey, it is supposed that it was only two storeys high, these 
portals, or doors, indicating that they were the entrances of 
the temple in which their religious exercises took place. To- 
day only part of the first storey exists, the south corner of the 
second storey was still in existence in 1877. 

In the principal room existed a Chimotatle, or throne, cut 
in one single stone, well polished and covered with hiero- 
glyphics. No one knows what has become of it. Probably 
it will be found one day in an Indian hut, in the surrounding 
districts. 

It is admirable to see how the mason's work has been 
done. All the stones used in the construction of the temple 
have been well polished, and so well joined together, without 
any apparent use of mortar, that it is almost impossible to see 
the joints. When finished, it has been covered with hiero- 



HUINS OF XOCHICALCO. 77 

o-lvphics and Heures, amonp- vvlii(^li the most c:onsnicuous are 
those of the corners representing dratroons ejecting water trom 
their mouth, and all along the building, figures of warriors 
seated w^ith their legs across one another, and with their heads 
covered with helmets adorned with long plumes of green 
feathers and the head of a snake. Other remains of small 
animals, flowers, etc., are also to be seen, but it is difficult to 
make out some of them. 

It is a wonder how these Indians could build such a fine 
and solid building, if we consider that a prodigious quantity 
of large stones was required for it, and no quarry of the 
same stone as used, has yet been found in the neighbourhood. 
From whence they came, how they managed to carry them 
there, and heave them up to the summit of the hill, is a 
matter of amazement, when we consider that machines were 
unknown. 

Another remarkable fact which this temple has in 
common with all similar Mexican antiquities, is that the 
four frontages correspond exactly W\\h. the four cardinal 
points of north, south, east, and west, as it is also the case 
with the Egyptian pyramids, which clearly show that they 
were experts in astronomy. The first story is twelve yards 
high, including the cornices, and sculptured all along. Some 
of the ligures occupy two or three stones, showing that they 
have been done after the completion of the temple. From 
what remains of the second storv it must have been of the 
same height. Some remains of vermilion can still be seen, 
and it is probable that all the temple w^as painted of that colour. 

In the neighbouring hill of Tepeyoculco exists a mine of 
cinnabar, which has probably supplied the colour. 

The quality of the stone of this valuable architecture is a 
sort of pale gray stone, like that employed in the millstones 
of Europe, and this is the reason why it has been so much 
sought after by the farmers, for the construction of ovens and 
such like. Each stone is two yards long, one yard wide, and 
one vard thick. Those of the corners are still largfer. 

The ditch, which surrounds the hill, the covering of the 
terraces, the wall which protects the platform, all tend to 
show that it must have been built for the purpose of a fortress, 
as well as that of a temple. 

The hill presents the aspect of a large snail. 

As it was impossible to climb over the wall, from one 
terrace to the other, it was necessary to walk a distance of 
about six miles before reaching the platform. 



78 ACAPULCO. 

This shows that the Indians of that epoch were experts 
in the military art, as nothing better for defensive purposes 
could be done, even at the present time. 

All the platform was surrounded with a thick wall, tw^o 
yards high, from which they could successfully defend its 
entrance. 

On the north side, at the foot of the first terrace, is the 
entrance of a cave or subterraneous place, giving access to 
several passages, the principal of which ends in a large 
room, fourteen yards long and twelve wide. Remains of the 
stone pillars could still be seen. The floor was covered with 
lime painted red, the same as the walls. 

In one corner exists an opening of conical form, by 
which air and light entered in the room. 

It is said that communication existed between this room 
and the temple above. 

If the Indian who acted as alcade (mayor) in 1877 is to 
be trusted, another subterraneous passage considerably 
greater, existed between the hill and the suburbs, having 
an exit several miles away. I should not be at all surprised 
at this, as the same exists in other ancient Mexican fortresses 
which I have visited. 

These subterraneous places were made for the purpose 
of supplying the fortress with victuals and water, and also as 
a way of escape in case of emergency. 

In 1769 a large sculptured stone, representing an Indian 
devoured by an eagle, could be seen west of the hill, on the 
road to Miacatlan. It was a fine work of art. In 1877, 
when Alzate visited the ruins, he found only some fragments 
of it on which he perceived traces of the eagle. 

From the hill, four roads went north, south, east and west. 
One of them leads to the town of Xochicalco, which must 
have been a place of importance at one time or another. The 
actual village of Xochicalco stands south of the ruin at a 
short distance. 

I am of opinion that this temple was built in honour 
of Quetzalcoatlj who was considered to be a god by the 
Indians. 

The word Quetzalcoatl signifies green feathered snake,, 
from quetzal, green feathers and coatl snake. 

The warrior who is constantly sculptured on the walls of 
the temple has his helmet adorned with plumes of long green 
feathers, in the centre of which is the head of a snake. It is 
a representation of the green feathered snake, or Quetzalcoatl . 



RUINS OF XOCHICALCO. 79 

The feathers are those of the bird known as Quetzal^ 
by the Indians of Quetzaltenango, and those of Central 
America, where the bird is rather common. It is the 
"^Pharofnacrus Mocinœ of la Llave, or Lono^-tailed Trocron, 
in Enorlish, Couroiicoit in F'rench, the finest bird of 
America. 

It has two lone orolden-^reen middle tail feathers about 
one vard lone- 

The helmet has the shape of a mitre, and corresponds 
exactly with what the historians Clavijero, Sahagun, Solis and 
others say about Cholula, another temple, not very far off,, 
built also in honour of Quetzalcoatl. 

Ouetzalcoatl, the Mexican god, is supposed to be the 
founder of the celebrated Tullan or Tula. When that town 
was deserted by his order, he came to Cholula, but this 
emigration took a long time and it is reasonable to suppose that 
he stopped and remained some time in Xochicalco. From 
Cholula it is supposed that he went to Goatzacualco where he 
embarked. But I think that if he really went there, he passed 
lirst to Oaxaca, near which city, he built the now famous 
ruins of M it la, and from there, went to Quetzaltenango 
and Central America, or possibly, from the latter place to 
Guatzacualco. Lastlv the name of Xochicalco, or House of 
Flowers, is also in fav^our of my opinion; as it is a well known 
fact in the ancient history of Mexico that Quetzalcoatl is the 
one, who first abolished human sacrifices among these people, 
and replaced them with sacrifices of animals and flowers.. 
Now it only remains to say that the first inhabitants of that 
department must have been ToltecSj afterwards Chichimecs, 
and it is not certain that they were under the dependence of 
Moctezinna, when Mexico was conquered by Fernando Cortez. 
It is more probable that like their neighbours, the Indians of 
Mechoacan, they were independent from the Mexicans. 

The resume of all this is, that when Cortez conquered 
Mexico it was not until later on, about 1522, that he heard from 
Sincicha, the King of Mechoacan, who submitted peacefully 
to his authority, about the countries, whose coasts are washed 
by the Pacific Ocean. Cortez sent several expeditions to ex- 
plore these countries, wdiich resulted in the discovery of the 
Pacific Coast, from Tehuantepec to the Gulf of California. 
Meanwhile, he retired for a time from Mexico, and built a 
fine residence in Cuernavaca. 

*See Humming Bird, 1891, Vol. i, pp. 6, 18, ig. 

9 



8o ACAPULCO. 

It was in the course of these expeditions that Hernando 
de Grixalva discovered the coasts of California in 1534; but 
Acapulco was already known to Cortez, as in some of the 
letters which he wrote to Charles Quint he mentions the pearls 
found on the coasts of Acapulco. In 1535 he embarked 
with 400 Spaniards and 300 slaves, and explored the Gulf of 
California, known afterwards as Sea of Cortez. It was during 
this voyage that the new Vice-King, Antonio de Mendoza, 
Avas sent to Mexico. 

Nevertheless, Cortez proceeded with his voyages of 
discoveries in California, and for a long time nothing was 
heard of him. News of his death reached Mexico. His wife, 
Juana de Zuniga, sent an expedition for the purpose of ascer- 
taining what truth there was in that report, which turned out 
to be false. Cortez, after many perils, reached safely the 
port of Acapulco. This is the first time that the name of 
Acapulco is mentioned in the history of the conquest of 
Mexico. Francisco de Ulloa, with instructions from Cortez 
and at the expense of the latter, continued the voyage of 
discovery, so well inaugurated by Cortez, and during a 
navigation of two years, explored the coasts of the Gulf of 
California up to Rio Colorado. 

As I said before Acapulco was a very important port and 
remained so during the Spanish dominion, and is now quickly 
recovering its importance. 

When the railway, in course of construction from Acapulco 
to Mexico, will be concluded, it is probable that a large traffic 
will take place between the two cities, and will greatly increase 
the prosperity of the first. 

The State of Guerrero has given birth to the celebrated 
General, Don Juan Alvarez, who entered Mexico with his 
troops on the 15th of November, 1855, and occupied the 
Presidential chair until the i ith of December of the same 
year, when he renounced it, in favour of General Comonfort. 
On the igth of December, General Juan Alvarez retired for 
the south with his troops. 

Alvarez, a native of the State of Guerrero, and Comon- 
fort, pronounced against the government of Santa Anna on 
the 2ist of July, and contributed greatly to the fall of the 
latter. He was victorious in many battles, and the end of it 
was his entry in the capital, and his proclamation as President 
of the Republic. But unaccustomed to the court, he soon had 
enough of it, and returned with his followers, all volunteers, 
to his farm house. 



INDIAN PiNTOS. 8 1 

A peculiarity of some of the inhabitants of the State af 
Guerrero, but which is sometimes seen in other tropical 
countries, is the sight of the Pintos (spotted Indians). 

The inhabitants, to which the name of Pintos is applied, 
have certain parts of their body spotted with white stains about 
the size of a sixpence. It does not matter what is the colour 
of the person who is so spotted, black, yellow, or white, the 
white stain is lustrous and conspicuous, and gives them a 
curious appearance, especially to the blacks. The effect of 
these white stains on their black skin is rather ludicrous. 
It is a cutaneous malady of which very little is known. 
Entire villages are affected with that maladv, and I confess 
that I had some hesitation in eating tortillas, (a sort of pancake 
made of maize, the bread of the country), cooked and manipu- 
lated by the hands of stained women ; but it seems that there 
is no risk in doing so. This curious malady is only catching 
by inoculation and cohabitation of the sexes. 

I have known a rich Spaniard willing to pay a large 
sum to anyone able to cure him ; but I really do not 
know whether it is curable. If it is, I am afraid that it would 
require a long time. 

Those who are so affected, feel a great itching in these 
parts, and are constantly seen scratching themselves, and 
taking of their skin, a sort of scaly skin powder, quite visible to 
the eye. Besides they smell badly. In the tier ras cal lent es 
(hot countries) few are the inhabitants of the State of 
Guerrero who are not affected by this malady, to which I call 
the attention of the medical profession. 

I will conclude my narrative about the State of Guerrero, 
by calling the attention of enterprising miners to the various 
metals and precious stones found in that State. Rich placers 
-of gold have been found in San-Jose — Piedras-blancas, and 
manv more are said to exist. Silver, which is found abun- 
dantly and nearly pure, is worked in the mines of Tasco, 
Tehuilotepec, and Juliantla. Silver and gold mixed, in 
Tepaiititlan, Cinnabria or Quick-silver, is abundant in all the 
State, as are also copper, lead and iron. Coal has also been 
found in several places. Sulphur and saltpetre are abundant. 
In precious stones, amethyst is very common, and I have been 
told that rubies, topazes, emeralds, and even diamonds are to 
be found. During the War of Independence, some white 
crystals of a good size, were given to General Guerrero, by 
one of his soldiers, as having been found in the State, and 
when presented to a lapidary in Mexico, he declared that 



S2 ACAPULCO. 

they were most valuable diamonds ! Therefore, I believe that 
enterprising parties with capital, could not do better than to 
explore the State of Guerrero for its mines, and probably the 
result will be very satisfactory. 



AT SEA. 83 



CHAPTER IX. 




Sailing from x^capulco — At Sea — Arrival at Nicaragua — San 
Juan del Sur — Its Climate — Population — Tropical Forests — 
Luxuriant Vegetation — Animal Life — Birds and Butterflies — 
Transformation of Species — la Virgen — Lake of Nicaragua — 
Mountains of Ometepeque and Madera. 



|N the 1 8th of October, after having made a large 
provision of cocoanuts, plantains, oranges and lemons, 
we went on board our ship and sailed from Acapulco, en route 
to San Juan del Sur. 

Up to the 5th of November, the day of our arrival to that 
bay, we experienced changeable weather, tempests, calms, 
and good breezes, accompanied with warm weather ; but this 
second part of our voyage was not so unpleasant as the first, 
as we were always at a seeing distance off the coasts of 
Mexico and Central America. 

Manv were the beautiful sun-sets seen, and we were 

■J ^ > 

never tired of such magnificent spectacles. We also saw a 
prodigious number of hsh, sharks, porpoises, dolphins, bonitos, 
doradoes, etc., and fortunately for us we took a good many, 
which helped us considerably in our diet, the Captain having 
been very parsimonious in his purchases, and treating us very 
poorlv in that respect. Our ship was also visited by a con- 
siderable number of birds, especially some c^SS.^^ fools, ov fous 
in French, fSula bassana ?) , gulls, sterns, peterhills, and 
others. We took a good many and made some tine skins with 
them. These birds were easily caught. They perched on 
the yards, and at night, some of the sailors went up with a 
bag, caught them by the legs, and put them in the bag. 
The ship's cat caught also a good many of the smaller ones. 
Cephalopods, of the genus Nautilus, were also seen in great 
abundance, with their sail opened and floating on the sea. 
Many were caught to experience with, the electric shock which 
is one of their means of defence, but we returned them to their 
element soon after. 

On the 5th of November, we arrived at San Juan del 



84 NICARAGUA. 

Sur, a miserable bay opened on all sides, and in which ships 
and steamers are obliged to anchor at a good distance from 
land. 

We had been eighty days, including our stay of eight 
days at Acapulco, on our way from San Francisco to San 
Juan. A very long time for a distance of 3,800 miles, but 
this was partly due to the bad weather, contrary winds, calms, 
and also the bad condition of our ship. So it is easy to 
conceive our joy on that day. We had quite enough of 
the bad living and incommodities of this voyage. 

San Juan del Sur, in 1852, was a very small place, 
consisting; of Indian huts, hidden in the o-reenness of a 
tropical vegetation, and several hotels hastily built, to supply 
the wants of the numerous passengers passing constantly 
through, from New York to San Francisco and vice-versa. In 
the American hotel, the charges were twelve shillings a day, 
and in the French, from eight to ten shillings. I went in 
the last. 

I remained five weeks in San Juan, and the rainy season 
being not quite over yet, I was able to collect a good many 
insects, chiefly Coleoptera (beetles) and Lepidoptera 
(butterflies). 

During that month, I saw several large arrivals of 
passengers going to, or returning from San Francisco. 

As a rule, those coming from North America, or from 
Europe were in better health and spirit than those returning 
home. Many of the latter fell sick at San Juan, and could 
not continue their voyage. Some died and were buried forth- 
with. I heard that hotel keepers and others had something 
to do in the matter, being the natural heirs of the dead. I 
cannot say that this rumour was false or true, but what I 
can certify is that the climate of this miserable place is 
very unhealthy during the rainy season, which lasts from 
May to December, and even more sometimes. All passengers 
passing through the isthmus should select the months of 
January to May. The inhabitants of the place consisted of 
a mixture of black, white and Indians, with a few Americans 
and other strangers. 

The Indians and blacks suffered as much from the fevers 
as the others, and were poor representatives of their respective 
races. The vegetation of the neighbourhood of San Juan was 
quite remarkable and magnificent. It was my first sight of a 
tropical country and its forests. Nothing can compare with the 
magnificence of a tropical forest. It is so sublime and 



TROPICAL FORKSTS. 85 

imposing that the first impression felt is that of melancholy, 
and the sad feeling of how little we are in this world in com- 
parison with the works of the Creator. Each time that I have 
entered a virgin tropical forest, that I have ascended the 
summit of a large mountain, that I have been facing the 
Ocean, or even the immense Mexican prairies, I have felt the 
same impression, that of our insignificance in regard of such 
magnitude. 

It is quite impossible for those who have not travelled, to 
have an idea of that sensation, although it may be felt even 
by them if they are of a contemplative mood. The study of 
astronomy, the contemplation of the sky, of high mountains^ 
of the sea, of vast horizons, will produce the same effect to 
those of a sensitive mind. 

I really do not know which sight is more effective. 
Although all of them point to the same end, that of our 
insignificance, the emotions are quite distinct one from 
another. 

In putting foot in a virgin forest you feel melancholy. 
In attaining the summit of a high mountain, or in discovering 
the wide horizon of the sea, or prairies, you may feel the 
same impression ; but it is mitigated by the magnificent 
sceneries displayed to your view, and you cannot do less than 
remain in contemplation before them. 

In the tropical forests, where the sun never penetrates 
among the thick foliage of the trees, shady even at noonday, 
rich in the beauty and the variety of their luxuriant foliage, the 
immense variety of trees and creepers hanging from bough to 
bough, you feel more than anywhere else your loneliness. 
At every pace, you expect the sudden meeting of jaguars,, 
pumas, or other ferocious animals, but you seldom see 
any. One would think that a large number of animals 
must exist in these forests, but it is not so. It is only on the 
banks of rivers, or in the openings, that life is abundant. 
Possibly the interior of the forest is inhabited, but its in- 
habitants are so scattered that they are hardly seen at all. 
It seems as if all that luxuriant vegetation had no other 
purpose than to be the sleeping resort of birds and animals. 

As soon as the day appears or disappears, it is a perfect 
cacophony. Wild screams of animals and birds are heard in 
all directions. The roaring of the jaguars and pumas, the 
howling of the monkeys, the discordant shrieks of the parrots, 
the screaming and chirping of birds, are all heard at one and 
the same time. It IS INDESCRIBABLE ! 



86 NICARAGUA. 

The whole of them are looking for a resting place, or are 
starting in search of their daily food. 

In the middle of a line day, when everything is in a state 
of repose, no sound is to be heard ; the fall of a single leaf, 
the sudden rising of a bird, the flying or the sing of 
insects, make you start and look around. On the contrary, 
when the wind is blowing with impetuosity, the cracking of 
the trees, the fall of trees and branches, and the frightened 
animals seeking for a place of safety, produce a terrific noise, 
and you feel a sort of terror. 

In the tropics, there is no winter, the trees are always 
adorned with their leaves, flowers, or seeds. Numerous trees, 
among which the beautiful palms, the gracious fern trees, the 
majestic bombax, cedar, mahogany, syphonia, and other large 
trees elevating their heads above all the others, are con- 
spicuous. Creepers and climbing plants descend in all 
directions from the tops of the trees to the soil, reascending 
again and intermixing one with another in an inextricable con- 
fusion. Large quantities of parasitical plants, flowering orchids, 
bromelaciae and others, are seen in all nooks and corners, 
and cover entirely the trunks of the giants of the forest, per- 
fuming the air with their sweet aroma. On the soil, fallen 
seeds have developed into young plants and another vegeta- 
tion invades all available spaces, struggling for the mastership 
one against another. Large rotten trunks of trees, the 
remains of veterans of the forest are scattered on the p-round, 
and falling to pieces, contributing with the dry leaves and the 
humidity, to the formation of a rich and fertile soil, in which 
ferns, begonias, small palms of the genus Chamaerops^ and 
others are growing fast and occupying what remains of 
available space ; but some ot the most curious are the climb- 
ing palms, which stem is generally well protected with long 
and sharp points. In search of air, by means of the hooked 
form of their leaves, they reach the top of the highest trees, 
above which, they expand their foliage and flowers. 

Next to the climbing palms are the great variety of 
climbers of all sizes and shapes. Some are very thick, 
attaining about one yard in circumference, others are slender. 
They twist around the slender stems, they drop from the 
branches, they grow along the trunks, they stretch between 
the trees, forming bridges, much used by monkeys for 
passing from one tree to another ; in fact, they seem to 
have come into existence there, for the sole benefit of these 
animals, as nothing can give a better idea of the aspect of 



ANIMAL LIFK. 87 

these plants than by comparing tliem to the numerous cordages 
of ships, or to gigantic gymnastic ropes. 

Some of them are of the greatest use to the traveller, as I 
have experienced many times. It is to supply drink when 
water is nowhere to be had, which is a common occur- 
rence in the large tracts of the primeval forests. The way 
to obtain it, is as follows : — Having selected a good sized 
climber, with the machete, (a large knife something like a 
cavalry sabre), you cut a piece about one yard long, and 
by keeping it upright, a liquid, something like sweet water, 
will trickle from it, enough to fill a large wine glass 
with. If more is required, the natural fountain is close 
by. By repeating the process, with time, you can fill 
as many glasses as you like. I learned this from the 
Indians, and it has been of much use to me at different 
times. 

Where roads or footpaths have been opened, or openings 
for plantations made, mammals, birds, insects, and land shells, 
are sure to be seen, and sometimes in quantity. Peccary (a 
sort of wild pig), many species of monkeys, squirrels, rats, 
other animals are seen feeding on the maize. In fa6l, 
thev are a pest to the Indians, who kill them whenever they 
have a chance. 

Many birds are also seen feeding on the maize, con- 
spicuous among them, are the macaws and parrots, tanagers, 
sparrows, and others. On the trees bordering the openings, 
toucans and caciques are also abundant. The Caciques 
(Cassicus) are very numerous, and live in society. They 
sele6l one or two of the highest trees and form a sort of 
cacique's rookery, hanging their long purse-shaped nests 
close to one another, the whole of which makes a curious 
sight. I think that this habit of uniting together at the 
breeding season has for its object the safety of the young. 
These birds, having the custom of assembling together, 
hght bravely and pursue any intruder approaching their 
nests. 

In the roads and foot-paths, insects of all descriptions 
are met with, but the most conspicuous are the butterflies 
belonging to the families Heliconidae, Papilionidae, and 
Morphidae. The family Heliconidae, which contains a 
large number of genera and species, is peculiar to the warm 
countries of America. These butterflies are verv abundant. 
Some have long black narrow wings, spotted with crimson, 
green or yellow ; others are yellow and black ; others have 



88 NICARAGUA. 

transparent wings. ' Their elegant shape, showy colours, and 
their slow way of flying, form quite a special feature of the 
tropical forests. So also, the beautifully coloured Morphos, 
the largest diurnal butterflies of America. The larger species 
are about five inches wide, all of them brilliantly coloured 
black and blue, sky blue all over, or opaline blue, so brilliant 
that when lighted by the sun, their appearance is dazzling, 
surpassing in beauty all other living animals. They have 
also a slow way of flying, and they are as easily caught as the 
Heliconi, but they are uncommon. 

One of the peculiarities attributed to the Heliconi is that 
they are no food for birds. Why ? I have not been able to 
ascertain ; but the fact remains that birds do not touch them, 
contrary to their usual habit with all other species, of 
w^hich they are very fond. The consequence is that other 
butterflies, especially Papilios, are met with, resembling 
so much to Heliconi in shape, colour, and other respects, that 
it is supposed to serve them as a protection for life. 

Another interesting observation which I have made with 
respect to the Heliconi is that various coloured varieties of 
one and the same species are always met with typical 
specimens. These may suddenly disappear and are replaced 
by a large quantity of one of the varieties. 

Years after, this variety may disappear also and be replaced 
by another variety. The deduction to be inferred from this 
is that when a species is represented by a large quantity of 
specimens. Nature produces the same changes that mankind 
have done with several domesticated animals, such as 
fowls, pigeons, dogs, horses, cattle, etc. 

Therefore it tends to prove that Nature is always at 
work, and making continual changes in what we call species. 
Some disappear and are replaced by new ones. It has 
been always the same from the beginning of the world, 
and will continue so to the end. 

Now-a-days we know with certainty that emigration or 
transportation of animals and plants from one climate to 
another, in the course of more or less time, will modify their 
forms and their colours, for better or for worse, to such a 
degree that they will be hardly recognisable. This is partly 
due to the climate, and partly to change of food. 

On the 15th of December, I left San Juan, and with 
several others, I started for la Virgen (the Virgin), the new 
station built on the banks of the Lake of Nicaragua, where 
small steamers w^ait for the passengers crossing the Isthmus. 



LAKE OF NICARAGI:A. 89 

It is a ride of about twelve miles. It was the first time that I 
rode. At first I enjoyed it immensely, but before arriving at 
la \'irgen, I was excessively tired and bruised. The road 
undulated amongst hills, and was very bad, but quite 
picturesque all the time and in the midst of primeval forests. If 
I had been a better rider it would have been a grand treat. 
We were six hours on the road, from San Juan to la V^ii'gen. 
This route had a very bad reputation. Robberies and murders 
were frequent. We saw the blood of a stranger murdered a 
few days before, and we also met with some bad looking faces 
on the road, but we reached the station safely at half-past five 
p.m. We went to the American hotel, a new wood building, 
where we took our quarters for the night ; but before dinner 
we went to see the celebrated Lake of Nicaragua. 

Nothing finer can be seen. This magnificent lake, one 
of the largest in Central America, is 150 miles long and go 
miles broad, with many islands, two of them, the largest, 
Ometepeque, and Madera, stand opposite la Virgen. On these 
islands, w^hich have a circumference of about 24 miles, are 
two high mountains, 5,100 and 4,000 feet in height, which 
present an imposing aspect. From la Virgen they are 
distinctly visible, from their base to their summit, and they 
appear with more effect than many other larger mountains 
that I have visited. This is due to their position in the 
middle of the lake. They overlook all the surrounding 
country. 

The islands of Ometepeque and Madera are inhabited. 
Several villages of Indians exist there. . The inhabitants 
cultivate large plantations of bananas (plantains). Cacao and 
Cocoanut trees, vegetables, etc. The fertility of the soil is 
remarkable in some parts. Three harvests of maize are 
gathered yearly. 

The population of these islands descends from the 
Aztecs or Mexicans, and is exclusively Indian. A few white 
men have inhabited these islands at different times. They 
were chiefly German. The family of the first was murdered, 
and his house burned, and shortly after he was also murdered. 
Another German who had properties on the islands abandoned 
them, and went to live at Granada. A third one was more 
successful, and was much respected by the Indians. 

Many antiquities exist on these islands, and the Indians 
still worship their idols. Animal life is plentiful, and fishes 
are abundant in the lake. 

On the 1 6th of December, I took passage in a small 



90 NICARAGUA. 

schooner, and after fourteen hours' navigation we arrived 
opposite the landing place of Granada. In consequence of 
a his[-h wind the waves w^ere rather ag-itated, and some of the 
passengers were sea-sick during the voyage. 



GRAXADA. 91 



CHAPTER X. 



Granada — The French Consnl, M. Ronhaud — Nicaragna ni 1852- 1853 — 
Intermittent Fevers — How to Cnre Them — Natural History of 
Nicaragua — Remarkable Animals found in Nicaragua — Howl- 
ing Monkey — Humming Birds — Manakins — Rare Insects peculiar 
to Nicaragua — Vegetable Kingdom — Cacao and Siphonia Trees — 
Commerce — Mines — Climate — Volcanoes — Rivers — Lakes — Prin- 
cipal Towns — Population. 

GRANADA. 

fjP^RANADA is a line town, the principal of the Republic 
^^ of Nicaragua. It is situated at about one mile and a half 
from the lake. 

Not knowing where to go, I went to the house of the 
French consul, M. Rouhaud, who received nie most hospitably. 
I remained eight days in his comfortable house, and during 
all the time M. Rouhaud and his charming wife were kindness 
itself, and I shall always remember with pleasure the time 
spent in their agreeable society. 

I had caught the fever on my way, from San Juan ta 
la Virgen, and I suffered greatly from it, but thanks to the 
excellent attendance bestowed on me, by Madam Rouhaud, it 
soon passed awav. 

The intermittent fevers, which are one of the drawbacks 
of tropical countries, are not very dangerous if properly 
attended, but are very troublesome. During the rainy season, 
which usually lasts from the end of May to December, the 
least imprudence is dangerous ; but the worst of them is get- 
tinor ^vet throua;h. Fever is sure to follow. The first sensation 
is that of feeling extremely cold. It lasts for one or two 
hours, then the reaction comes and you feel feverish. This 
lasts until abundant perspiration is produced, then the fever 
gradually disappears, and does not come again until the 
second or third day at about the same hour. Usually it comes 
every two days. After an attack of fever, you loose vour 
complexion and take the usual yellowish colour peculiar to 
the inhabitants of tropical countries. 



g2 NICARAGUA. 

The best remedy I know for combating this malady, and 
which has always proved successful with me, is the following: — 
The day after the first attack, take a medicine, castor oil or 
seidlitz powder, and immediately after, when the medicine has 
produced its effect, about 12 grains of sulphate of quinine in 
three times, several hours before the next attack of fever, so 
as to take the last dose one hour before the attack. 

On that dav the fever is more strongly felt, but one 
need not be afraid of that, as it is the effect of the quinine 
absorbed. Eigrht orrains are taken in the same manner 
before the third attack, which is already less. Six grains are 
again taken before the fourth visitation, which is usually so 
feeble that it can be considered as gone. You continue to 
take four grains when the fifth attack ought to have come, 
but it seldom comes at all, and lastly you take the two re- 
maining grains two days later. In all 32 grains. 

If you have been careful to commit no imprudence 
meanwhile, and kept a sort of semi-diet, the fever is gone for 
good. 

If you like you may continue for a time, say for about two 
or three weeks, to take one grain every day, this will be quite 
sufficient to keep the fever away. But it is prudent not to 
expose oneself to the rain, or else the fever will come again with 
certainty. The usual things to avoid in tropical countries are 
—rain, sun, fruits, and spirits. 

Americans usually take 32 grains of quinine at one gulp. 
Truly in some cases, the fever disappears almost immediately, 
but it produces such an irritation to the intestines that the 
remedy is worse than the malady. Besides the recovery is 
not so certain as with my method. 

By taking one grain of quinine every day, from the day of 
your arrival in the tropics, you may escape altogether the 
infection. 

The quinine may be taken in two different ways. The 
first is to dissolve 32 or more grains of quinine in a bottle 
of orange, claret, or sherry wines, as many grains as the 
bottle contains of small liquor glasses, so as to keep the 
proportion of one grain of quinine for each glass, taking 
care to shake the bottle each time that you make use of it. 

The second method, that which I have always used, 
is to weigh 32 grains of quinine, and to put it in a 
saucer with about the same quantity of flour. In the middle 
of it, pour six or eight drops of water, and with a knife, mix 
the whole gradually and well until it has the hrmness of paste, 



C}KANADA. 93 

work it u('ll with your fingers and extend it in length as mac- 
aroni paste, then divide it in 32 small pieces, which you detach 
separately and roll between your fingers, making them into pills. 
Each pill will contain about one grain of quinine, and will be 
easily swallowed, the flour having taken away a great part 
of the bitterness. 

Taken with wine it is a preventive, one glass being 
taken every day before breakfast. The pills are better fit for 
curative purposes. 

Kind Mr. Kouhaud found a house for me, where I made 
mvself at home. I took a female cook at a cost of ten 
shillings monthly, with board and lodging. I remained in 
Grenada from the i6th of December, 1852, to the end of 
May, 1853. 

Grenada, as I said before, is the most important city of 
Nicaragua. It lies on the north west of the lake. In 1852 its 
pupulation was about 15,000. Like all the Spanish cities it 
was built in squares, the streets crossing each other at 
right angles. The houses are usually one story high, 
verv few have a first floor. This is chieflv due to the 
frequent earthquakes. All the rooms are on the ground floor. 
They are large and the ceilings high. All of them look 
on a patio (yard), in the middle of which it is not unusual 
to see a fountain. In the best ones, covered galleries 
surround the patio, and are used as reception room.s during 
the summer. In fact it is more agreeable to sit and work 
there than inside the rooms which are badly lighted. On the 
wall supporting the galleries it is the custom to have all 
sorts of flowering plants placed upon it, which give a charming 
aspect to that part of the house. 

The rooms fronting the street have large, low windows, 
enclosed with iron railings, which are sometimes beautifully 
carved, and which gives them the appearance of gaols. In 
the afternoon and at night, it is the custom to stand or sit 
inside these windows, and to converse with the friends 
passing by in the street. When they have a first floor, there 
is also a gallery above surrounding the patio, and balconies 
facing the streets. 

During my stay, I remarked that many of the best 
houses were in a very bad condition, some completely ruined. 
Few were the monuments, several churches more or less 
damaged, the municipal Palace, the gaol built much 
the same as the private houses, so that it is quite easy to 
speak with the prisoners from the outside, several hotels, and 



94 NICARAGUA. 

the remainder shops or private houses. Living was cheap and 
regular. In the American hotel, which was a large building, 
the fare was six shillings daily, for board and lodging. In the 
French hotel four shillings. Besides these, they were mesons 
(native inns) where you could rent one room for one 
shilling a day, getting your food where you liked. Meat, 
fish, pork, fowls and eggs were always plentiful in the 
market, where you could buy also many sorts of vegetables 
and fruits, brought over by Indians from the interior. 
Plantains were very abundant and cheap. For sixpence you 
could buy an entire bunch containing from 60 to 100 fruits. 
Many sorts were seen, Guinea, Manilla, Santo Domingo, and 
others, but the most abundant were Platanos machos (Male 
Plantains) a very large one, eaten by all, instead of 
tortillas of maize, or bread. This last commodity could be 
had good and at a fair price. 

In Nicaragua, the plantain is the most important article of 
food. It is eaten raw, baked, roasted, or made into sweets. 

At first it is well liked, but it would never be supposed 
that the time would come when you could scarcely do without 
them, but it is a fact. The more you eat them, the more you like 
them. Excepting the large ones, all the other sorts are eaten 
raw, or made into sweets, but it is dangerous to eat too many. 
It is said that they contribute to engender fevers. I do not 
know how far this is true. 

T\\Q platano macho is eaten green, or half ripe, or quite 
ripe. In this last stage it is good, but not so much as the 
smaller sorts. Fried it is delicious. When green, they are 
boiled and have a very unsavoury taste, but they are farinaceous 
and replace bread advantageously. The natives usually eat 
them so. Half ripe they are roasted upon hot cinders, and 
they are exqusiite, when well done. They are then slightly 
sweet and farinaceous. I was never tired of them, when pre- 
pared in this manner. Boiled, one is enough for one meal. 
Roasted, two are the utmost which you can eat. 

The plantain belongs to the family of the Musacae. It 
is found in all tropical countries. These plants have scarcely 
any aerial stem, but shoots from subterraneous root stocks, 
from which emerge stems composed of sheathing leaf stalks. 
The leaves are flat and traversed throughout by a thick 
median rib, with simple veins running directly towards it 
from the margin. The general aspect of the plant is some- 
what like that of a palm tree. The genus, M usa, is the type 
of the family. 



PLANTAINS. 95 

The Plata no maclio (Miisa sapicntuin) , is the largest of 
the species. It has a fruit which grows sometimes to tlie 
length of twelve inclies or more. Each plant produces a 
bunch containing from twenty to sixty fruits closely grouped 
together. It weighs from thirty to one hundred pounds. 

Another common species is Miisa paradisiana , so called 
from an allusion to an old notion of beina- the forbidden fruit 
of Scripture. 

The fruits of this species are small, only about three 
inches long. When ripe, they are very delicate eating. 

Many other species are known, and all of them are used 
for food. All animals are fond of them. When over ripe, 
I have seen hundreds of beetles and butterflies feeding upon 
them, and some of the rarest species which 1 have collected 
were caught when feeding upon these fruits. I believe 
the fermented juice of the over ripe fruits intoxicate them, 
as I have always seen them more or less stupefied when 
feeding on plantains, to the point of allowing one to catch 
them easily with the hand. During the last few years, a large 
trade in these fruits has developed between the United 
States and the Atlantic ports of America and West Indies. 
In 1892, in the months of August and September, seventy- 
eight thousand tons have been imported to the United 
States, the result of which has been, that the culture of this 
fruit is increasing to a remarkable degree. 

A good many tons have also been imported to several 
parts of Europe, especially to England, but it is quite in- 
significant compared with the importations to the United 
States. 

It is the most nutritious and the most prolific of all 
know^n plants. It requires very little labour, and a mere 
patch of ground, say of one hundred yards square, will suffice 
to sustain a whole family. Not only the fruit, but everv 
part of the plant is useful. The leaves make a good shelter, 
and are employed by the Indians to cover their huts ; and its 
fibres can compete with the best qualities of cotton or flax. 

Lately, a very good quality of paper has been made with 
the fibres, and at a very small cost. The supply of this 
material being unlimited, it is probable that it will greatly 
reduce the cost of paper. The sap of the stem and the skin 
enveloping the fruit contain a very strong acid, which 
blackens hands and clothes, and is not easilv disposed of, 
I believe that no one has ever studied its properties, but it is 
probable that a good ink can be obtained from it, and no 
doubt manv other uses will be found for it. 

10 



96 NICARAGUA. 

An intoxicating liquor is made with the fruit. It is rather 
pleasant and has a peculiar taste. 

Sugar can be extracted from the fruit. 

I have also seen parcels of dried fruits sent to Europe, 
and we had a fair sample of them in the Guatemala Pavilion, 
at the Paris International Exhibition of 1889; but it was not 
much appreciated by the Visitors. 

With a little care, the plants may be made to bear fruits 
all the year round, and it is estimated that an acre planted 
with bananas will produce forty times more in weight than 
potatoes, and one hundred and thirty times more than 
wheat. It has also been calculated that the produce of one 
acre, planted in bananas, will yield a yearly income of four 
thousand pounds sterling. 

It is very easy to set out a plantation of bananas. The 
stems are annual and usually die after the exhaustive process 
of fruiting has been completed, new ones being produced 
from the root-stock. It is by planting these buds that the 
banana is propagated, and a new plantation made. These 
stems being numerous round the dead plant, the task is 
easy. In about ten months, the new plants will bear fruit. 
It requires scarcely any work at all in the way of weeding,* 
these plants being so perennial that they do not leave room 
for any other plants to grow between them. 

To the fertility and large productive power of these 
plants is partly due the laziness of the Negroes and Indians 
inhabiting the tropical countries of America, and this is more 
especially seen in Nicaragua, where these fruits are the 
principal food of the inhabitants. 

To that fact, I have attributed the difficulty I experienced 
in getting men to help me in my researches. As soon as they 
had earned a few shillings, it was quite impossible to make 
them work. So long as they had a little money for drink, 
they lazily remained for hours and days' warming themselves 
in the sun, like lizards, or bathing in the lake for hours at a 
time. 

From the town to the lake, the route was always crowded 
with people, some going, others returning. In fact it was a 
curious and interesting sight to see these people bathing, both 
sexes together. It is true that a bath in the lake was delightful, 
and I enjoyed man_y ; but I never remained in the water for 
hours as the natives did. 

They were not at all afraid of crocodiles, which were 
abundant at certain places, and which from time to time 



HOWMXd MONKK\'. 97 

caught one of the leg's or arms of the bathers to feed with. It 
is true that these easuahies were rare, but nevertheless it 
occurred several times durincr mv stav in Granada. When it 
occurred, they frij^htened the animal with their discordant 
cries, and several times the monster was caught, and paid the 
penalty of death for its audacity. 

I believe that the Indians of Nicarasfua are as much at 
home in the water as on land. They are truly amphibious. 
From the time of their birth, we may say that they go in the 
water, and when they are full grown, it seems to be their 
natural element. They swim splendidly. 

At the beginning of March birds appeared in large quan- 
tities, and I made sonie fine hunting expeditions in the 
neighbouring primeval forests bordering the lake. In one of 
them, I killed a fine specimen of the Howling monkey (Mycetes 
palliatus) . Their native name is Con^o, probably in honour of 
their black colour, alike that of the inhabitants of that African 
country. Two species of this genus are known, one peculiar 
to South America, and this one peculiar to Central America. 
They are the largest American species known, measuring 
about four feet, exclusive of the tail. They are remarkable for 
the great development of the organ of their voice, which 
consists of a peculiar kind of bony drum, formed by a 
convexitv of the hvbroidal bones and communicatingr with the 
larynx. The noise produced by these howlers, at day-break, at 
sun-set, and sometimes during the night, is perfectly appalling. 
It is more like the roaring of jaguars than any thing else. 
I was a lonor time before ascertainino- that such an infernal 
noise was produced by this monkey. Many are the nights 
which I passed sleeplessly, when encamped in the forest, 
fearing an attack of jaguars or other ferocious animals, and all 
this, due to the vociferous cries of these monkeys. 

It was a great satisfaction to me when I discovered it, 
because these animals are quite harmless, and I cannot 
conceive what can be the meaning- of their noisv howls. 

They are sociable animals, and live in troops in the 
deep forests. As many as forty of them are sometimes 
seen together. They are fond of their offspring, and very 
active, and it is a grand sight to see a troop of these 
monkevs runninp- awav with their vouncr firmlv attached to 
their backs, or gambolling among the creepers. The male 
is rather dangerous to approach when wounded, but it never 
attacks man. 

They are great enemies of the Indians in consequence of 



98 NICARAGUA. 

their devastating propensities. Scarcely are maize or fruit 
ripe when these monkeys invade the plantations and carry away 
the ears of maize or the fruit. Unfortunately for the owners it 
is very difficult to surprise and kill them as they leave scouts 
all round during their plundering expeditions, and when the 
Indians arrive on the scene, not one is to be seen. It is is 
only by surprise that they can be killed. 

Although I was very fond of eating the flesh of most of 
the mammals and birds which I killed in my expeditions, I did 
not taste that of this animal, so I cannot say v\'hat it is like, 
but I have been told that the Indians and hunters consider 
it a great delicacy, roasted. 

I also procured some other species of monkeys, but they 
were very small. One of them, a sort of Ouistiti (Jacalus). 
was a very pretty creature, and is often domesticated. 

Among the birds, one called Mot-mot (Eumonota siiper- 
ciliaris) , was very abundant, and I secured many specimens. 
Its native name. Mot-mot, comes from its cry, which sounds 
exactly as the pronunciation of that word in a deep, low voice, 
and which it repeats frequently, when perched in the interior 
of the forest, one of its peculiar habits. Sometimes 
it will remain for hours on the same branch repeating now 
and then its curious cry, and at the same time moving its tail 
up and down. The two central feathers of the tail are very 
long and bare in the middle, terminating with a sort of round 
spot similar to an eve. They are quite visible when he 
moves its tail. It is said that the bird itself, with its bill, lays 
bare that part of the median feathers by plucking one by one 
the feathers of the quill, so as to make it more ornamental. 
It is possible, but I am not certain, that it has been proved. 
It is true that in the voung birds these feathers, excepting in 
their length, are like the others, and do not show any bare 
place; but this may be produced by some other means than 
by the plucking of them. 

It would be necessary to know how and where they nest, 
a fact which I have never been able to find out, but which 
would throw some light on the matter, if what I have been 
told is true, that they nest in the cavities of trees and holes in 
the ground, where they may loose their quill feathers in 
entering and getting out of their nests. I say this because I 
have killed many specimens which not only had the middle, 
but also the extremity of the quill, bare of feathers and very 
much worn. 

These birds are always seen in pairs ; but several pairs 



MOT-MOTS AND MANAKINS. 99 

may be seen at a very short distance from each other. It is 
a very pretty bird, grass oli\e-green above, the tail feathers 
blue with black shafts and tips, the two central produced 
into a long bare shaft with a broad blue racket, the terminal 
half black. The crown is grass-green with a broad super- 
cillery band commencing at the base of the nostril, first 
silvery white, shading into silvery cobalt, the lores and ear 
coverts black as well as the feathers below the eve, the latter 
spangled with a few silvery blue spots. The undersurface is 
olive yellowish-green, becoming grass-green on the fore neck 
and breast. 

The centre of throat is black, forming a broad streak, 
bordered by a band of elongated blue-silvery feathers, the 
sides of the body, abdomen, undertail and wing-coverts 
are ferruginious. Many species are known, all from America. 
Thev are all coloured more or less alike. 

They belong to the order COCCYGES, sub-order Ani'so- 
dactylœ, and family Momotidœ. They are characterized by 
having a long, strong and thick bill, a little compressed, 
laterally inflated at the point, and having the edges crenu- 
lated. Their tongue is long, narrow, and barbed on the 
edges, the wings are short, and their tails have always the 
two central feathers two or three times longer than the 
others. 

They are sometimes called Bobo, or Simpleton, by the 
natives, because they are ^■e^y familiar, the presence of 
man does not friMiten them, and are easilv caugrht. 
They are about the size of a starling, and have strong 
feet. The ^'g'g is round and pure white. 

Another species, Momotus Lessoni, is also found in 
Nicaragua. It is slightly larger, but not so brilliantly col- 
oured. Another beautiful bird, also abundant in Nicarag-ua, 
was the Long-tailed Manakin, (Chiroxyphia linearis.) It is a 
charming little creature, adorned with the most brilliant 
colours, red, blue, and black, with two very long and narrow 
central tail feathers. 

These beautiful birds belong to the Passeres, sub-order 
Oli^omyodae, and family Pipridae. About 70 species 
are known, all of them from America. Thev are about the 
size of a canary, and have a very short bill, slender feet, 
short wings and very short tails in general, but in the genus 
Chiroxyphia all the species have two very long and narrow 
central tail feathers, but this peculiarity exists only in the 
males. It inhabits small woods, is very active, has a short 



100 NICARAGUA. 

flight, and utters a sharp piping note. They live in pairs, but 
many pairs may be seen at a short distance from each other. 
They feed on insects. 

Some species of Pipridae make a great deal of noise 
with their wings, when flying from one branch to another, 
but I never heard it from this species. 

Among the other remarkable species of birds met with in 
Nicaragua, I shall mention several species of Tanagers, 
among which, Ramphoceliis passerini and icterontus, 
several species of Calandra (Icterus) remarkable for their 
long purse shaped nests, built near one another at the top of 
high trees. These birds usually yellow and black, are very 
fond of plantains. The curious Fly-catchers (Milvulus 
tyr annus and forficatiis) , two fine species with long tails, 
always found in the savannas (plains) chasing all sorts of 
insects, and having the habit of selecting a special branch as 
a post of observation, to which they always return. Two 
species of Jacamar, Galbiila melano^enia , and Jacamerops 
crrandis, two very fine birds, metallic golden-green, chieflv 
seen singly, in the small forests ; several species of Tro- 
gons, also brilliantly coloured, metallic golden-green above 
and on the neck and breast, with the rest of the under- 
surface usually crimson or yellow, several species of Pico 
Canoas, or Toucans. The native name is derived from the 
form of its brilliantly coloured bill, which is extremely large, 
each mandible ha^dng somewhat the shape of a caiioa 
(boat.) 

They are remarkable birds, and only found in America. 
Thev belonor to the familv of Rampliastidœ. and about sixtv 
species are known. The true Ramphastos are the largest 
and most brilliantly coloured, with patches of bright vello\N' 
and crimson on the breast. They are much killed for the 
sake of these bright feathers, which are greatly prized bv 
some Indians, who make curious head-dresses with them. 
The yellow feathers are also much used in England for the 
manufacture of flies, for trout and salmon fishing. 

Although their bill is very large compared to the size 
of the birds, it is in reality very light, its interior consisting of 
a maze of delicate cells, throuorhout which, the ramifications of 
the olfactory nerves are multitudiously distributed. The use 
of this extraordinary bill is not satisfactorily known Their 
long, slender, pointed tongues are horny, and fringed or 
feathered on each side. The tail is peculiar for the facility 
with which it can be turned up, so as to lie on the back. 



HUMMING-BIRDS AND HT T'rKRFLIKS. lOI 

Thev have a short flight, mikI liop and flit from branch to 
branih with graceful c'ase. 'Jliey live in families, and build 
their nests in the hollows of trees. 

l^hey feed chieflv on fruit, and it is very amusing to see 
jiow they seize and swallow them. F'irst they lay hold of the 
fruit with the extremity of their long bill, then they throw it 
upwards into the air, catch it in their open bill and 
.swallow it. When searchinor for fruit, thev have the habit of 
placing sentinels in different parts, and if there is any cause 
of alarm, they begin to scream in such a noisy way that they 
are heard miles off. 

I also collected several species of Humming Birds, 
Pyrrliophaena cyanura, Lampornis prevosti, Sancerottia 
sophiae, and Chrysuronia cliciae. This last species was only 
found in the forests. It is a beautiful bird, with a blue throat 
and the tail entirelv metallic grolden. 

In Insects, I collected many species of butterflies and 
moths, some of which were very fine. My principal hunting 
grounds were the Barrancas^ deep narrow ravines which 
surround the town, and w^hich are rather dangerous at times, 
because they are used by the natives for conveying cattle from 
one place to another. The sides of these ravines being very 
steep in places, it was not always an easy matter to find a place 
of shelter until the cattle had passed. Otherwise they were 
delightful, cool, and green, the sides being covered with 
small trees, bushes, and plants of all descriptions. These 
ravines are sometimes many miles long, and many were 
the species of Papiiios, Morphos, Heliconi and others, which 
I caught there. 

Another grood collectincr around was on the road from 
Granada to the lake, or on the margin of the last. In the dry 
season, at all wet spots on the road, or on the margin of the lake, 
hundreds of species of butterflies used to assemble together to 
drink. They were scrambling one upon another, and it was 
an easy task to gather as many as one choose, or even to 
select the species wanted, as they never fled awav. 
Every wet spot Avas invaded by hundreds of them, which took 
no notice of the collector. It was an extraordinary sis^ht 
indeed to see these patches where all colours imaginable were 
mixed together. 

Lastly, I collected some rare and fine species in the 
hacienda (farm) of the French Consul, my friend Mr. Rouhaud, 
now known, as Valle Menier, the property of the celebrated 
Parisian chocolale manufacturers. 



102 NICARAGUA. 

In that hacienda, there were large plantations of cacao 
trees and plantains. On the ripe fruit of the last plants, and on 
the mangoes, I collected many fine and rare species of insects. 

It was delightful to ramble about the plantations of this 
fine property. All kinds of fruit-trees were to be seen, 
Orange, Lemon, Mauo^o, Plantain, several species of Sapote 
and others, but the most interesting was the Cacao tree 
(TJieobroma) , or God-food. The Cacao tree (Theobroma 
cacao) , belongs to the genus of dicotyledonous plants of the 
order Bythneriaceae. The tree somewhat resembles the 
cherry, and is found in all tropical America, and has been 
imported to other countries. Several species are known. 

The fruit is contained in a ligneous casing, usually five to 
eight inches long, and of a bright yellow or scarlet colour, 
when fresh and ripe. It turns to a dark brown after being^ 
cut. The seeds are about the size of a large bean, rufous and 
enveloped in a pulp of the consistence of butter. Dried they 
are, consumed in the country or sent to Europe for the 
manufacture of the well-known chocolate. It is one of the 
principal articles of exportation of America. The well-known 
Parisian firm of Menier consumes daily 40,000 pound which 
means a yearly average of FOURTEEN MILLIONS OF POUNDS ! ! 
Its actual value being about two shillings per pounds, it 
represents the enormous total of one million^ four himdred^ 
and fourty-four thousand pounds sterling! And yet four 
hundred years ago, it was quite unknown to Europeans. Long- 
before the discovery of America by Columbus, the Indians 
cultivated the trees which produce this fruit. 

Mexican tradition mentions Quetzalcoatl d.sÛ\(i introducer 
of the tree in that country, from where it was successively 
exported to Central and South America. 

The tree was called by the Mexicans Cacaboaquaitl and 
the fruit Cacahoatl. With the seeds they made a beverage 
called Chocolatl from which the name of Chocolate is derived. 

This beverage was universally used by the Mexicans, but 
the best sorts of seeds were reserved for their kings, princes, 
and celebrated warriors. In many countries, the seeds were,. 
and are still, the current money, and are received in payment 
for other commodities. In Mexico the taxes were usually paid 
with these seeds, and it has been written that when Fernand 
Cortez entered that city, he found in one storehouse, forty 
thousand large baskets of cacao seeds. 

For a long time, the Spaniards did nothing with them,. 
and even in Spain, up to 1728, it was scarcely known. 



CACAO AND CHOCOLATE. I03 

In 1728, Philippe V. sold the monopoly of that commerce 
to a company of Spanish merchants, with the faculty to ship 
for Vera Cruz (Mexico) all the seeds which could not be 
imported to Spain. 

After this, Cacao was imported to Italy and in France, 
but in the last country its use was very limited until the 
marriage of Louis XIII. with Anne of Austria. The Spanish 
Infanta was very fond of chocolate, and continued to have it 
at breakfast. Soon after this, all the Court ladies copied her^ 
and enjoyed this beverage. 

Durine the reio^n of Louis XIV., its use had made such 
progress that this King, m 1692, gave the monopoly of its 
sale to one of his favourites. A tax of about seven pence per 
pound was imposed on all seeds imported, and the price of 
chocolate was fixed at six francs per pound, a little less than 
four shillings and tenpence. 

Under the reign of Louis XV. the custom of drinking 
chocolate progressed considerably, and the annual consump- 
tion reached the large total of 300,000 pounds ; but this 
is nothing compared to the quantity manufactured by the first 
French Company, which made use of steam engines, for the 
first time. 

About 1820, this company required annually about six 
millions of pounds of cacao-seeds, and manufactured twenty 
millions of pounds of chocolate, which is still nothing, com- 
pared with the quantity required for the actual fabrication of 
that commodity. 

Now large plantations of c?xao trees exist, not only in 
all the tropical countries of America, but also in Java, and 
many other Asiatic countries. The countries which produce 
the best qualities are Soconusco, and several other places in 
the Department of Oaxaca (Mexico), Mazatenango, and other 
places in the Department of Juchitepec (Guatemala), 
Granada in Nicaragua, Caracas in Venezuela, and many 
other places in South America ; but the large plantations 
near Guayaquil, in Ecuador, produce more than any other, 
but the quality is much inferior. The seeds are larger, more 
flattened, and blackish ; meanwhile those of the other 
countries mentioned, are smaller, somewhat rounded, and of a 
beautiful pale rufous colour. 

The Guayaquil, as it is commercially called, has less 
value ; but, nevertheless, it is bought in large quantities in 
America and in Europe for mixing with the other qualities. 

The usual height of the Cacao tree is from twenty to thirty 
II 



I04 NICARAGUA. 

yards, and sometimes more. It is always green, the lanceo- 
lated leaves are smooth, about eight to twelve inches long, 
of a dark green colour, and attached to the branches by large 
petioles. The flowers, which are small and abundant, appear 
on the Irunk and branches. Many of them fall to the 
ground, and the few which are productive are soon replaced 
by green rounded fruits, which lengthen as they ripen, and 
become brownish red. The capsule is divided internally in five 
cells, containing from twenty-five to forty seeds, enveloped in 
a rosy pulp acid, agreeable to eat, when the fruit is ripe. 

The best ground for a plantation of Cacao trees is 
the virgin soil of the tropical forests, in warm and moist 
climates, never higher than 2,oooyards above the sea ; the lower 
the altitude, the better it is. It requires to be well sheltered, 
and to obtain this, openings are made in the primeval forests, 
leaving high trees at intervals of about twenty-five to thirty 
feet apart, to shelter the Cacao trees. 

The nurseries, like those for the coffee trees, are also 
made under the shelter of large trees, which completely 
shelter the young plants from the rays of the sun. 

A selection is made of the best seeds, and these are 
placed, one by one, in furrows, two inches deep, covered with 
a light bed of earth, on which plantain leaves are spread. 
Two w^eeks after, these leaves are removed with great care, 
the seeds have germinated, and it is important to pull up as 
often as necessary all weeds, so as to keep the young plants 
always free of them. In three or four months the plants 
are about one yard high. Then it is time to transplant them. 
This delicate operation is done by special workmen. One of 
them raises the young plant with the greatest precaution with 
a good ball of earth around the roots, another transfers it at 
once to the hole prepared beforehand for that purpose, and a 
third one buries it with care, keeping the stem upright, and fill- 
ing up the hole. A distance of twelve to fifteen feet is required 
between each plant. When the plantation cannot be made in 
'the forest, it is important to prepare several years before, a 
piece of ground in which, orange, lemon, plantain, or other 
suitable trees have been planted from distance to distance to 
shelter the cacao plants. 

Water is also indispensable to engender the necessary 
humidity. For that purpose many canals are dug up in the 
plantations. With a thick hedge to protect the plants from 
the animals, the work is concluded. It only remains to keep 
away the weeds, and to replace the dead plants if there are 



CACAO IIARN'KSTS. 105 

any. Two years after flowers begin to appear, but it is only 
in the fourth or fifth year tliat the first gathering is made. If 
well cared for, the trees will bear fruit during twenty-five to 
thirty years, and every day, a harvest will be reaped. 

Besides these every-day harvests, there are two principal 
ones, from November to January, and from May to July. This 
last one is the best, because it takes place at a good time of 
the year; the fruits are larger, weigh more, and the quality of 
the seeds is better. 

The fruits are heaped under sheds for two or three days, 
then broken, and the seeds taken out and deposited in closed 
rooms where they remain two or three days, or less, then they 
are dried in the sun for one day. They are stored again, and 
soon they begin to ferment, and a large quantity of sugar 
exudes from them. 

This fermentation is a xery important operation. If it is 
carried out properly, the cacao will be of superior quality. It lasts 
from two to five davs, then it is dried ao-ain in the sun or in 
heated drying rooms. When well dried, it is put into bags 
and ready for use. 

A very good method for drying coffee, or cacao, is to 
build a moveable roof, on wheels, permitting the seeds to be 
covered or uncovered as necessary. 

Among the enemies of the Cacao plant are the ants and 
the Coccidae, or Mealy bugs. The ants destroy the leaves, 
but at the same time also destroy the bugs. The monkeys, 
squirrels, parrots and other birds and animals, fond of the 
fruits are also the enemies of these plants. If proper care is not 
taken at the time of the gatherings, in a few hours they will 
be destroyed by these animals. 

From the seeds, in late years, an alcoholic essence, named 
Caféine, has been extracted. It is said that it possesses the 
same properties as the Coca from Peru, and that life can be 
maintained for many days without any other food. One fact 
is certain that it acts considerably on the nervous system, and 
that under its influence, man is able to do a greater amount of 
work than otherw^ise. Cocoa butter is also extracted from 
the seeds. In fact they contain about 52^/^ of it. It is much 
employed as a medicine, or in the manufacture of refined 
soaps, oils, &c. Naturally it could also be made into candles. 
As a medicine, it is efficacious against chaps, chilblains, and 
the like. I think that it can also be effectually used as oint- 
ment for sore throats and colds. At least I have tried it 
successfully on myself. 



I06 NICARAGUA. 

Actually, 2^^/f) of this oily substance is extracted from 
the seeds and sold for certain purposes. It is considered that 
chocolate containing as little as possible of this oil is more 
wholesome and agrees better with debilitated delicate con- 
stitutions, The different sorts of cacaos are commercially 
known as Caracas, Maracaibo, Guayaquil, Trinidad, Maragnan, 
Para, Cayenne and Cacao of the Islands, according to the 
country where they come from. Under the last named category 
are known the Cacaos, grown in the Antillae. In i88g, at the 
Paris International Exhibition, I saw some samples of a very 
good cacao from Java ; but it was scarcely known in the trade. 

Besides these sorts, there is in Mexico a superior quality 
of cacao known as Soconusco, from the province where it 
grows, but it is very scarce and is not raised in sufficient 
quantity to supply the Mexican markets. When I visited 
that country, the usual price of this Cacao was four shillings 
per pound. 

To make a good chocolate, cacao and sugar are all that 
are wanted Sometimes a small quantity of cinnamon bark, 
reduced to powder, or vanilla is added to give it flavour, but 
many add flour and other farinaceous powders. These 
additions augment the quantity, but spoil the quality. 

In Nicaragua the chocolate is done on your own premises. 
There are women specialists, who never do anything else. 
For about one shilling, or one shilling and sixpence, and 
food, one of these women will make from five to ten pounds 
of chocolate in one day. 

You give them two pounds of sugar to every pound of 
cacao. First of all. they slightly burn the almonds on a slow 
fire, then they take off the skin and bruise them, on the same 
stone which they use for the bruising of maize, when making 
tortillas. This stone is called metate. It is made of a 
porous granitic stone, about half a yard long and from twelve 
to sixteen inches wide, bent upwards at the extremities and 
supported on four low legs carved in the stone. With this 
goes the mano (hand) of the same width as the metate, or 
slightly longer, made of the same stone and rounded. With 
it, they bruise the seeds on the metate, until it is quite liquid, 
then little by little, they mix the sugar, bruising all the 
time until the whole is well mixed together and has acquired 
the consistence of paste. Then they add the cinnamon or 
vanilla, and with their hands roll the paste in pieces of a 
certain length, cut it in small round pieces and let them dry. 
It is hard work, but the result is very satisfactory. Each 



CHOCOLATE AS FOOD. IO7 

piece makes a small cup of splendid rich chocolate, costing 
about one penny. 

Very good chocolate can also be made by mixing several 
sorts together, but is is very important to reject all the rotten 
seeds. 

Pure chocolate is considered as one of the most nutritive 
and wholesome foods. With bread and chocolate alone, life 
can be sustained for a long while, or for ever. Its aromatic 
principles stimulate the most debilitated or delicate tempera- 
ments without tiring them. It is easily digested and suits 
everyone. It is more nourishing and less exciting than 
coffee or tea. It has the property of fattening those who 
drink much of it. 

In Mexico, Central and South America, as well as in 
Spain and Portugal, it is usually drunk pure. Before serving 
it, they bring the froth to the top by placing in the pot what 
they call the molinillo, a wooden instrument, like a wheel 
attached to a long stick, and twisting it round with rapidity. 

In America, chocolate replaces the tea of the Chinese and 
Japanese. The hrst things which are always brought to 
visitors, at any time of the day or night, are cups of chocolate 
and cigarettes. This reminds me of a good story of an in- 
cident which occurred in one of the 7nesons, or native inns. 
A German asked for something to eat. He was told that there 
was onlv chocolate in the house. So he asked for some. A 
little w-liile after, they brought him a cup. The German took 
it and swallowed it in one draught, returned the cup, said it 
was verv s^ood and asked them to brinor him some. Another 
cup was brought, and was drunk in the same manner. He 
asked again for some more. When the third cup was brought 
to him he was quite furious, and told the waitress to stop this 
mockery, that twice he had told her that he liked the drink 
very much, and to bring him a cup, instead of which they only 
brought him samples. Explanations followed, and it was with 
the greatest difficulty that they convinced him that chocolate 
was always served up in small cups, and that no one had 
tried to fool him. He was quite surprised when he had to pay 
about one shilling for what he had taken. 

The German knew perfectly well what chocolate was, but 
he was accustomed to drink it with milk in his own country, 
where it is served in large bowls. It is the usual manner of 
taking chocolate in Europe, and it is also the best, pure choco- 
late being rather difficult of digestion for certain delicate 
constitutions, especially if taken in large quantity. 



io8 NICARAGUA. 

The Mexicans used to mix the cacao with different 
farinaceous substances, mixing a small quantity of capsicum 
with it ; but the chocolate as it was made in the time of 
Moctezuma was very simple. They rasped the seeds and 
diluted the powder in boiling water. Sometimes they added 
to it an aromatic substance. It was also drunk cold as a 
refreshing beverage. 

Indians have given me some, prepared in that manner^ 
and with sugar, I have found it excellent. As everyone 
knows, it is much used for all sorts of creams, ices, sweets,. 
&c., and there are few ladies, who are not fond of chocolate. 

Some fermented drinks are also made with the pods, and 
the well-known drink Baravoise is also made with the seeds. 

The Hacienda belonging to Alonsieur Rouhaud, where I 
collected some of my best species of Insects, was partly planted 
with Cacao trees. Soon after my departure from Nicaragua it 
was sold to Mr. Menier, of Paris, and is known now as Valle 
Menier. It is the finest plantation of Cacao trees in 
Nicaragua. It provides occupation for thousands of people. 

Another valuable tree, abundant in the primeval forests 
of Nicaragua, is the Hule tree or India-rubber tree [Siphonia 
elastica). It is a dicotyledonous plant, belonging to the 
order Euphorbiaceae. 

This fine and valuable tree grows to a height of fifty to 
eighty feet. It is getting scarce, because at first they used ta 
cut the trees to get the india-rubber ; but now it is done on 
more scientific principles, and some intelligent persons have 
made plantations of these trees which are succeeding w^ell. 
In the Paris International Exhibition of 1889, some fine sam- 
ples of india-rubber were exhibited in the Nicaragua Pavilion. 
The exhibits of Messrs. Menier Brothers were remarkable. 

The gathering of india-rubber is done by all the worst 
characters. All the runaways from Nicaragua and Costa 
Rica turn gatherers of india-rubber. They live for years in 
the primeval forests searching for these trees. When found, 
they climb upon them and make small incisions in the bark 
at a distance of several yards from each other. From these 
incisions, the sap or resin which is milky white, slowly comes 
out and drops to the foot of the tree, where it is gathered 
in due time. After a time it turns black, as sold in the 
European markets. The gatherers say that it is very hard 
work ; nevertheless, they make a good living by it, the price 
of the resin rising gradually and constantly. 

Several always associate together for the gathering of 



INDIA-RUBBER, AND OTHER PRODLXTS. IO9 

the resin, and when they have a certain quantity they carry 
it in boats to San Juan del Norte, or Greytown, where it is 
easily disposed of. The annual exportation at the present 
time is worth about ^,40,000. All the forests bordering the 
banks of San Juan and San Carlos rivers are those where the 
india-rubber trees are abundant. One of their enemies is the 
well-known beetle, vulgarly called Harlequin, (Acrocinus 
longunamis,) a very large insect belonging to the family of 
Longicorns, or Cerambycidse. It is about three to four inches 
long and one inch wide, with antennae and legs five inches 
long. Its name, Harlequin, has been given to it in conse- 
quence of the colour of its elytrae, streaked with various 
colours, gray, black, and red being prominent. It feeds on 
the sap of the Siphonia, and deposits its eggs in the incisions 
made, to extract the gum. Later on, the larves ]3orc for them- 
selves great holes right through the stem. These larvae 
boiled are considered as delicacies by the Indians. 

So we see that Nicaragua produces three very important 
articles of commerce — plantains, cacao, and india-rubber, but 
this is not all. Very good coffee is also cultivated in that 
country. Vanilla is also found, and many are the cereals,, 
fruits and vegetables grown. The principal are maize, beans^ 
rice, capsicum, among cereals ; orange, lemon, mango^ 
sapote, guavas, among fruit-trees; and many sorts of vege- 
tables, capsicum, tomato, radish, cabbage, potato, &c., &c. 

To give an idea of the commerce done in that country in. 
1852, I submit the list of several goods exported from Realeja 
in that vear. 

Cedar, 20,000 square yards; Mahogany, 21,000 square 
yards; Boards, 71,764; Brazil Wood, 22,845 hundredweight; 
Hides, 12,870; Cotton, 1,000 hundredweight ; Maize, 16,155 
bags; Rice, 7,627 hundredweight; Sugar, 1,664 quintals; 
Cigars, 120,000; Coyol Oil, 615 gallons; Honey, 11,000 
gallons; Bea^is, 100 quintals; Lemons, 50,000; Eggs, 600 
dozen ; and a quantity of mules, pigs, indigo, fruits, ham-mocks, 
shoes, and other manufactured articles, &c., &c. Besides 
cattle, horses and mules are reared in the plains, and 
many haciendas possess several thousand heads of them, 
which produce a good yearly income to their owners. They 
are exported to the neighbouring Republics, where they fetch a 
good price. 

There are also rich mines of gold and silver. The prin- 
cipal are those of Chontales, on the Atlantic Coast. The late Mr. 
Thomas Belt, who published in 1874, a very interesting book 



no NICARAGUA. 

on that country, The Naturalist in Nicaragua^ was the 
manager of the Chontales Gold Mines, and worked them 
successfully for several years. The Chontales Mines are 
situated nearly midway between the two oceans, at an alti- 
tude of about 2,000 feet. The gold is confined almost entirely 
to auriferous quartz lodes. The stones are crushed by 
machinery, and the gold extracted with quicksilver. It is not 
very rich in gold as a rule, but occasionally boisas or patches 
of ore of great richness are found and pay well. About sixteen 
different veins were worked in 1874, by different companies. 

The aspect of the country in the Chontales district is 
mountainous, intersected with valleys well timbered. The 
climate is hot and damp, as in Granada. The dry season is 
very short, scarcely four months, from February to May. But 
on the west side, it is quite different. The dry season lasts 
from November to May, almost without rain. 

The sky is cloudless, the heat is less, the nights are 
cool, and the winds occasionally chilling. It is the healthiest 
season of the. year. 

The temperature of Nicaragua in general is equable. The 
extreme variation recorded at the head of the San Juan River 
was 23^. It rarely rises above 90^ Fahr., or falls below 70^ 
Fahr. 

The consequence is that the products of Nicaragua are 
greatly varied in spite of the fact that the greater part of the 
country is not as yet entirely developed. 

Animal life is very abundant and varied. During his 
stay in the country, Mr. Belt made a remarkable collection of 
beetles and butterflies containing many new species, especially 
in the family of Longicorns. One of the finest insects which 
he discovered of that family, was Belt's M allaspis, (Mallaspis 
belli) , which his friend Mr. Bates dedicated to him. It is 
about two inches long, varying greatly in colour from golden 
bronze to golden-green or golden-red. Many other fine and 
new species were collected by him. 

He also succeeded in procuring the very rare and 
beautiful Humming-bird, Microchera parvij^ostris, described 
by the well-known American Ornithologist, Mr. Lawrence^ 
from one single specimen found in Costa Rica. This beauti- 
ful creature, belonging to the group of Snow Caps of Gould^ 
of which only two species are known, is about three times the 
size of a drone, dark rosy-purple all over, with the head snow 
white. It was unknown to European Ornithologists, and is 
still excessively rare. The fine male specimen which I have 



CLIMATE, LAKES AND RIVERS. Ill 

in my collection, is one of the very few specimens collected 
by Mr. Belt. 

Nicaragua, like nearly all the other Republics of Mexico, 
Central and South America, can be divided in three distinct 
zones, that of tier ras calientes (hot countries), tier ras 
te??îp/adas {temperd.te countries) and tierras frias (cold coun- 
tries) according to their altitude above the sea. All the lowlands 
up to i,ooo feet, belong to the first zone, those from i,ooo to 
3,000 feet, belong to the second zone and the remainder belongs 
to the third zone. Plantain, Cocoa, Palm, Siphonia, Cedar, 
Cotton and other trees and plants are found in the first zone. 
The best coffee is cultivated in the second zone, where the 
plantains, maize, beans, &c., also do well. In the third zone 
wheat, barley, vines and other European fruit trees are 
cultivated. 

From the first to the third zone, the climate varies accord- 
ing to the altitude. In some parts of the country, in one day, 
you can pass from a tropical climate to that of a semi-arctic 
region. The higher you ascend, the healthier is the climate, 
but as a whole, excepting fevers, the climate of Nicaragua 
mav be considered as healthv. 

The principal rivers of Nicaragua are the San Juan 
River, which flows from the south-eastern extremity of the 
Lake of Nicaragua to San Juan del Norte, which course is 
very changeable. Since 1853, when I travelled the whole 
length of this river in a small American steamer, a large 
proportion of the water has been carried away by the Rio 
Colorado, which flows through the Costa Rica territory, 
and at the present moment, navigation for steamers is 
impracticable. 

Many are the rivers flowing into the lake ; but they are 
not of much consequence, the Rio Frio and Rio x\coyapo are 
the principals. Another large river, the source of which is not 
very far from Segovia, is Rio Escondido, which empties itself 
on the Atlantic, in the bay of Bluefields, the capital of the 
Mosquito Indians. 

On the Pacific, there is a small river emptying in the Bay 
of Salinas, the place chosen by various engineers as the 
terminus of the Nicaragua Inter-oceanic Canal. 

Two important lakes exist in the Republic of Nicaragua. 
The first and most important is the celebrated Lake of 
Nicaragua, with its many islands, standing at an elevation of 
128 feet above the sea. The second is the Lake of Managua, 
close to the town of Managua, the actual capital of the 



112 NICARAGUA. 

Republic. It is at a distance of about ten miles from the 
Lake of Nicaragua, with which, it communicates by the 
Tipitapa River. It is a line lake also, but only about twenty 
miles in circumference. About ten miles from Granada there 
is another lake called Massaya, but it is very small. It looks 
like the mouth of an extinct crater, and probably it is one. 
It is enclosed on all sides with steepy rocky walls. Close by,. 
lies the town of Massaya, with about 15,000 inhabitants, 
nearly all Indians. It is very large, each house having a 
garden attached to it. The streets have the appearance of a 
picturesque promenade among fruit trees. Their only supply 
of water is that of the lake close by, about 300 feet deep, 
from which they draw water, by means of buckets attached 
to long ropes. This lake is called in the country Injierno 
de Massaya (Hell of Massava). All its surroundings are of 
volcanic origin, flanked on its western side by the active 
Volcano of Massaya, whose lava streams have covered the 
sides of the lake and all adjacent grounds. 

From Massaya to Leon, a distance of 70 miles, nearly all 
of which consists of barren plains, is called the Malpais, or 
bad country. As many as fourteen distinct volcanoes are 
scattered from place to place in that short space. 

At night the whole of it is lit up by bluish flames, flash- 
ing across the land or leaping like columns of fire, appearing 
and disappearing in succession. It is called by the Indians 
el baile de los demonios, or the devil's dance. 

The principal towns of the Republic of Nicaragua are 
Managua, the actual capital of the Republic, 10,000 inhabit- 
ants ; Leon, the capital, when I visited that country, 30,000 
inhabitants ; Grenada, 12,000 inhabitants ; Rivas, south of 
Granada, at a short distance from the Lake of Nicaragua, 
8,000 inhabitants ; Massaya, already cited ; Segovia, the 
capital of that district ; Matagalpa, the capital of the district \ 
San Juan del Norte, the principal port on the Atlantic; 
Bliiefields, the capital of the Mosquito Indians ; San Juan 
del Sur, one of the Pacific ports, and Re ale jo, close to the 
port of that name, on the Pacific. 

The area of the Republic embraces 51,600 square miles. 
Its actual population exceeds 600,000 inhabitants, and in 
consequence of the variety and fertility of its soil and its 
admirable position, a great future can easily be predicted for 
that country. 



HISTORY OF NICARAGUA. IIJ 



CHAPTER XI. 



HISTORY OF NICARAGUA. 

Histor}' of Nicaragua — Its Discovery by the Spaniards — Their Expe- 
ditions — Gonzalez de Avila — Hernandez de Contreras — Whole- 
sale Slaughter of the Natives — Oviedo — Pedro de Alvarado — 
History of the Independence of Central America — -Morazan — 
Presidents of Nicaragua — Civil Wars — Expedition of Walker — 
Walker — His Fall and Execution in Honduras— The Mosquito 
Kingdom. 






r is quite impossible to say, with any degree of certainty, 

which were the first inhabitants of that country, but 
there is no doubt that the Toltecs invaded that country in the 
sixth century, headed by their Cazic, Niinaquiché, and were 
probably the first who civilized the inhabitants of the 
western and southern parts of that territory. Afterwards the 
Aztecs replaced the Toltecs, and maintained communications 
with that country up to the time of the Conquest. 

Before the invasion of that country, it is probable that 
several different nations inhabited Nicaragua, the principal 
being the Caribs, who certainly occupied, and still occupy, the 
coasts of the x\tlantic Ocean. Nothing whatever was known 
of these people until the magnificent discoveries of Christopher 
Colombus. 

The discovery of Nicaragua is attributed to Christopher 
Colombus, on his fourth and last voyage to America in the 
year 1503, and that he passed the place known now-a-days as 
San yuan del Norte^ when he discovered the Cape named by 
him, Gracias à Dios, which name it bears to this day, and 
then coasted south to Nombre de Dios, the actual Chagres, 
north of Colon. 

But there are some probabilities that Pedro Alfonso Niîio 
had already visited that coast during his voyage to Curiana 
and Paria in 1500. 

It is also probable that about the year 15 14, Vasco Nuiiez 
landed in that country, when Chief Governor of Uraba or 
Darien. 



114 NICARAGUA. 

It is a fact that when Gonzalez de Avila embarked from 
Panama to the Gulf of Nicaya about the year 1522, the 
Pacific Ocean had been known to Nunez for ten years at least. 

In one of his expeditions in 15 14, he came upon some 
high mountains which he ascended, and from its summit, he 
was the first who saw the two Oceans. Soon after he 
reached a large bay, which he called San Miguel. This bay 
was sprinkled with islands and treacherous rocks. 

It lays south of Panama. From there, he made several 
expeditions of discovery, and found great treasures of gold 
and pearls, the last being very abundant. In the province of 
B no nia 7na, perha.ps Psinamsi? the ^Spaniards enriched them- 
selves with chains and breastplates of gold, which in great 
plenty hung on the walls of the houses. 

About that time Pedrarias Davila, a knight, accom- 
panied by his wife, Elizabeth Boadilla, sailed from Spain to 
New Andalusia. He had fifteen ships and fifteen hundred men 
under his command. He first landed at River Daria, or Darien, 
where he built three forts to secure the passage to the Pacific. 
He was cheerfully received by Nunez. Not being satisfied 
with the place called Maria Antigua, the town built by the 
Spaniards in a deep valley, too hot and unhealthy, he sent 
several expeditions to survey the neighbouring countries. 
Amongst others, Caspar Morales was sent to explore the 
Pacific Coasts ; it was he, who found such a treasure in pearls 
that Pope Leo X. gave forty-four thousand ducats to a 
Venetian merchant for one of them. Gonzalez Badajoz, also 
went to the Pacific later on, and explored the coasts for a 
distance of about 180 miles. Soon after, he was joined by 
Commander Luis Mercado. At first they were very successful, 
and raised a large qauntity of gold from the different Kings 
and Cazics or Governors of the countries where they passed ; 
but the end of their expedition was disastrous. Excepting a 
few of them, amongst whom was one named Francisco de la 
Puente, who escaped and returned to Darian, the others were 
killed by King Panza, who, with his troops surrounded and 
massacred them. This disaster was partly due to their 
avarice, each soldier at the time, carrying a full load of gold, 
which prevented them defending themselves as they could 
have done, had they not been so burdened with treasure. 

About the same time there was a clash betw^een Nunez 
and Pedrarias, who had the former imprisoned and beheaded. 
Not long after, Lobo Sosa, Governor of the Canary Islands, 
was sent as Governor of New Andalusia, to replace Pedrarias 



SPANISH EXPEDITIONS. II5 

Davila. But it is time to come back to Gonzalez de Avila, 
who is supposed to be the discoverer of Nicaragua. 

Gonzalez de Avila is supposed to have sailed from 
Panama in the year 1522. He embarked in that port with 
one hundred men and four horses in several small schooners, 
and went north. The first place where he is supposed to 
have landed is at Nicoya, governed by a Cazic of that name, 
who received him with the greatest regard, and offered him 
a quantity of gold and gold idols in exchange for trifles. 
This Cazic and some of his followers were baptised. 

From there, he penetrated into the territories governed 
by a powerful Cazic, named Nicaragua. The Capital of the 
Cazic, was situated where now stands Rivas. 

Nicaragua received Gonzalez and his followers well, and 
exchanges were soon made with the natives, who gave them 
a large quantity of gold for trifles. In the relations of the 
first historians on the conquests of the Spaniards in America, 
it is mentioned that this Cazic was a man of great intelligence 
and that Gonzalez was very much puzzled to give satisfactory 
replies to his questions. It is more by fear of the devil, than 
otherwise, that he obtained the conversion of Nicaragua and 
nine thousand of his subjects. Gonzalez passed through six 
laro^e Indian towns, each containinof about two thousand well- 
built houses. Crowds of people came to see them and were 
never tired of looking at their beards, clothes, and horses, all 
of which were novelties to these natives. 

In the middle of his excursion, Cazic Dirian^aii pre- 
sented himself before Gonzalez. He was accompanied by 
five hundred men and several young women; each of the men 
carrying a couple of turkeys, and the women gold, all of which 
was duly offered to Gonzalez. 

Gonzalez did all what he could to convert Cazic 
Diriangan to Catholicism, but did not succeed. Diriangan 
replied that it was imperative that he should consult his 
priests and women before. 

Some days after, he returned, not to be converted, but 
with a troop, several thousand strong, armed with wooden 
swords, arrows, and other primitive w^eapons and covered 
with cotton cuirasses and strange helmets. 

The Spaniards defeated them easily ; but Gonzalez, 
fearing that he could not resist successfully many more 
such attacks with such a small troop as he had, resolved to 
return to Panama. During his retreat he met his old friend, 
Nicaragua, but this last had become hostile to Gonzalez, who 



Il6 NICARAGUA. 

had to fight in order to effect his passage through that 
territory. 

In Panama, he related to the Governor all that he had 
seen and done, and spoke highly of the country which he had 
visited. But Pedrarias, who was a jealous man, and who 
had shortly before passed sentence of death against Nunez, 
took umbrage at Gonzalez, and sent a new expedition to 
Nicaragua, headed by Hernande'z de Coj^doba, who was 
successful, and founded the towns of Granada and Leon 
without much opposition from the Indians. 

Gonzalez returned to Spain, called some followers and 
came back, on his own account, to Nicaragua, via Honduras. 
A civil war began between Gonzalez and Cordoba for the 
possession of that country, and continued for a long time. 

Several years after, Hernandez de Contreras^ who lived 
in Nicaragua, for some reason or other, revolted against Spain. 
At the head of many Spaniards, who agreed with his ideas, 
he took possession of Nicaragua and Panama ; and it was 
said that he had the intention to conquer Peru also, and to make 
an independent kingdom of the whole ; but it came to naught 
in consequence of his death, which took place soon after an 
attack made by hi^ri on Nombre de Dios, or Chagres. 

According to the celebrated historian and Bishop, 
Bartolomé de las Casas, 60,000 Indians perished during the 
first year of the wars fought against them by Gonzalez, 
Hernandez de Cordoba and others. Here is what he says : — 

''The Indians of Nicaragua were very sociable, gentle 
and peaceable. Nevertheless the Governor, or better say the 
tyrant, and the ministers of his cruelty, treated them as badly 
as in the other kingdoms. They murdered and robbed them 
wholesale. Under the least pretext, they killed the inhabitants 
without regard of sex or condition. They exacted from them 
tribute of all sorts, and death was the penalty for those who 
did not comply at once. Nobles, women and children were 
obliged to work day and night. These poor people were 
obliged to carry on their shoulders, at long distances, trunks 
of trees or boards for the construction of ships. Thousands 
of them were sent to Panama and in Peru to be sold there as 
slaves. Over 500,000 of them were disposed of in that 
manner, and banished from their country." 

Another ocular witness, Oviedo, in his History of 
America also said that the treatment of the Indians was so 
barbarous, that in 1528, when the treasurer, Alonzo de 
.Peralta, another nobleman called Zurita, and the brothers 



BARBAROUS KXECUTION OF INDIANS. II7 

Ballas, started from Leon to visit the villages, and the 
Indians beloncfinsf to them, but thev never came back. 

Pedrarias sent a small troop to arrest the supposed 
murderers. Seventeen or eighteen were arrested and 
strangled by dogs. 

The execution took place on the public square of Leon 
on the i6th of June, 1528, in the following manner: — 
A stick was given to each, and was told to defend him- 
self against the dogs. Five or six young dogs, which 
their masters wanted to train, to Lidian hunting, were set loose 
against each Indian. These young, inexperienced animals, 
barking all the time, ran round the Indian, who easily kept 
them at bay ; but when believing to be victorious, two of 
the old trained dogs were loosened, and in an instant threw 
the Indian down, the other dogs flew at him, strangled and 
devoured his bowels. It was a most cruel and disgusting 
scene. The seventeen prisoners, v>'hich were from the 
vallev of Olocaton, were killed in the same manner, the 
bodies remaining there, by order of the authority, threatening 
that the same should be done to those who tried to take them 
away ; but on the second day the smell of these corpses was 
so intolerable that the Governor gave orders to carry them 
away. 

Oviedo adds that as soon as the order was given, some 
Indians came, cut the bodies to pieces, carried them into their 
houses and feasted upon them ; but I doubt the veracity of 
this author very much, and I think that he spoke of things 
which he did not see. 

From that time up to 182 1, Spain retained possession of 
Nicaragua, but never conquered completely" the mountainous 
Indians of Chontales, nor the Mosquito Indians. They 
built several towns; one of the principal is Realejo, close to 
the Pacific, where the Kings of Spain had many of their 
ships built. In that time, it was a port of great importance. 
In 1524, Pedro de Alvarado, instructed by Cortez, took 
possession of Guatemala, and received from the Emperor, 
Charles -Quint, the title of Captain-General of Guatemala, 
which he kept up to the time of his death, which took place 

in 1545- 

At that time, Guatemala was the Capital of that Captaincy. 
It included what we know now-a-days as the five central Ameri- 
can Republics of Guatemala, HojiduraSj Salvador^ Nicaragua 
and Costa Rica. It remained so during three centuries until 
the 15th of September, 1821, when the provinces of Central 



Il8 NICARAGUA. 

America separated themselves from Spain, and declared their 
Independence. Some of the royalists seeing that resistance 
was impossible left the country, others adhered to the parly 
of Independence, with the hope of establishing a Central 
American Kingdom. After the separation with Spain, two 
parties were formed, the Republican, under the name of 
Liberals, the other formed by the Royalists and called by the 
Liberals, Serviles. From that time to now, desperate contests 
under various names have taken place and are not yet quite 
concluded ; but the Liberals seem to have the upper hand. 

The Liberals decided in favour of a Federative Republic, 
taking as a model that of the United States, and established 
under the name of the Central American Republic, a Federa- 
tion comprising the five provinces of Guatemula, Hoyiduras^ 
San Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, the same which 
formed the Captaincy of Pedro de Alvarado. They made a 
Constitution, were among the first, who abolished slavery, 
introduced a system of universal religious tolerance, built new 
schools, ameliorated the old ones, and did all they could to 
attract foreign colonists, and aid to their establishment in 
their country. 

When the Royalists saw that a Central American 
Kingdom had no chance of being established, they applied to 
the Mexican Emperor, Iturbide to annex Guatemala. The 
Republican Congress replied by decreeing the annexion of 
Guatemala to the United States. 

The short duration of the Empire of Iturbide dispelled the 
alternative of an adjunction to the Mexican Empire, or to the 
Union of the United States. Nevertheless, Iturbide sent 
Mexican troops, commanded by General Filisola, who occupied 
Guatemala in 1822, but this short domination ended with the 
fall of Iturbide. General Filisola with his army returned to 
Mexico, but before going, he convoked a National Assembly, 
with the idea of establishing the Government of the countrv- 

This assembly met the 24th June, 1823, and on the ist 
of July following, they issued a decree, which to this date, is 
considered as the solemn and fundamental act of the emanci- 
pation of Central America. On the 22nd November, 1824, 
this same assembly proclaimed a federal Constitution establish- 
ing the Republic of Central America as a popular and 
representative government. 

On the 29th of April,- 1825, General Manuel José Arce, 
was elected President of the Republic of Central America. 

He was succeeded by General Francisco Morazan, who,. 



CI\n. WARS. 119 

with the exception of a short interval, during winch the 
Republic was administered by. Licenciado Jose del Valle, 
remained in power until 183g, when the Federation came to 
an end, and the h\e States, one by one, separated and re- 
sumed their autonomy. Since then, they have kc^pt separate 
under the names of Republics of Guatemala. I lojiduras, 
Salvadoi', Nicaragua and Costa Rica. 

When the Royalists saw that they were completely 
beaten by the Liberals, with the clergy they plotted against 
the last, but with no other result than the sending in exile of 
the bishops. They then entered into treaty with England for 
the sale of their country to that power, but under the energy 
and perseverance of General Morazan, the Confederation^ 
although wavering, was still keeping a good front to the 
attacks of the Royalists, when the cholera made a sudden 
appearance in the country. In some way the Royalists 
availed themselves of this disastrous event to induce the 
Indians to a revolt. They put an Indian, the celebrated 
Carrera, at the head of the Indians, and in 1837, ^^^ declared 
war to General Morazan. Beaten several times by Morazan,. 
he was at last victorious, and captured Guatemala, the capital, 
on the 19th of March, 1840, and proclaimed himself President 
of the Republic, the nth of December, 1844. 

Several attempts have been made by several Presidents 
to form again a federation between the five Republics ; but 
nothing has come out of them. 

Nicaragua proclaimed its independence on the 30th of 
April, 1838, and from that time to now, has been direfted by 
various Presidents under the names of Direftors of the 
Government. 

Here is the list of all the Dire6lors and Presidents, since 
1825, to date. It has been made out by by my esteemable 
friend, Mr. Désiré Peéîor, Consul of the Republic of 
Nicaragua, in Paris. 
1825 — 1828 — Manuel A?itonio de la Cerda. 

1826 — Pedro P. Pineda, Provisional. 
1826 — 1827 — Juan Arguello. 
1829 — 1833 — Dionisio H errera. 

1830 — Juan Espinosa, Provisional. 

1833 — Benito Morales. 

1834 — José Nuiiez. 
1^35 — I S3 7 — José Zepeta. 
1837 — 1838 — Jose Nunez. 

1840 — Tomas Valladares. 

12 



120 




NICARAGUA. 




1841- 


—Pablo B Ultra go. 




1843- 


—Manuel Perez, 




1844- 


—Fruto Chamorro. 




1845- 


—Sandoval. 


1847— 


1849- 


—José Guerrero. 




1849- 


—Te ran. 




1849- 


—Rosa I es. 


1 849 


1850- 


—Norberto Ramirez. 




1850- 


—Justo Abaunza. 




1851- 


—Laureano Pineda. 




[851- 


-José del Montenegro. 


J 


[851- 


-José Jesus Alfaro. 




[851- 


—Fulgencio Vega. 




1853- 


—Fruto Chamorro. 


1854—. 


^855- 


-Licenciado Franciseo Castellon. 


] 


^855- 


-Nazario Escoto. 


] 


[856- 


-Patricio Rivas. 


] 


[856- 


-José Maria Colzada. 


] 


^857- 


-General Martinez. 


] 


^857- 


-Agustin Aviles. 


1859 ] 


[867- 


—General Martinez. 


[867 ] 


[871- 


-General Fernando Guzman. 


1871 ] 


875- 


-Quadra. 


1875-1 


878- 


-Joaquin Chamorro. 


1878 ] 


[883- 


-General Zavala 


1883—] 


[887- 


-Doctor Adam Cardenas 


1887 I 


891- 


-Evaristo Carazo. 


I 


891- 


-General Ignacio Chavez, Provisional 


1891 — 1 


893- 


-Doctor Roberto Sacasa. 



Many have been the civil wars from which this Republic 
has suffered from time to time. In 1849 Samoza, a chief of 
robbers, tried to do with the Republic of Nicaragua what 
Carrera did with Guatemala, but he was defeated by General 
Munoz, who made him prisoner and sentenced him to be 
shot. In 1 85 1, Mr. Pineda, a modest but meritorious man, 
was elected Director of the Government. But soon after 
war was resumed between the different parties, fomented by 
the English, who wanted to take possession of San Juan del 
Norte. Munoz at that time, who was hostile to the Engrlish, 
was considered by them as their principal antagonist, and 
they did all they could to put him out of the way. The 
result of all this was that Munoz resigned his command. 



FIRST PRESIDENT OF THF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT. 121 

Pineda and his Ministers who wanted to arrest him were 
apprehended themselves, and conducted to the frontier. 
Munoz resumed the command of the troops and Mr. Justo 
Abaiinza was elected Provisional Director of the Government. 
When the Parliament heard the news, they also elected a 
Provisional Director, Mr. Jose del Montenegro, and trans- 
ferred the seat of the Government to Granada. Each of 
the Provisional Directors composed a Ministry. So it came 
to pass that Nicaragua had at the same time two Govern- 
ments, one in Leon, the other in Granada. 

On the 2oth August, 185 1, Montenegro died. Granada 
fearing to be attacked by Munoz sent 200 men to occupy 
Managua, and barricaded streets, waiting future events. 

Meanwhile a project of a federal Constitution, prepared 
by the plenipotentiaries of the three States, Honduras, 
Nicaragua, and Salvador, was concluded and signed on the 
8th of November, 1849, and communicated to the States 
which they represented for its ratification. It was accepted 
hy Honduras, Nicaragua, and Salvador, and the adherance 
of Costa Rica and Guatemala to it was solicited. 

The federal Government having for first president Mr, 
Jose Barrundia, was installed on the 9th of January, 1851, 
and notification of it was sent to all the diplomatical agents. 
The Government of Nicaragua was the first who notified the 
fact to all the governments with which they had diplomatic 
relations, and appointed Mr. Marcoleta as the representative 
of the Confederation at Washington. From 1851 to 1854, a 
sort of peace reigned in the country, and during that time 
Mr. Fruto Cliamorro, was appointed Director of the 
Confederation, and Munoz, who had been exiled, was recalled 
and appointed Commander in Chief of the troops ; but in the 
beginning of 1854, when the inhabitants of Leon rose in 
insurrection in favour of Castellon, who was elected Director 
of the Provisional Government, Munoz answered to the call 
of the celebrated Walker, and when the last, on his first 
attack on Rivas, was abandoned by the native troops com- 
manded by Mufioz, this General was charged with treachery 
towards the North Americans. 

At the same time the Government of Leon was attacked 
by troops from Honduras, commanded by General Guardiola. 
Munoz marched upon the enemy and routed them completely, 
but this was done at the cost of his life. 

In 1855, W^alker disembarked for the second time at Sa7i 
Juan del Sur, and gained several victories over the troops of 



122 NICARAGUA. 

the Government at la Vïrgen, and about the month of October 
of that year, he captured the city of Granada, diXvai established 
a Government in that town. Successively he conquered all 
Nicaragua, and was appointed Director of the Government. 
He retained office for some time ; but at last was obliged to 
leave the country with the remainder of his followers. 

This is the same Colonel Walker which I have men- 
tioned in my narrative of Count Raousset Boulbon's Expe- 
ditions to Sonora. He was the model type of the true free- 
booter. 

If he had been successful, it is probable that Nicaragua 
and the other Central American Republics, would have been the 
centre of a large American and European emigration, and the 
future of that country quite changed ; but it is impossible to 
say if for better or worse, but certainly the change would have 
been considerable. Walker made a third attempt to re- 
conquer Nicaragua, which he considered as his personal 
property. Although thrown down from the Presidential chair 
by a revolution, he never renounced his determination of re- 
conquering it. There was a party in Nicaragua which was in 
his favour, and if his first intentions were to conquer that 
country for the United States, he soon changed his mind. 
What he wanted was to conquer it for himself by all means. 
From Protestant he turned to Catholic, this being imperative if 
he wanted to make himself popular with the Nicaraguans. 

Walker was very popular in the United States, principally 
in the South, having resided a long time in New Orleans. 
In matters of discipline he was inflexible, and for that reason, 
liked and respected by his officers and soldiers. 

In i860, when he prepared his last expedition, recruiting 
followers, so many offered to accompany him that he had 
only to choose amongst them. 

This was done with much secrecy, Leagued with an 
ex-President of Honduras, General Cabanas, they resolved 
to put down President Guardiola, and replace him with 
Cabanas. 

The occupation of Truxillo, a small town situated on 
the coast of Honduras, opposite Ruatan Island, was his first 
exploit. 

Walker presented himself before the town, at four in the 
morning, with one hundred and ten men, well armed with 
Minié rifles. He divided them in two columns. In the fort, 
there were about one hundred soldiers and three hundred 
volunteers. The two columns of Walker advanced, one bv 



WALKER 123 

land, the other in boats. At about half a mile from the fort, 
those on land fell into an ambuscade, but they defended them- 
selves so well that the enemy took to flight, and the Americans 
captured the fort easily. 

In it, they found a large store of provisions and arms, 
among which sixteen cannons. The population seemed to 
accept the accomplished fact. 

The proje6i of Walker was to reinstate Cabanas as 
President of Honduras,and with his help, to re-enter Nicaragua, 
and to form a new federation between the five Republics of 
Central America, but his first success came quickly to an end. 

On the 20th of August, i860, the English steamer, Icarus^ 
appeared before Truxillo, and its commandant summoned 
Walker to evacuate the town. This evacuation took place 
the next day. His army was reduced to eighty men well 
equipped. 

After leaving Truxillo, Walker and his men advanced in 
the direction of Cape Gratias, where they were attacked by 
Honduras troops, which obliged them to retreat. They 
camped on the margins of Rio Negro. Some English boats 
landed at that place some troops commanded by Alvarez, who 
captured Walker and some of his men. They were taken 
back to Truxillo and delivered to the authorities, to be treated 
as the circumstances required. It was immediately decided 
to put him on his trial and he was sentenced to be shot. 

His faithful companion. Colonel Ruddier, was sentenced 
to four vears' confinement, and the men to be sent back to 
the United States, at the expense of the American Govern- 
ment. 

Before being delivered into the hands of the Hondurian 
authorities by Captain Shannon, Commandant of the Icarus, 
Walker signed a protestation as under : — 

Protestation of General Walker. 

'' By the present, I protest, before the civilized world, 
" that when I surrendered to the Captain of the steamer 
*' Icarus, this officer has declared to receive mv sword and 
" pistols, as also those of Colonel Ruddier, and that my 
" surrender has been made expressly to him as a repre- 
" sentative of her Majesty. 

W1LLLA.M Walker." 

" On board the steamer Icarus, this' 5th of September, 
'' i860." 

Immediately after the sentence W^alker was put in prison, 
and when asked if he wanted an^'thing he replied that he 



124 iNICARAGUA. 

wished to see a priest protesting of his faith in the precepts 
of the Catholic rehgion. He said to his guardian : — 

/ am resigned to death, my political career is ended. 

On the 1 2th, he was taken out of the prison and con- 
ducted to the place of execution, assisted by a priest. When 
in thesquare of the troops, he made the following discourse : — 

/ am a Roman Catholic. The war that I have made 
upon Honduras, at the instigation of another, was unjust , 
7ny followers are not to blame. I ask pardon of the people, 
and I hope that my death will benefit society. 

After this, he was shot, and so ended the career of this 
extraordinary man. His body was buried by direction of two 
American citizens inhabiting Truxillo. Little was said of him 
after his death, and some papers hinted that the American 
Government was glad to be rid of him. 

His body was claimed by two of his faithful officers and 
taken back to his native country (Tennessee), where he was 
buried in a family vault. Several friends accompanied his 
remains w^ith the honours due to his rank as General and ex- 
President of Nicaragua. 

The same may be said of Walker as of Raousset Boulbon, 
that very little prevented him from being a hero ; but he was 
more fortunate than Raousset, having enjoyed for a time all 
the glory and honours attached to power. 

It is time now to say a few words about the English 
doings in that part of the w^orld. 

Shortly after the conquest of Jamaica by the expedition 
sent by Cromwell in 1656, the King of Mosquito asked for the 
protectorate of Charles II., King of England. The Governor 
of Jamaica, acting for his Sovereign, accepted, promising the 
Royal protection. The Mosquitos kept faithful to this agree- 
ment, and each time that England was at war with Spain, they 
acted as allies, and fought with valour and success against the 
common enemy. 

But this nation, if it can be called by that name, was only 
composed of a few tribes of Caribs, mixed with whites and 
blacks. 

These tribes occupied the lagoons of Blue fields, nothing 
more, and it was only an act of justice when the English gave 
back that territory to the Republic of Nicaragua ; but up to 
that time they were in possession of Blue-fields and all the 
adjoining territories, and in 1780, the celebrated Nelson was 
sent to Nicaragua to take possession of San Juan del Norte^ 
but nothing came of it. 



MOSQUITO KINGDOM. 1 25 

Soon after the conquest of California by the North 
Americans in 1848, Lord Palmerston made another attempt 
on that country, and succeeded. San J it an del Norte and 
part of the river San Juan were taken possession of, by the 
Enoflish, who chancred the name of San Juan del Norte into 
that of Grey town. 

In the name of the King of Mosquito, they administered 
it for several years ; but ultimately, in 1850 and 1854, it was 
occupied for a while by the North Americans, and lastly 
returned to Nicaragua. 

In 1 85 1, an Englishman called Samuel Shepherd was 
still living in Grey town. He was one of the two brothers 
with whom Robert Charles Frederick, the third Mosquito 
King, had exchanged a considerable extent of land for 
brandy. But part of that land belonging to Nicaragua, this 
Republic protested. 

The real or imaginary acquisition of title deeds con- 
firming that purchase was the base of the speculations of 
Colonel Kinley, who wished to annex the Kingdom of 
Mosquito to the United States. Several members of that 
Republic were at first in favour of the scheme, but they 
changed their mind soon afterwards. Colonel Kinley took 
part in the successive events of Nicaragua as the rival of 
Walker, but his attempt failed. 

In 185 1 Samuel Shepherd was about 80 years old, a fine 
robust and active man yet, he had lived on the Mosquito 
Coasts since his youth, and considered that country as one of 
the finest and healthiest of all America. \\^hen speaking of 
Mosquito, he used to say. That country is all mine. He 
was certainly a man of character. 

But the fa6l remains that the Mosquito Kingdom has 
always been a very poor one, scarcely inhabited, and far from 
being healthy. Its capital. Blue-fields, consists of miserable 
huts, inhabited by several hundreds of Indians. The best of 
it consists in its central position with the river Escondido and 
its tributaries, partly navigable, and giving access to the rich 
provinces of Matagalpa and Chontales. 



126 NICARAGUA. 



CHAPTER XII. 




Projects for opening Interoceanic Canals by Nicaragua, Panama, 
Darien and Tehiiantepec — Manuel Alfonso de la Cerda — John 
Bailly — Pierre Rouhaud — Napoleon Garella — Napoleon Bonaparte 
— Vanderbilt Company — What the South American Republics 
ought to do — Felix Belly — The Maritime Canal Company of 
Nicaragua — My Opinion about the Cost of Opening a Canal — 
Certainty of the Opening of the Panama and Nicaragua Can9.1s 
in the Future. 

^HE idea of an Interoceanic Canal in the Isthmus of 
Nicaragua is not a new one. We may say that since 
the discovery of America by Christopher Colombus, the 
Emperor, Charles Qitiitt, recommended to Cortez not to lose 
sight of el secreto del estrecho (the secret of the Straits), and 
the discovery of the Straits of MageUan in 15 19, was hailed 
with much satisfaction, and contributed to the belief that 
another strait, somewhere in the Isthmus of Panama and 
Nicaragua could exist. Many were the expeditions sent into 
these countries with this object ; but an exact knowledge of 
the Continent shewed that no such thing existed. 

From that moment arose the idea of establishing a 
communication bew^een the two Oceans by a canal. 

Gomara, in his history of the Indies says:— "The voyage 
between Spain and the Philippines, by the Straits of 
Magellan, is so long and dangerous, that, having spoken 
many times with illustrious travellers, historians, and navi- 
gators, I heard from them about the possibility of opening 
other passages much shorter, and very profitable to the trade 
and to enterprisers. 

The first could avail itself of the Lagartos River, which 
source is about sixteen miles from Panama, and would 
terminate at Nombre de Dios (Chagres). The second could 
make use of the river San Juan, which joins the Nicaragua 
Lake with the Atlantic Ocean. By both these rivers the 
passage is already half done. The third would be from the 
river Vera Cruz (he meant the river Goatzacualco) to 
Tecoantepec (Tehuantepec), where the inhabitants of New 
Spain carried boats from one sea to the other. // is a fact that 



Grnci'fr of ffummin^ liirds. 55 

(iKNL'S XXVII. Ahcillia, I>oii. ^onsp. Cjon. Av., 1850, p. 79. 
lidiKi:,, K'i' II, Aufz. dcr Col., 1853, p. 13. 
Myidhcillid, l>on., Rrv. and Mag. Zool., 1854, p. 253. 

Typi. : O. AhcilLei, Oftlattre et f.esson. 

r>ill minute, stniight, sliortcr tlmri the head. Wings long, 
poiiilcd, rcarhing the f-nrl of tail. Tail very slightly forked. 
!<(•( trices wide, and of even size, excepting the medians, 
which ar(! slightly shorte-r. Size small. Sexes unlike. 

I hihihil . Mexico and (."entrai Anu-rica. 

7^. y\|{l'.ll.l.iA 'r\'l'l(:A, liOii., Consp. (jen. Av., 1850, vol. i., 

Ornismyn ahciUci, Less et Del., Rev. Zoo!., 1839, p. 16. 

McLtisu^a ahcilLei, Gray, Gen. l>irds, vol. i., p. \ 12. 

Uamphumicron ahetllei, Bonaparte, Consp. Av., vol. i., p. 79. 

Basalimna ahcillcl, Reich, Aufz. der Col., 1^53, p. 13. 

Myahcillca typica, Hon., Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1854, p. 253. 

l^nucis aheillci^ Reic;h, 'Iroch. P^num., 1855, p. 11. 

Abeille^ s Fluéierer, Gould, Mon. Troch, vol. iv., p. 2ri. 

Lc Baucis d'Abeille, Muls., Hist. Nat. CJis. Mou., 1876, 
vol. iii., \). 144. 

1 1 iibiLal. — Mexico, (juatemala. 

Male. — Uppersid(r shining green. Throat luminous emerald 
grc;en. P>reast black, washed with green on the sides. Ab- 
domen, flanks, and undertail-coverts pale green, with a 
grayish appearance, in consequence of the grayish base of 
feathers. A tuft of white on each side of vent. Median rec- 
tric(ts shining green, lateral bluish-black on internal edges, 
green on external for two-thirds of their length, then bluish- 
black with gray tips. Wings purplish brown. Bill black. 

Total leiiglli, 3iiii. Wing, 2. Tail, \\. Culmen, %. 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green. Underside ashy-gray, 
washed with somc^ few green feathers on fianks. Tail like 
that ol mal(* with larger gray tips on lateral feathers. 
Slightly smaller in size. 

This speci(;s was discovered by Delattre, near Jalapa, 
Mexico, and dedicated by him, to his friend. Doctor Abeille. 

I 



56 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Some of my specmiens I collected in Mexico, others came 
from Coban, Alta Vera-Paz* Guatemala. 

With Patagona gigcis, they are the only two species without 
crest or crown. 

Genus XXVIII. Chrysolampis, Boié. Isis, 1831, p. 546. 

Type : T. moschitus, Linné. 

Bill straight, long as the head. Feathers of the forehead 
projecting on the culmen and hinding the nostrils. Wings 
long nearly reaching the end of tail. Tail rounded. Rec- 
trices of even size. Feet small. Tarsi bare. Head, throat 
and upper part of breast brilliantly coloured. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Brazil, Trinidad, Venezuela, Columbia and 
Guiana. 

80. Chrysolampis moschitus, L. Syst. Nat., 1766, vol. i., 

p. 192. 

Trochilus carbunculus, Gmel. Syst. Nat., 1788, t. i., p. 498. 

Ornismya moschitus^ Less, Ois. Mou., 1829, p. 166. 

Mellisuga' moschita, Steph. Shaw. Gen. ZooL, vol. xiv., 

P- 253- 

Chrysolampis giglioli, Oustalet., le Naturaliste, 1885, p. 3. 

Chrysolampis infumatus, Berl. 

Chrysolampis moschitus F^r.^Boucard. H. Bird. vol. i., p. 26. 
Ruby and Topaz, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iv., p. 204. 
Le Chysolampe Rubis-Topaze^ Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1876, vol. ii., p. 255. 

Habitat. — Brazil, Trinidad, Venezuela, Guiana and Colum- 
bia. 

Male. — Head metallic ruby-red. Upperside bronzy-brow^n, 
appearing black on sides of neck and upper part of back. 
Chin, throat and upper part of breast metallic topaz. Abdomen 
and flanks dark brown, nearly black round the breast. A line 
of white feathers on sides of flanks, and a tuft of white feathers 
6n each side under the vent. Undertail-coverts rufous. Tail 
rufous with brownish-black tips. Bill and feet black. 

Total length, 3Ïin. Wings, 2\. Tail, i^. Culmen, \. 

Female. — Upperside golden green. Underside grayish-white, 
washed with golden feathers on sides of breast and flanks. 



Genera of TJuinmtng Birds. 57 

Median rectrices bronzy-green, lateral gray at base, then pur- 
plish-brown with white tips. Bill and feet black. 

This species is very abundant in Brazil, Trinidad, Guiana, 
and Columbia. 

Chrysolampis cr/'o-lioli, Oustalet, was a made up bird 
fabricated in Colombia with half a specimen of C. moschitus, 
and the other half of Florisup^a mellivora. 

Chrysolampis infumatus, Berlepsch, can only be a dark 
coloured bird of C. mochitus, and I don't think it can stand 
as a species. 

Genus XXIX. Eustephanus, Reich. Syst. Av. Nat., 

1849, pl- 40- 

Sephianoides, Less, Int. Gen. et Syn. Gen. Av., 1832, p. 29. 

Sephanoides, Bon. Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, p. 82. 

TJiaumaste, Reich, Aufz. der Colib., 1853, P- ^4- 

Stoitosiella, Reich, Bon. Ann. Sc. nat., 1854, p. 38. 

Type : T. galeritus, Molina. 

Bill short, straight, rather stout, subcylindrical, pointed, shor- 
ter than the head. Nostrils covered with feathers. Winsfs 
lonof, nearlv reachingr the end of tail. Median rectrices short- 
est, remainder very slightly and gradually longer. Tarsi 
clothed. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Chili and Islands of Juan Fernandez. 

81. Eustephanus galeritus. Mol. Hist. Chili, p. 219. 

Colibri du Cliili, Aud and Vieill, Ois. Dor., t. i., p. 125. 

Mellisuga kingij Vig. Zool. Journ., vol. iii., p. 432. 

Mellisuga galerita, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 

Orthorhynchus sepJianoides, Less and Garn. Voy. Coquille, 
pi. 31. 

Ornysmia sephanoides, d'Orb. and Lafr. Syn. Av., t. ii., p. 29. 

Trochilus ferficatiis , Gould, Voy. Beagle. 1841, pi. iii., p. 1 10. 

Sephanoides Jzingi, Gray, List Gen. Birds, p. 19. 

Chilian Fire Crown, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iv., p. 265. 

Eustephane coiffé, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, t. ii., 
p. 247. 

Habitat. — Chili and Islands of Juan F'ernandez. 



58 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Male. — Head metallic fiery-red. Upperside dark bronzy- 
green, appearing black on neck in certain lights. Tail bronze- 
green. Throat white, spotted with green. Tuft on thighs 
white. Undertail-coverts pale bronze-green edged with buffy- 
white. Wings purplish. Bill black. 

Total length, 4|in. Wings, 2\. Tail, if. Culmen, \. 

Female. — Upperside bronze-green, passing to shining green 
on uppertail-coverts. Four median rectrices bronze-green, the 
two next with subterminal blackish bar and gray tips, outer- 
most bronze-green at base passing to blackish on internal 
web, and gray on external web, tips gray. Underside like the 
male. 

Total length, 4iin. Wings, 2\. Tail, if. Culmen, \. 

I have also a young male of this species with metallic silvery- 
green feathers on top of head. 

My specimens of this species were collected near Valparaiso 
by Mr. Reed. 

82. EuSTEPHANUS BURTONI, Boucard, H. Bird, 1891, vol. i., 

p. 18. 

Burton's Golden Crown. 

r Eustephane de Burton. 

Habitat. — Chili. 

Male. — Closely allied to the preceding species from which 
it differs by the brilliant golden crown of the head, and the 
dark shining green of the upperside, with bluish reflections. 

Total length, 4^in. Wing, 2\. Tail, if. Culmen, |. 

Female. — Unknown. 

Type unique in my collection. 

83. EuSTEPHANUS FERNANDENSIS, King, Proceed, Com. and 

Corr., Zool. Soc, pt. i., p. 30. 

Ornismya cinnamomea, Gerv. Mag. Zool., 1835, p. 43. 

Ornismya robinson, Delatt & Less, Rev. Zool., 1839, P- ^8. 

Trochilus stokesi, King, Proceed. Com. and Corr. Zool. Soc, 
pt. i., p. 30. 

Mellisuga fernandensis J Gray, Gen. Birds, vol i., p. 113. 
Mellisuga stokesi, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 



Genera of Hunufiing Ends. 59 

Sephanoides fernandensis, Bon. Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, 
vol. i., p. 82. 

Thaumaste stokesii\ Reich, Aufz. der Colib, 1853, p. 14. 

Eiistephancs stokesii, Cab and Heine, Mus. Hein, i860, 
t. iii., p. 75. 

Stake's Hiiiiuiiing Bird, Gould, Mon. Troch, vol. iv., p. 266. 

Cinnamon Fire Croivn, Gould, Mon. Troch, vol. iv., p. 267. 

r Eustephane de Robinson, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. ii., p. 249. 

Habitat. — Island of Juan Fernandez. 

J/^/^.— Top of head metallic fiery-red. Upper and under- 
side includinof the tail, dark cinnamon-red. Vent buff. 
Wings purple. Bill black. 

Total length, 5Jin. Wing, 3^. Tail, 2^. Culmen, f. 

Female. — Top of head metallic bluish-green. Upperside 
and wing-coverts shining bronze-green passing to green, with 
bluish reflections on rump and uppertail-coverts, feathers of 
rump edged with w^hite. Median rectrices and outer webs of 
lateral dark bronze-green with bluish reflections, inner webs 
white, outermost nearly all white, excepting a narrow margin 
and tip on outer web^ bronze-green. Underside white, spotted 
profusely on throat with shining green, and sparingly on sides 
of breast, and flanks with minute greenish spots. Wings 
purplish. Bill black. 

Total length, 4iin. Wing, 2J. Tail, 2. Culmen, f . 

This fine species was discovered in the island of Juan 
Fernandez, by Captain King, who collected the two sexes. 
For many years they were considered as two species, and the 
female described by Capt. King under the name of Trochilus 
stoke si. 

Mr. Bridges is the first one who mentioned to Parzudaki 
that they were only sexes of one same species. This has been 
confirmed afterwards by Mr. Landbeck, sub-Director of the 
Museum of Santiago, and lately Mr. Reed, who collected and 
dissected a fine series of this species on the Island of Juan 
Fernandez, confirmed what was already accepted by all the 
leading Ornithologists. 

My specimens were collected by Mr. Reed. 



6o Genera of Hum?ning Birds. 

84^ EuSTEPHANUS Leyboldi, Gould, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 

1870, p. 406. 

Leybold's Cinnamon Fire Crown, Gould. 

l' Eustéphane de Leybold, Muls.. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. ii., p. 252. 

Habitat. — Island of Mas-à-fuera. 

Male. — Exactly like the preceding species, with the excep- 
tion that the metallic fiery-red of the crown extends over the 
occiput. 

Total length, 5iin. Wing, 3y^g-. Tail, 2%. Culmen, f . 

Female. — Similar to the female of E. fernandensis, but 
differs chiefly in the tail feathers which have the basal portion 
of the inner webs and all the outer webs green, having only 
the apical part of the inner ones white. The spots on the 
throat are bronzy and disposed in lines, and not generally 
dispersed, as in the female of E. fernandensis. " Elliot's, 
Syn. H. Birds, p. 94." 

I am in doubt about the validity of this species, which is 
one of my desiderata. 

Genus XXX. Patagona, Gray, List. Gen. Birds, 1840, 

p. 18. 

Cynanthus, Less, Tabl. Esp. Ois. Mou., 1829, p. 12. 

Hylocharis, Gray, Gen. Birds, 1848, Vol. i, p. 114. 

Hypermetra, Cab and Hein, Mus. Hein., i860, t. iii, p. 80. 

Type : T. gigas, Vieillot. 

Size very large. Bill stout, straight, longer than the head. 
Feathers of the forehead projecting slightly upon the culmen, 
hiding the nostrils. Wings very long, reaching nearly the 
end of tail. Tail long, forked, median rectrices broad, long, 
and shortest, lateral and outermost ones slightly and gradually 
longer. Feet large and stout, tarsi clothed to the toes. 
Sexes alike. 

Habitat. — Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Chili. 

85. Patagona GiGAS, Vieili, Gal. Ois., 1834, t. i., p. 296. 
Cynanthus tristis, Less, Ois. Mou., 1829, p. 43. 
Ornismya gigantea, d'Orb and Lafr. Syn. Av., 1838, p. 26. 
Hylocharis gigas, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i, p. 114. 



Genera of Huminmg Birds. 6i 

Hypermetra gigas, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein, i860, t. iii, 
p. 80. 

Giant Humming Bird, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iv, p. 232. 

le Patagon géant, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, t. ii, 

P- 195- 

Habitat. — Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Chili. 

Male. — ^Upperside pale greenish-bronze, greener on head. 
Patch of white on rump. Uppertail coverts greenish-bronze, 
margined with white. Tail brownish bronzy-green. Shafts 
of outermost and two lateral next to it white, except at tips. 
Outermost rectrice grayish-white with tips brownish-green. 
A buff spot behind the eye. Throat and abdomen rusty red, 
the feathers of the former with a blackish-brown spot in the 
centre of each feather. Breast and flanks pale brown, 
margined with rufous. Vent, tuft on side of flanks, and under- 
tail coverts white. Wings purplish-brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 8Jin. Wing, 5^. Tail, 3I. Culmen, \\. 

Female. — Coloured like the male, but paler on underside, 
and smaller. 

Total length, y^^in. Wing, 5. Tail, 3! . Culmen, i\. 

I have in my collection what I consider as the type of 
Vieillot " Ex Coll Riocour." My other specimens were 
collected in Chili by Reed. I have also three specimens 
collected by Whitely in Peru, and in Bolivia by Buckley. 
They are different in their coloration. 

The specimens from Peru have the upper part of the throat 
black, margined with buff, and the lower part rusty red, all 
the underside slaty-gray, with the abdomen buffy-white. 

The specimen from Bolivia has the upperside more bronzy 
with a rufous tinge on neck, the patch on rump buffy-white, 
all the underside deep buff, and the wings shining purple wdth 
bluish reflections, each feather, excepting the two longest 
tipped white. 

If they should prove distinct species, I propose the names of 
Patagona peruviana and Patagona boliviana for them. 

I have put this genus here considering that it is more 
nearly related to Eustephanus than to any other genus. 



02 Genera of Humming Birds. 

FAMILY IV. METALLURIDAE, 

OR Family of Thorn-bills. 

Body moderate or large. Bill straight and slender, 
moderate or very small as in the genera, Oxypogon and Rain- 
phomicron. Feathers projecting on the culmen, especially so 
in Oxypog07i and Ramphomicron. Throat brilliantly coloured 
in the males, excepting in the genus Avocettinus. In the 
genera Chalcostigma, Eupogonus, and Oxypogon the brilliant 
feathers of the throat are more or less elongated, reaching 
about the middle of the breast. In the two last genera the 
forehead is also ornamented with long feathers forming a 
crest. Rectrices of tail broad, slightly or greatly forked, as in 
the genus Ramphomicron^ and generally brilliantly coloured. 
Sexes unlike. 

Type : Metallura, Gould, P.Z.S., 1847, P- 94- 

Genus XXXI. Oreonympha, Gould, P.Z.S., 1869, P- 295. 

Type : O. nobilis, Gould. 

Bill longer than the head, stout, and with a somewhat 
downward curvature. Wings large and sickle-shaped. Tail 
ample and forked. Tarsi clothed nearly to the toes, which 
are of moderate size, the hinder toe and nail rather shorter 
than the middle toe and nail " Gould, I.e." 

Habitat. — Peru. 

86. Oreonlympha nobilis, Gould, P.Z.S., 1869, p. 295. 

Bearded Mountaineer^ Gould, Mon. Troch, Suppl. 1886, 

p. 60. 

L'Oréonymphe noble, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. iii, p. 175. 

Habitat. — Peru. 

Male. — Forehead and centre of crown black, remaining 
portion of top of head dark blue. Cheeks and sides of throat 
black. Throat metallic green succeeded by a tuft of lengthened 
metallic reddish-purple feathers. Upper surface bronzy-brown. 
Sides of neck and under surface grayish-white, mottled faintly 
with brown on the abdomen and flanks. Undertail-coverts 
bronzy-brown. Central rectrices bronze, lateral feathers white 
at base, rest bronze ; the external one all white, excepting a 
streak of bronze at the tip of the inner web. Bill and feet 
black. 

Total length, 7in. Wings, 3^. Tail, 3^. Culmen, i. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 63 



" Description given by Mr. Elliot, from a very fine male 
collected at Huatocto (Peru), by H. Whitely." 

Female ? Centre of crown deep chestnut, rest greenish 
blue. Sides of face and throat black. Centre of throat 
metallic green, no pendent tuft. Underpart brownish white. 
Rest of plumage like that of male. 

This magnificent species was discovered by Mr. Henry 
Whitely during his scientific expedition in Peru. 

Genus XXXII. Oxypogon, Gould, P.Z.S. 1848, p. 14. 

Type : O. guerini, Boissoneau. 

Head crested. Bill short, straight, and pointed, shorter 
than the head. Face above and below the bill, ornamented 
with lengthened feathers. Wings long, reaching nearly the 
end of tail. Tail long, slightly forked when opened. Median 
rectrices broad, shorter than the next one and rounded, lateral 
gradually longer, the two outermost ones of the same length. 
Feet large. Tarsi naked. Hind toe and nail longer than 
middle toe and nail. 

Habitat. — Venezuela and Columbia. 

87. Oxypogon guerini, Boiss., Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 7. 

Trochilus parvirostris, Fras., P.Z.S., 184g, p. 18. 

Mellisuga guerinij Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 112. 

Guerin's Helmet-crest, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii, p. 182, 

rOxypogon de Guérin, Muls., Hist. Nat., Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. iii., p. 179. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — Head and crest brownish-black with a central tuft 
of buffy-white feathers, the two longest nearly reaching the 
middle of the back. A wide band of buffy-white surrounds 
the back of the throat and head. Rest of upperside and 
wing-coverts bronzy-green, median rectrices bronzy-green, 
with white shafts very apparent. This white shaft is con- 
spicuous over all the rectrices, lateral white margined and 
tipped with coppery-bronze. Centre of throat metallic green 
encircled with a tuft of buffy-white feathers, the longest 
of w^hich reach the centre of breast. Sides of breast, abdomen 
K 



64 Genera of Humming Birds. 

and flanks pale brown, washed with bronze feathers. Bill 
black. 

Total length, -j-^in. Wing, 2|. Tail, 2f^. Culmen, |. 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green. Tail like that of male ; 
but rectrices narrower. Underside including uridertail-coverts 
pale buff, nearly white, with dark bronzy feathers encircling 
the throat, the abdomen and flanks washed with bronze 
feathers. Bill black. 

Total length, 3Jin. Wing, 2. Tail, 2|. Culmen, %. 
This species was probably discovered by Boissoneau and 

dedicated by him to Guérin de Méneville, the Editor of the 
^' Revue Zoologique," afterwards called ''Revue et Magasin de 
Zoologie/' and the author of many other well-known scientific 
works. 



88. OXYPOGON STUEBELI, Meg. Madar. Zeitschr ges Ornit, 

1884, vol. i, p. 204. 

Stuebel's Helmet Crest, Gould, Mon. Troch, Suppl., 1886, 
P- 59- 

I'Oxypogon de Stuebel. 

Habitat. — Volcano of Tolima, Columbia. 

Female. — Upper surface bronzy-brown. Neck, sides of 
neck, entire under surface and undertail-coverts brownish 
cream-colour. Wings, especially towards their distal end, 
with a vivid purple tinge. The two middle tail feathers, as 
well as the upper tail-coverts more or less coppery-red, each 
one with a broad cream coloured shaft stripe which does 
not reach to the distal end, the latter being lighter. The 
outermost tail feather cream-coloured, except a coppery 
patch along the inner web, leaving the terminal spot free. 
This marking of the tail is the best specific character. Bill 
black, very slender and hardly larger than that of Ramphomi- 
cro7i microrhynchiis. 

Total length, 3in. Wing, 2^|. Middle tail feathers, 1.65, 
the penultimate and longest, i.g. '' Mey, loc cit." 

It was dedicated to Doctor Alphons Stuebel, of Dresden, 
said to be the first collector in that part of the globe. 

. This seems to me to be the female of Oxypo^on giierini. 
''Edit." 



Genera of Hummincr Birds. 65 

89. OxvPOGON CVAXOLAKMUS, Salv. and Godm., Ibis., i8<^o, 

p. 172. 

Blue-throated Helmet-crest, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 
18S6, p. 58. 

rOxypo^oii a i!^oro-e h I eue. 

Habitat. -Sierra Nevada, Santa Marta (Columbia). 

Male.- 'Vhis species is closely allied to O. guerini. The 
principal differences are the throat, including its elongated 
feathers, which are metallic purplish blue, with base of feathers 
of chin white, followed by a metallic rubi spot, and the 
outermost rectrices entirely white with bronzy tips. Bill and 
feet black. 

Total length, 4Ïin. Wing, 2\. Tail, 2%. Culmen, |. 

Fetnale. — Like the male, but without the crest and the 
ornamental feathers of throat. 

It is a very rare species in the collections. It was discovered 
by the traveller-naturalist, Mr. Simons, in Sierra Nevada of 
Santa Marta (Columbia). 

.90. OxvPOGON LINDENI, Parz., Rev. Zool., 1845, P- 253. 
Mellisuga lindetii, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 
Linden's Helmet-crest., Gould, Mon. Troch, vol. iii., p. 183. 

VOxypogon de Linden , Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. iii., p. 182. 

Habitat. — Venezuela. 

Male. — Centre of forehead, head and crest velvety black, 
with two narrow lines of white feathers startinor from the bill 
and uniting quickly with the elongated white feathers of crest. 
Upperside bronze-green. Chin white, with black spots on 
the central feathers, and a lengthened tuft of white feathers 
reaching the lower part of breast. The black part surrounding 
the chin is encircled bv a band of white. All the underside 
pale bronzy-brown. Anal region and upper part of under- 
tail coverts bluish-white, remainder of undertail coverts bronzy, 
edo^ed with white. Median rectrices bronzv-ereen, lateral 
coppery-bronze. Shafts of rectrices white for nearly their 
entire length. Wings purplish-brown. Bill and feet black. 

Total length, 4J[in. Wing, 3. Tail, 2|. Culmen, ^. 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-brown. Underside mottled 
with white and coppery brown. Flanks coppery brown Vvith 
a ofreen lustre. 



66 ~ Genera of Humming Birds. 

It is still a rare species in the collections. It was discovered 
in 1842, in the Sierra Nevada of Merida (Venezuela), by Mr. 
Linden, to whom it was dedicated by Parzudaki. 

Genus XXXIII. Eupogonus, Muls and Verr., Class. 

Troch., 1865, p. 73. 
Type : T. herrani, Delattre and Bourcier. 

Bill short, straight, slightly curved at tip. Nostrils hidden 
by the feathers on forehead. Wings long, not reaching the 
end of tail. Tail slightly forked. Median rectrices wûde, 
shorter than the three next ones. Outermost ones shorter, 
but longer than the median, all of them, excepting the two 
median, largely tipped with white. Tarsi clothed. Sexes 
unlike. 

Habitat. — Ecuador and Columbia. 

91. Eupogonus HERRANI, Delattre and Bourc, Rev. Zool., 

1846, p. 309. 

Calothorax herrani, Bon. Consp., Gen. Av., 1852, vol. i., 

p. 85. 

Ramphomicron herrani, Gould, Mon. Troch, vol. iii., p. 187^ 

Chalcostigma herrani, Reich, Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 12. 

Lampropogon herrani, Bon., Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1856,. 

P- 253- 

Herran's Thorn-bill, Gould, Mon. Troch, vol. iii., p 187. 

Le Ramphomicron d' Herran, Muls., His. Nat. Ois. Mou.,. 
1876, t. iii., p. 173. 

- Habitat. — Ecuador and Columbia. 

Male. — Forehead and centre of the crown chestnut-red, paler 
on the long feathers of the crown. Sides of chin, crown and 
ear-coverts dark bronzy-green, appearing black in certain 
lights. A small white spot behind the eye. Rest of upper- 
side shining bronzy-green, becoming red on lower part of 
back. Upper tail-coverts shining purplish-red. Median 
rectrices purplish-blue, with a reddish tinge at tips, lateral 
purplish-blue, largely tipped with white. Chin metallic green, 
beneath which are elongated feathers forming a narrow band 
extending to the middle of breast, metallic rubi. Rest of 



Genera of Humming Birds. 67 

underside dark bronzy-green, washed with gray-buff. Anal 
region white. Undertail-coverts bronzy in centre and margined 
with gray. Wings purplish-brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 4fin. Wing, 2|. Tail, 2|-. Culmen, \: 

Female. — Forehead chestnut-red. Rest of upperside like 
the male. Underside like the male, 'excepting the throat, 
which is buffy-brown with greenish bronzy spots. 

Total length, 4fin. Wing, 2. Tail, 2|-. Culmen, \. 

This fine species was discovered, the male in Ecuador, by 
Mr. Bourcier, the female at Pasto, Columbia, by Delattre. 

I have several specimens collected in Ecuador by Buckley. 

It was dedicated to General Herran, who was then President 
of the Republic of Colombia. 

Genus XXXIV. Lampropogon, Bon. Rev. and Mag. 

ZooL, 1854, p. 252. 

EuPOGONUS, Muls. and Verr., Class. Troch., 1865, p. 73. 

Type : Lajnpropogon ruficeps^ Bonaparte. 

Bill short, acutely pointed, nostrils hidden. Wings long, 
reaching the end of tail. Tail forked, median rectrices 
shortest, lateral and outermost ones gradually longer, all of 
them uniform in colouration. Tarsi clothed. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Bolivia. 

92. Lampropogon ruficeps, Gould, P.Z.S., 1846, p. 89.' 

Mellisiiga rujiceps, Gray, Gen. Birds, 1844, vol. i., p. 112. 

Rampho micron ruficeps, Bon. Consp. Gen, Av., 1850, vol. i., 
p. 79. 

Lampropogon ruficeps, Bon. Rev. and Mag. ZooL, 1854, 
p. 252. 

Red-capped Thorn-bill, Gould, Mon. Troch. vol. iii., p. 188. 

Le Ramphomicron à tète rousse, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1876. t. iii., p. 171. 

Habitat. — Peru and Bolivia. 

Male. — Forehead chestnut red. Upperside bronzy-green. 
Tail bronze. Centre of throat metallic green, terminating 
with some elong-ated feathers metallic o-olden. Sides of throat 



68 Genera of Humming Birds. 

dark brownish bronze. Breast, buff, with a bronzy tinge. 
Abdomen and flanks dark buffy -bronze washed with bronzy 
feathers. Undertail coverts pale bufï. Bill black. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2\. Tail, i|. Culmen, \. 

i!^é';7Z(2/é'.— Upperside bronzy-green. Underside pale buff^ 
washed with greenish-bronzy feathers. Outermost rectrices 
tipped pale buff. Bill black. 

Total length, 3|-in. Wing, 2. Tail, i-|. Culmen, \. 

I have several specimens of this rare species collected in 
Bolivia, 1876, by Buckley. 

Genus XXXV. Chalcostigma, Reich. Aufz der Col. 1853, 

p. 12. 

Lampropogon, Bon. Rev. and Mag. Zool. 1854, p. 252. 

Type : O. heteropogon, Boissoneau. 

Bill very small, straight, shorter than the head. Feathers 
of lower part of throat lengthened, and brilliantly coloured. 
Wings long, ample, not reaching the end of tail. Tail deeply 
forked when opened. Rectrices broad, median smaller than 
the rest, next one longer and gradually so, with the others, 
outermost ones the longest. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. 

Chalcostigma heteropogon, Boiss. Rev. Zool., 1839, p. 

355- 
Trochilus coruscids, Fras. P.Z.S., 1840, p. 15. 
Mellisuga heteropogoji, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 112. 

Ra7npho7nicron heteropogon, Bon., Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, 
vol. i., p. 79. 

Lampropogon heteropogon^ Bon. Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, 
p. 252. 

Columbian Thorn-bill, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 184. 

Le Ramphomicron à quene bronzée, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. 
Mou., 1876, t. iii., p. 168. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — Head shining green. Upperside greenish-bronze. 
Uppertail coverts reddish bronze. Tail shining bronze. Throat 



Genera of Humming Brids. 69 

metallic golden-green, followed by a long narrow tuft of 
metallic rose-lilac. Rest of underside buffy bronze-green. 
Undertail-coverts bufï with bronze in the centre of feathers. 
Wings purplish-brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 4|in. Wing, 2|[. Tail, 2^. Culmen, \. 

Female. — -Upperside bronze, reddish on forehead, lower 
part of rump, and uppertail-coverts. Underside uniform 
grayish-bronze, with the lower part of abdomen and under- 
tail-coverts buff. Tail bronze. Maxilla black. Mandible 
flesh colour at base, rest black. 

Total length, 3|in. W^ing, 2. Tail, 2. Culmen, \. 

This species was probably discovered by Mr. Boissoneau. 

^94. Chalcostigma OLIVACEA, Lawr., Ann. N.Y., Lye, 

Nat. Hist., 1867, p. 44. 

Olivaceous Thorn-bill , Gould., Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, 
p. 62. 

Le Ramphomicro7i d'un pâle olivâtre, Muls., Hist. Nat., 
Ois. jMou., 1876, t. iii., p. 170. 

Habitat. — Peru and Bolivia. 

Male. — Upper surface and tail dull olive-green. Wrings light 
purplish-brown. Chin and upper part of throat metallic green, 
ending in a bunch of elongated feathers, metallic crimson, 
terminating in violet-purple. Undersurface brownish olive. 
Vent grayish-white. Undertail-coverts olive-green, the feathers 
margined with pale rufous. Bill and feet black. 

Total length, 5iin. Wing, 3J. Tail, 2\. Culmen, -f-^. 

There does not seem to be any difference in the plumage of 
the sexes. " Elliot, loc. cit." 

Surely the plumage of the female must be without any of 
the metallic feathers on the throat. " Editor." 

95. Chalcostigma stanleyi, Bourc and Muls., Ann. Soc. 

Agri., Lyon., 1850, p. 199. 

Ramphomicron stanleyi, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., 
p. 185. 

Ramphomicron vulcani, Gould, Jard., Cont. Ornith., 1852, 
P- 135- 



yo Genera of Hu7n?ning Birds. 

Lampropogon Stanley i, Bon., Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, 
P- 253- 

Stanley's Thorn-bill, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii, p. 185. 

Southern Thorn-bill, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii, p. 186. 

Le Ramphoniicron de Stanley, Muls., Hist. Nat., Ois. Mou., 
1876, t. iii, p. 165. 

Habitat. — Ecuador, Peru. 

Male. — -Top of head dark greenish-bronze. Upperside 
violet-blue. Uppertail-coverts dark shining bronzy-bluish- 
green. Tail shining bluish-green. Centre of throat metallic 
green, followed by a narrow band of bright amethyst feathers. 
Sides of throat brownish black. Underside sooty brown with 
bronzy reflections. Undertail-coverts dark violet, margined 
with brownish gray. Wings brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 4|in. Wing, 2|-. Tail, 2\. Culmen, -^-^. ■ 

Female. — Upperside pale violet-blue, with all the head and 
upperwing coverts pale bronze-green. Underside sooty brown 
with a greenish-bronze tinge. Tail shining bluish-green, but 
not so brilliant as in male. Outermost rectrices margined 
externally with grayish brown. 

Total length, 4in. Wing, 2%. Tail, 2\. Culmen, -^-^. 

Genus XXXVI. Metallura, Gould, P.Z.S., 1867, p. 94. 

UroLAMPRA, Cab. and Heine, Mus. Heine, i860, t. iii., p. 68. 

Lavania, Muls., Cat. Ois. Mou., 1875, p. 24. 

Lavinia, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1877, t. iii., p. 106. 

Type : T. opaca, Lichtensten. 

Bill straight, acutely pointed, rather short. Tail long, 
slightly forked, rectrices wide, brilliantly coloured. Wings 
long, reaching the end of tail. Feet large. Tarsi bare. Hind 
toe longer than middle toe. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. 

96. Metallura opaca, Licht., Tsch. Consp., p. 38. 

Trochilus cupreicauda, Gould, P.Z.S., 1846, p. 87. 

Mellisuga cupreicauda, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 

Aglaeactis cupreicauda^ Bon. Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, 
P- 253- 



Genera of Humming Birds. 7 1 

Coppery tail, Gould, Mon. Troch, vol. iii., p. igi. 
La Metallurc ii queue cuivreuse, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. 
Mou.. icSyô, t. iii., p. 1 1 1. 

Habitat. — Peru and Bolivia. 

Male. — Upperside purplish black, with metallic reflections 
in certain lights. Tail above shining-bronze with metallic 
reddish purple reflections, beneath fiery-red in certain lights. 
Throat spotted with a long narrow band, metallic green. All 
the rest of underside, purplish-black. Wings bronzv-brown. 
Bill black. 

Total length, 5in. Wing, 3. Tail, 2%. Culmen, f. 

Female. — U nknown . 

^97. Metallura Jp:lskvi, Cab. Journ. fur Ornith., 1874, p. 99. 

Metallura cupreicauda, Tacz. P.Z.S., 1874, p. 544. 

Jelsky's Copper Tail, Gould, Mon. Troch. Suppl., 1886, 
p. 63. 

La Métallure de J el sky . 

IL ab it at. — Peru. 

Male. — Entire plumage black, of a dull silky texture, pre- 
senting under certain lights, when viewed from behind, a 
slight lustre of bluish or reddish-violet, according to the light. 
Tail-coverts brownish-black, glossed with bronzy or reddish- 
copper. Fore part of the throat ornamented wdth scaley 
feathers of a dark and brilliant emerald-g-reen. Anal reg^ion 
downv and white. Undertail coverts bronzv, with a violet 
reflection and bordered with pale reddish. Wing-coverts dull 
coppery-bronze, taking under certain lights a lustre of reddish- 
violet, similar to that of the general plumage. Quills brown, 
glossed with bronzy-olive and violet in their terminal parts. 
Tail slightly emarginate, the tail feathers broad, the middle 
ones slightly rounded, the others rather pointed at the ex- 
tremity, of a dark coppery-bronze, taking a lustre of more 
reddish or violet, accordinor to the direction of the lis^ht, and 
changing to a fine brilliant greenish-blue ; lower part of the 
tail coppery-red or violet, more brilliant than the upper 
surface. Bill straight, black ; much longer than the head ; a 
little less than half the body. Feet black, with the tarsus 
entirelv bare. 

Female. — Above dusky-black ; brownish below, with the 
same violet lustre as the male. Forehead pale brownish-gray, 



72 Genera of Humming Birds. 

gradually passing into a darker shade on the hind neck. 
Feathers of the breast and abdomen narrowly fringed with 
buff, more distinctly in the middle of the belly. Tail-coyerts 
dull bronze. Fore neck ornamented with scaley feathers of a 
blue colour, broadly edged with violet, the lustre less strongly 
developed than in the male. Tail not so long, somewhat 
truncated, similar in colour to the male, but less red and more 
coppery, wdth the greenish-blue less brilliant. 

This rare species was discovered in Peru by Mr. Jelski,. 
the celebrated Peruvian explorer, and it was dedicated to him 
by Mr. Cabanis. 

By the description and Mulsant's plate, it looks as if it was 
M. opaca. '' Edit." 

■^98. Metallura CHLOROPOGON, Cab. and Hein., Mus, 

Hein., i860, t. iii., p. 68. 

White vented Copper Tail, Gould, Mon. Troch, SuppL, 
1886, p. 64. 

La Metallure à ventre blanc. 

Habitat. — ? 

Mas. — Purpureo-fuscescens nitore quodam metallico vires- 
centi, vertice humeris uropygioque valde, imprimis antem 
macula gulari splendidissime virescente-fulgentibus ; alis 
purpureo-fuscis, rectricibus latissimis pulchre purpureo-re- 
splendentibus, crisso albido, tectricibus caudac inferioribus 
virescenti-nitentibus, margine lutescenti. " Cab. I.e." 

By the description it looks as a very allied species to 
M. opaca, if it is not the same. "Edit." 

•^99. Metallura eupogon, Cab. Journ. fur Ornith, 1874, 

p. 97. 

Metallura hedwigae, Tacz., P.Z.S., 1874, p. 544. 

Red throated Copper Tail, Gould, Mon. Troch, Suppl., 
1886, p. 64. 

La Metallure à gorge rouge. 

Habitat.- — Peru. 

Male. — General plumage bronzy-green. Line down the 
centre of the throat metallic fiery-red. Tuft of white feathers 
below the thighs. Wings purple-brow^n. Tail bronze with 
blue reflections, beneath luminous grass-green. Bill and feet 
black. 



Genera of H u mining Birds. 73 

Total Icnglli, 3ïln. ^^'i^g, il. Tail, 2. Culmen, \. 

" Elliot, loc. cit." 

Female unknown. 

This rare species was discovered by Mr. Jelsky. 

100. MetALLURA SiMARAGUINICOLLlS, D'Orb. and Lafr., 

Syn. Av., 1838, ii., p. 31. 

Mcllisuga smaragdinicollis, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol i., p. 1 12. 

Urolampra sinaragdinicollis, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., 
i860, t. iii., p. 68. 

Violet Tail, Gould, Mon. IVoch., vol. iii., p. 196. 

La Métallure à gorge d'émerande^ Muls., Hist., Nat. Ois. 
Mou., 1876, t. iii., p. 120. 

Habitat. — Bolivia, Columbia? 

Male. — Upperside shining dark bronzy-green. Tail purple 
bronze, with shining dark blue reflections in certain lights, 
beneath reddish purple. Throat luminous dark grass-green. 
Rest of underside bronzy-green washed with pale buff on 
breast and middle of abdomen. Undertail coverts brownish 
bronze edged with pale buff. Bill black. 

Total length, 3|-in. Wing, 2\. Tail, \\. Culmen, |. 

Female. — ^Upperside bronze-green. Underside buff, glossed 
with green on flanks. Throat and breast spotted wdth bronzy- 
green. Anal region white. Undertail coverts buff, wdth 
bronzy green in centre. The two outermost rectrices of tail 
tipped with gray. 

This rare species was discovered by D'Orbigny. My 
specimens were collected in Bolivia by Buckley. 

loi. Metallura peruviana. Boucard, H. Bird., 1893, 

vol. iii., p. 6. 

Peruvian Violet Tail. 

La Métallure Péruvienne. 

LI ab it at. — Peru. 

Male. — Upperside bronzy-green. Median rectrices dark 
greenish bronze, \\ ith bluish purple reflections in certain lights, 
beneath shining bluish-purple, with reddish-purple reflections. 
Throat luminous g-rass-ofreen. Sides of neck and breast 



74 Genera of Humming Birds. 

golden-green. Abdomen and flanks bronze-green. Anal 
region white. Undertail-coverts bronze-green, margined with 
pale buff. Wings purplish-brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 3|in. Wing, 2f . Tail, if. Culmen, \. 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green. Tail like that of male 
with the two outermost rectrices tipped grayish-white. Under- 
side pale buff, whiter on abdomen and flanks, minutely spotted 
with golden-green on throat and breast, and bronze-green on 
flanks and abdomen. Anal region white. Wings purplish- 
brown. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour at base, the 
rest black. Same size as male. 

This new species was discovered in Peru, 1873, by Mr. H. 
Whitely. It is closely allied to M. smaragdinicollis , but is 
a much larger bird. Besides the size, the principal differences 
consist in the greenish colour of the tail above, and the more 
golden tinge of the underside. 

Types in Boucard's Museum. 

102. Metallura Tyrianthina, Lodd., P.Z.S., 1832, p. 6. 

Ornismya allardi, Bourc, Rev. Zool., 1839, p. 294. 

Ornismya paulinae, Boiss, Rev. Zool., 1839, p. 354. 

Mellisuga tyrianthina, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i, p. 112. 

Trochilus allardi, Jard., Contr., Ornith., 1850, pp. 81-82. 

Urolampra tyrianthina^ Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., 1866, 
t. iii, p. 68. 

Tyrian Tail, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii, p. 195. 

La Métallure d'Allard, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. iii, p. 1 17. 

Habitat. — Columbia, Venezuela. 

Male. — Upperside bronzy-green in some specimens, in 
others golden-green. A small white spot behind the eye. 
Tail metallic purple-bronze, brighter above than beneath. 
Throat luminous grass-green. Underside bronzy-green in 
some specimens, golden-green in others. Buffy on breast. 
Undertaif coverts, bronzy-green margined with buff. 

Wings purplish-brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 3:^in. Wing, 2 J. Tail, i|. Culmen, ^. 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green. Underside rufous 
marked with bronze feathers on sides of breast, abdomen and 



Genera of J I itinining Birds. 75 

flanks. Tail above bronzy-purple, beneath reddish-purple, 
outermost rectrices tipped with buffy-white. 

It is a common species. 

I have one male specimen, grayish-brown all over, darker 
on forehead and on tail, with the throat dark metallic blue. 
If it should prove a distinct species, I propose the name of 
Mefallura griseo-cyanea for it. 

103. Metallur.a Quitexsis, Gould, Int.Troch., 1861, p. 112. 

Quito Tyrian Tail. 

La MêtaUitrc de Quito, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. iii., p. 1 16. 

Habitat. — Ecuador. 

I am not of the same opinion as Mr. Elliot about this 
species. It is closely allied to M. tyrianthina, but is a much 
larger bird. The principal differences consist in the upper- 
side, which is more golden, the green of the throat not so 
dark, the greneral colour of the underside more buffv-eolden. 
and the colour of tail, which is bronze, with purplish reflections. 

Total length, 3|-in. Wing, 2^. Tail, i|. Culmen, -i. 

Female. — Upperside golden-green, shining green on fore- 
head. Underside rufous on throat and breast, with small 
bronze spots on throat. W^hitish on abdomen, washed with 
golden-green. Outermost rectrices with large grayish spots 
at tips. 

104. Metallura aeneicauda, Gould, P.Z.S., 1846, p. 87. 

Mellisuga aeneicauda, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 

Aglaeactis aeneicauda, Bon. Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, 

P- 253- 

Urolampra aeneicauda, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860,, 
t. iii., p. 68. 

Brassy Tail, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 192. 

La Metallure à queue d'airain, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1876, t. iii., p. 112. 

Habitat. — Peru and Bolivia. 

Male. — Upperside bronzy-green. Tail metallic bronze 
above, changing to blue in certain lights, beneath luminous 



76 Genera of Hiimfnin^ Birds. 

CTolden bronze, with reddish-purple reflections on margins. 
Throat luminous metallic screen. Underside bronzv-ofreen 
marked with buffy-brovvn. Un dei tail-coverts pale bronze- 
green, tipped with rufous. Anal region white. Wings purple 
brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 4fin. Wing, 2%. Tail, 2. Culmen, -|. 

Female. — Upperside bronzv-green. Tail metallic bronze, 
-changing to blue. Underside buffy-brown, each feather tipped 
bronzy-green. Undertail coverts rufous. Lateral and outer- 
most feathers of tail slightly tipped with gray. Bill black. 
Same size as male. 

This is a very rare species. My specimens were collected 
in Bolivia, bv Bucklev. Bridges is the discoverer of the 
species. 

To show how specimens of one species differ, I give below 
the description of one of my male specimens : — l.^pperside 
bronzy-green. Tail purplish-bronze, changing into blue in 
certain lights. Throat luminous metallic gold. Tail beneath, 
luminous purple-bronze, distinct enough to make a new species 
with it ; but it is not so. 

■^105. Met.\LLUR.\ PRIMOLIXA, Bourc, Rev., and Mag. 

Zool., 1853, p. 295. 

Urolampra priiiiolina, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, 
t. iii., p. 68. 

Metallura Priuioli'i, Gould, Int. Troch., 1861, p. 112. 

Priiuoli's Hinmniug Bird , Gould, Mon. Troch, vol. iii., p. 
194. 

Le Metalliire de Priiiioli, AIuls., fiist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1876, t. iii., p. 1 16. 

Habitat. — Ecuador. 

Male. — Upper surface dark bronzy-green. Tail luminous 
bronzy-green, edged with coppery-green on the upper surface. 
Underside bronzy-green, darker on flanks. Throat luminous 
green, with base of feathers rufous. Undertail coverts bronzy- 
green edged with rufous. Anal region pure white. Wings 
purplish-brown. Bill and feet black. 

Total length, 3y^. ^^^ing 2^-^r. Tail, i^. Culmen, -j^. 

Female (? ) . — Upper surface bronzy-green. The under 
surface has the base of the feathers rufous-white, darkest on the 
throat and abdomen with bronzy-green tips. AA'ings purplish- 



Geneva of Hii mining Birds. 77 

brown. Tail luminous bronzy-green changing- to purpU; in 
certain lights, on the uppcM- surface, and metallic luminous 
p-rass-ofreen on the under surface, the three outermost feathers 
tipped with brownish-gray. Rill and feet black. 

Total length, 3Y(rin. Wing, 2^'-^r. Tail, ih. Culmen, ^7]-. 

From Bourcier's Collection. *' Elliot, loc. cit." 

This rare species which seems to be ^■ery closely allied to 
M. œneicauda was discovered in Ecuador, by Mr. Osculati, 
and was dedicated by Bourcier to Count Primoli, grandson of 
Prince Canino. 

"^106. Mkt.ALLURA WiLLiAMi, Bourc and Delatt., Rev. Zool., 

1866, p. 308. 

Mellisiiga Williami, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i, p. 112. 
Urolanipra Williami, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., t. iii., 
p. 68. 

Purple Tail, Gould, Alon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 193. 

La Mctallure de William, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1876, t. iii., p. 1 15. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — Upper surface dark bronzy-green. Throat and 
upper part of breast luminous grass-green. Under surface 
bronzy-green, the base of the feathers buff. Wings purplish- 
brown. Tail dark green above, with bright purple reflections 
in certain lights, beneath luminous violet with green reflections. 
Bill and feet black. 

Total length, 3 Jin. Wing, 2\. Tail, i-}. Culmen, \. 

Tvpe in Elliot's Collection ? '' Elliot, loc. cit." 

Genus XXXVII. Avocettinus, Bon., Rev. and Mag. 

Zool., 1854, p. 256. 

Opisthoprora, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein, i860, t. iii., 
p. 76. 

Type : T.-euryptems, Loddiges. 

Bill shorter than the head, maxilla straight until just at the 
tip, when it turns slightly upwards, mandible straight up to 
the middle, then turning sharply upwards. Wrings long. 
Tail long, slightly forked, rectrices wide. Feet strong, hind 
toe of same lenor-th as middle toe and nail. Sexes alike. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 



y 8 Genera of Humming Birds. 

107. AVOCETTINUS EURYPTERUS, Lodd., P.Z.S., 1832, p. 7. 

Trochiliis georginae, Bourc, P.Z.S., 1847, P- 4^- 

Polytmus eurypterus, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 109. 

Avocettula eurypterus, Reich, Aufz. der Col;, 1853, P- ^• 

Delattria georgina, Bon., Rev. and Mag. ZooL, 1854, 
p. 256. 

Opisthoprora eurypterus, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., 
i860, t. iii, p. 76. 

Purple tailed Avocet, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 200. 

L' Avocettin euryptère, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. ii., p. 265. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — Head bronze, rest of upperside bronzy-green. 
Median rectrices bronze, lateral bronzy-black with a green 
gloss, outermost tipped with buffy-white. Throat, breast, and 
centre of abdomen grayish-white, each feather tipped with 
green. Sides of neck, breast, abdomen, and flanks, shining 
green with rufous tinge. Lower part of abdomen, and 
undertail-coverts rufous, slightly tinged with green. Wings 
purplish-brown. Bill and feet black. 

Total length, 4in. Wing, 2\. Tail, 2 Culmen, \. 

Female (?). — Seems to be coloured exactly as the male, 
with outermost rectrices tipped white. 

It is still a rare species in the collections. The tvpe, which 
I believe is still in the Loddiges collection, was sent from 
Popayan. 

Genus XXXVIII. Adelomyia, Bonaparte. Rev. and Mag., 

ZooL, 1854, p. 253. 

Adelisca, Cab. and Heine., Mus. Hein., i860, t. iii., p. 72. 

Type : T. melartogenys. Fraser. 

Bill straight, about equal to the length of the head. Tail 
slightly rounded. Middle rectrices about the same length as 
the lateral, outermost shortest. Wings long, primaries slightly 
curved inward near the tips. Tarsi naked. Sexes alike. 

Habitat. — Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 79 

108. Adklomvia melanogenvs, Fras., P.Z.S., 1840, p. 18. 

Trochilus sabinœ, Bourc. and Muls., Ann. Soc. Agr., Lyon, 
1846, p. 323. 

Me/lisug-a sabinœ, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 112. 

Raniphomicron sabinœ, Bon. Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, p. 79. 

Metallura sabinœ, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 8. 

Adelisca melanogenys, Cab. and Heine., Mus. Hein., i860, 
t. iii., p. 72. 

Adelomyia niaculata, Gould, Mon. Troch., p. 199. 

Adelomyia cervina, Gould, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1872, 

P- 453- 

Adelomyia aeneosticta, Simon, Soc. Zool. de France, 1889, 
p. 223. 

Spotted Adelomyia , Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 198, 199. 

L'Adélomye de Sabine, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. iii., p. 131. 

Habitat. — Venezuela, Columbia, and Ecuador. 

Male. — Upperside golden-green. Median rectrices bronzy- 
brown, lateral of same colour with the basal half of inner webs 
and tips buffy white. Some specimens have a purple gloss 
near the tips of lateral rectrices, just below the buffy tips. A 
white line behind the eye. Ear-coverts brownish-black. 
Underside pale buff, marked with bronzy spots on neck and 
breast, and shining golden feathers on sides of breast and 
flanks. Undertail-coverts pale buff, with a bronzy spot in the 
centre. Wings purplish-brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 3|fin. Wing, 2^. Tail, i-|. Culmen, |. 

Female. — Exactly the same, with the rectrices slightly 
rounded, and the underside of a paler buffy-white. 

It is a common species, with a wide range. I have not 
been able to see any difference between my specimens from 
Venezuela, Columbia, and Ecuador, and I think that the names 
of ^. niaculata and A. cervina, Gould, cannot be retained as 
distinct species. It is quite probable that what Gould described 
as A. cervina were very adult males of A. melanogenys. I 
have several specimens, received from Columbia, which 
correspond exactly to that description. 
L 



So Genera of Humming Birds. 

I have also one specimen with the upperside pale slaty- 
gray. Tail and wing brownish-gray. All the rectrices, 
excepting the median, tipped with buffy-white. Underside 
whitish-gray, spotted with small brown spots on throat and 
flanks. If it should prove a distinct species, I propose the 
name of Adeloinya simplex for it. 

109. Adelomvia inornata, Gould, P.Z.S , 1846, p. 89. 

Mellisuga inornata, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 112. 

Ramphomicron inornatus, Bon. Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, 
vol. i., p. 79. 

Metallura inornata, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 8. 

Adelisca inornata. Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, t. iii., 
p. 72. 

Purple-throated Adelomya, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., 
p. 197. 

L'Adélomye sans parure, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. iii., p. 127. 

Habitat. — Peru and Bolivia. 

Male. — Upperside shining golden-green. Tail bronzy- 
brown, with purplish reflections on lateral feathers, which are 
widely tipped with buff. A buffy-white stripe behind the eye. 
Ear-coverts blackish-brown. Underside brown, gradually 
passing to rufous on lower part of abdomen and flanks, and 
spotted with bronzy feathers. Centre of throat metallic blue. 
Wings purple-brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2. Tail, if. Culmen, \. 

Female. — Exactly like the male, without any blue on the 
throat. 

It is a rare species. I think it was discovered by Bridges 
in Bolivia. My specimens were collected in Bolivia, by 
Buckley. 

■^iio. AdeloMYIA CHLOROSPILA, Gould, Ann. and Mag. Nat. 

Hist., 1872, p. 452. 

Green-spangled Humming-bird, Gould, Mon. Troch., 
SuppL, 1886, p. 66. 

L'Adélomye mouchetée de vert, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1876, t. iii., p. 129. 

Habitat. — Peru, 



Genera of Humming Birds. 8i 

Male. — Exactly like the preceding species, excepting the 
green spots on the throat, which, however, are very small and 
indistinct. Possibly the same species. — '' Editor." 

Gknl'S XXXIX. Urosticte, Gould, Int. Troch., p. no. 

TvPK : T. benja?nini, Bourcier. 

Bill slender, straight, longer than the head. Nostrils ex- 
posed. Wings moderate, pointed, reaching the end of tail. 
Tail slightly forked. Rectrices narrow, median shortest, 
next one slightly longer, the remaining three slightly longer, 
and of same length. Hind toe shorter than the middle one. 
Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Ecuador. 

III. Urosticte benjamini, Bour., Compt. Rend., 1851, 

vol. xxvii, p. 187. 

Urosticte benjamini, Reich., Aufz. der Colib., 1853, p. 13. 
Basilinna benjamini, Reich., Troch., Enum., 1855, p. 11. 
White tip, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 190. 
L' Urosticte de Benjamin, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. iii., p. 102. 

Habitat. — Ecuador. 

Male. — Upperside shining green. Four median rectrices 
purplish bronze, extensively tipped with white, and purplish- 
bronze at point, lateral, bronze at base of outer webs, rest 
purplish-bronze, darker at tips. A spot behind the eye white. 
Throat luminous metallic emerald-green, beneath which is a 
broad central spot of dark shining violet. Breast, abdomen, 
and undertail-coverts white, mingled with green. Flanks 
shining green. Wings purplish. Bill black. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2. Tail, \\. Culmen, ^. 

Female. — ■ Upperside golden-green. Uppertail-coverts 
shining green. Four median rectrices bronzy-green, coppery 
at tips, lateral purplish-bronze with w^hite tips. White spot 
behind the eye. Underside white spangled with green, 
brilliantly and more profusely spotted on throat. Wings- 
purplish. Bill black. 

Total length, 3iin. Wing, 2. Tail, i|-. Culmen, f. 

This species was discovered in Ecuador by Bourcier, and 
was dedicated bv him to Mr. Beniamin Leadbeater. 

Mv specimens were collected in Ecuador bv Bucklev. 



82 Genera of Humming Birds. 

•5^112. Urosticte intermedia, Tacz., P.Z.S., 1882, p. 36. 

Peruvian White-tip^ Gould, Mon. Troch., SuppL, 1886, 
P- 34- 

U Urosticte intermédiaire. 

Habitat. — Peru. 

Male. — Upperside shining golden-green. Tail deeply 
forked. Median rectrices green at base, then dark coppery- 
red with large white tips, with a small brown spot at the 
extremity, lateral and outermost green at base, passing to 
dark coppery-red, with white tips on lateral. Chin and throat 
brilliant metallic green, followed by a jugular spot dark violet. 
Breast and abdomen green, the central feathers margined 
with grayish-white. Undertail-coverts rufous and green. 
Vent white. Wings purplish-brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 118 mill. Wing, 58. Tail, 80. Culmen, 22. 

Female. — Upperside green, less golden than the male. 
Underside white spotted with green, more minutely on throat 
and breast, and more brilliantly than on the abdomen. 
Undertail-coverts rufous-white. Tail less forked than the 
male, median rectrices green, lateral and outermost ones green, 
passing to coppery, with large white tips. This rare species 
takes its place between U. henjamini -à-wà. U. riificrissa. 

^113. Urosticte ruficrissa, Lawr, Ann., Lye, Nat. Hist., 

N.Y., 1864, vol. viii., p. 44. 

Red-vented White-tip , Gould, Mon. Troch., SuppL, 1886, 

P- 33- 

L' Urosticte à sous caudales rousses , Muls., Hist. Nat., Ois. 
Mou., 1876, vol. iii., p. 104. 

Habitat. — Ecuador. 

Male. — General plumage dark shining green. Throat 
luminous grass-green. Wings purplish-brown. Undertail- 
coverts rufous. Tail pale bronze-green with the four median 
feathers tipped white. Bill black. Feet brown. 

Total length, â^\'m. Wing, 2f. Tail, 2|. Culmen, |. 

Female. — Exactly like the female of U. bejamini^ but slightly 
larger and with a longer bill. 

This species is one of my desiderata. 



Genera of H u mining Birds. 83 

Genus XL. Augastes, Gould, Int. Troch., 1861, p. 123. 

L.^MPRURUS, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, P- ^^^ 

Type : T. superbus, Vieillot. 

Bill straight, acutely pointed, serrated in the middle. Wings 
long, reaching the end of tail. Tarsi clothed. Tail rounded, 
nearly square. Rectrices wide. 

Habitat. — Brazil. 

114. Augastes superbus, Vieill., Encyel. Méth., t iii., p. 561 

Trochiliis scutatus, Natt. Temm. PI. Col., No. 299, Fig. 3. 

Ornismya nattereri, Less. Ois. Mou., 1829, p. 75. 

Hylocliaris superba, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 114. 

Natterer's Vizor-bearer, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iv., p. 
221. 

L'Aiigaste superbe, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, t. iii., 
p. 150. ' 

Habitat. — Brazil. 

Male. — Forehead and throat metallic emerald-green, with 
pale golden reflections. Band across the crown, and ear- 
coverts extending to throat, black. A spot behind the eye 
white. I pperside sometimes bronzy-green or dark shining 
green. L'ppertail-coverts grayish-bronze. Median rectrices 
rufous at base, sometimes golden bronze, or golden bronze at 
base and rest greenish-bronze, lateral varies also from greenish- 
bronze to bluish-o^reen. Sides of throat and rest of underside 
shining indigo-blue, with a large buffy-white spot in the 
middle of the breast. In one of my specimens a wide buffy- 
white band crosses entirely the middle of chest. Undertail- 
coverts green, edged with gravish white. Bill and feet black. 
Wings purplish-brown. 

Total length, 3Mn. \Mng, 2|. Tail, i\. Culmen, \^. 

Female. — L^pper^ide bronzv-green, golden on forehead. 
Ear-coverts brownish-black. Throat metallic-areen, but not 
so brilliant as in the male. A white band across the breast. 
Abdomen and flanks greenish-blue. Undertail-coverts gray. 
Outermost rectrices with gray tips. Bill black. 

This beautiful species is rather rare in the collections. M}' 
adult specimens differ so much that 1 really do not know if 
they are not two species mixed together. 



84 Genera of Humming Birds. 

1 15. AuGASTES LUMACHELLUS, Less., Rev. ZooL, 1838, p. 315. 

Trochilus lumachellus, Bourc, Rev. ZooL, 1846, p. 313. 

Hylocharis lumachellus, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 114. 

Lamprurus lumachellus, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, P- 12 

Hooded Vizor-bearer, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iv., p. 221 

L'Au^aste hunachelle , Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. iii., p. 148. 

Habitat. — Bahia (Brazil). 

Male. — Forehead and throat metallic pale golden-green, 
bounded beneath by a narrow line of greenish-blue. Forming 
a point on the throat, a patch of metallic ruby and topaz. 
Head, ear-coverts, and band round the throat velvety-black. 
A small white spot behind the eye. Upperside bronzy-green. 
A narrow white band crossing the breast. Underside golden. 
Undertail-coverts shining reddish-orange, slightly edged with 
gray. Tail metallic bronze-red, beneath very brilliant red. 
Wings purplish-brown, with bronzy reflections. Bill and feet 
black. 

Total length, 3^in. Wing, 2\. Tail, i^. Culmen, \^. 

Female. — Upperside shining bronze-green, greenish on 
forehead. Ear-coverts and sides of throat brownish black. 
Throat and rest of underside as male, but less brilliant. 
Outermost rectrices tipped with gray. 

It is a very rare species. 

Genus XLI. Phlogophilus, Gould, P.Z.S., i860, p. 310. 

Type : P. hemileucurus, Gould. 

Bill straight, long, and acutely pointed. Wings ample and 
rather rounded. Tarsi long and bare. Tail long. Rectrices 
narrow and rounded. Hind toe and nail shorter than middle 
toe and nail. 

Habitat. — Ecuador. 

116. Phlogophilus hemileucurus, Gould, P.Z.S., i860, 

p. 310. 

Elvira hemileucura , Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. i, 
p. 264. 

Pied-tailed Humming-bird, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v.^ 
p. 360. 



Genera of Humming Brids. 85 

L' Elvire à queue ini-blanclie, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou.^ 
1874, t. i., p. 265. 

Sex (?) Upperside shining grass-green. Median rectrices 
bronze-green with tips brownish black, lateral white with a 
wide band of purplish-black in the centre and white tips. 
Throat white tipped with green. Breast and centre of 
abdomen white. Flanks white at base, with tips shining 
green. Outermost rectrices purplish-black at base, the rest 
white. Bill black. Just under the mandible a rufous spot on 
chin. A buffy white spot behind the eye. Wings purplish 
brown. Feet and tarsi yellow, probably flesh colour when 
alive. 

Total length, 3iin. Wing 2. Tail, i|-. Culmen, |-. 

I have only one specimen of this peculiar species. 

Genus XLII. Ramphomicron, Bon. Compt. Rend., 

1850, p. 382. 

Type : O. microrhynehuSj Boissoneau. 

Bill extremely short, acutely pointed. Wrings long. Upper- 
surface and throat metallic. Tail deeply forked. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Columbia, Ecuador, Peru. 

This genus forms the natural passage from Metalluridae 
to Lesbidae. 

117. Ramphomicron microrhvnchum, Boiss., Rev. Zool., 

1839, p. 354. 

Trochilus hrachyrliynchus, Fras., P.Z.S., 1840, p. 16. 

Mellisuga microrhyncha, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 112. 

Thorn-bill, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. i8g. 

Le Ramphomicron à petit bee, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. jMou., 
1876, vol. iii., p. 163. 

Hirondelle, 

Habitat. — Columbia, Ecuador, Peru. 

Male. — Upperside metallic purple. Throat luminous light 
grass-green. Underside dark bronzy-green, slightly grayish- 
buff on the vent. Undertail coverts grayish-buff, greenish in 
the centre. Tail purple-black, with glossy tips. Wings 
purplish-brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 3|in. Wing, 2. Tail, 2\. Culmen, -|. 



86 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green. Underside white, spotted 
with green. Undertail-coverts buff. Median rectrices dark- 
bronze, lateral purplish-black, the tw^o outermost tipped white. 
Bill and feet black. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, i j. Tail, i^. Culmen, |-. 

^ii8. RamphomicroN dorsale, Salv. and Godm. Ibis., 1880, 

P 172- 

Simon's Thorn-bill, Gould, Mon. Troch. Suppl., 1886, p. 61. 
le Ramphomicron de Signons, 

Male. — Above black, slightly shaded with greenish, the 
rump narrowly bronzy-purple. Wings dusky. Tail deeply 
forked, purplish-black. Sides of the head and neck deep 
black. Throat very brilliant greenish-golden. Abdomen pale 
dusky-brown, washed with greenish-golden, especially on the 
flanks. Vent dull whitish, each feather marked down the 
middle with a greenish spot. Bill short, a little curved, black. 
Feet black. Iris dark brown. 

Total length, 4-|in. Wing, 2%. Tail, 2f . Culmen, f. 

Female. — Above green. Uppertail-coverts purplish-bronze. 
Tail purplish-black, the outer feathers tipped white. Under- 
neath whitish. Throat and flanks spotted with greenish-gold, 
the middle of the throat marked with p^reenish-grold feathers. 
Outermost rectrices, ifin. long; median, \\. 

This beautiful second species of Ramphomicron was dis- 
covered in the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, Columbia, by 
Mr. Simons. 



FAMILY V. LESBID^, 

OR Family of Train-Bearers. 

Bill short, straight, acutely pointed, compressed in the genus 
Cyanolesbia. Head sometimes crested. Wrings long. Tail ex- 
tremely long and deeply forked. Rectrices more or less broad 
throughout theirlength and generally brilliantly coloured on the 
upperside, rounded at tips. Throat of males more or less 
brilliantly coloured. Tarsi bare. Feet rather large. A patch 
of white feathers on each side of the lower part of the 
abdomen. Sexes unlike. 



Genera of H uni mi ng Birds. 87 

Ranore. — Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and 
Argentine Republic. 

Type: Lesbia, Less, Int. Gen. et Syn. des Ois. du Genre 

Trochilus, 1832, p. 17. 

Genus XLIII. Zodalia, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 

1876, t. iii., p. 281. 
Type : Zodalia ortoni, Lawrence. 

Bill straight, shorter than the head. Tail long, deeply- 
forked, feathers broad throughout their length. 

Habitat. — Ecuador. 

^iig. Zodalia ortoni, Lawr., Ann. N.Y. Lye. Nat. Hist., 

1869, Vol. ix., p. 269. 

Quito Purpleback, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., p. 54. 

La Zodalie d'Orton, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. iii., p. 282. 

Habitat. — Quito (Ecuador.) 

Male. — Entire upper plumage and wing coverts of a rich 
glossy purple, the concealed bases of the feathers are green. 
Uppertail-coverts similar in colour to the back, but marked 
centrally between the purple and green v/ith crimson. Tail 
brownish-black except the two central ones which are green ; 
the ends of the eight middle tail feathers are largely marked 
with a deep vinous bronzy-crimson, most in extent on the 
short central feathers, the long outer feather on each side 
ends with obscure bronzy-green ; the outer edge of lateral 
feather is buff for three-quarters of its length from base, this 
colour occupying only about one third of the web. The 
undersurface of the tail is steel-blue, bronzy at the ends of 
the feathers ; the shafts of the two long lateral feathers are 
whitish at base for about half their lenorth. Winors brownish- 
purple. Throat brilliant metallic pale green. Sides of neck, 
breast, upper part of abdomen and flanks shining green, lower 
part of abdomen ashy-buff. Bill and feet black. 

Total length, 5Îin. Wing, 2\. Tail, 3^%. Bill, \. 

Female. — Unknown. 

This species was discovered bv the well-known collector, 
Orton, and it was dedicated to him by Mr. Lawrence. The 
above description was taken from the Annal's New York 
Lyceum of Natural Historv. 



88 Genera of Humming Birds. 

^120. ZODALIA GLYCERIA, Bon., Rev. and Mag. Zool, 1854, 

p. 252. 

Cometa mossai, Gould, Athen, 1853. 

Purple-tailed Comet, Gould, Mon. Troch, Suppl., p. 55. 

Sparganura mossai, Cab. and Hein, Mus. Hein, i860, 
t. iii., p. 52. 

La Zodalie de glycère, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. iii., p. 284. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — Head, back of neck, wing-coverts, back, and tail- 
coverts shining green. Wings purplish-brown. Chin and 
throat metallic light olive-green. Sides of neck and under- 
surface buff with a spot of deep shining green on the tip of 
each feather. Tail dark reddish-purple, passing into deep 
bluish-green at the tip, except on the outer feathers where 
the hue is so faint as to be scarcely perceptible, the outer 
feathers also have the basal three-fourths of the shaft and the 
outer webs buffy-white, the base of the shaft paler than the 
web ; basal three-fourths of the shaft of next feather also 
buffy-white. Undertail-coverts buff with a brown mark in 
the centre near the tip. (Gould, Monog. Troch.) 

Total length, 6 in. Wing, 2\. Tail, 3^. Culmen, h. 

Female. — Unknown. 

■^121. ZODALIA CAROLI, Bourc, P.Z.S., 1847, P- 4^- 

Hylocharis caroli, Gray and Mitch, Gen. Birds, vol. i.^ 
p. 115. 

Calliphlox caroli, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 12. 

Avocettinus carolus, Bon., Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, 
p. 256. 

Comètes caroli, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 17. 

Polyonymus caroli, Hein. Journ for Ornith, 1863, p. 206. 

Leobia caroli, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, t. iii., 
p. 298. 

Charte' s Comet, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 177 

La Léobie de Charles, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. iii., p. 298. 

Habitat. — Peru. 



Genera of Humming Birds, 89 

Male. — Crown, wing-coverts and uppersurface dull greenish- 
bronze, becoming of a greener cast on the lower part of back 
and uppertail-coverts. Wings purplish-brown. Four middle 
tail feathers bronzy-green, the remainder black, with violet 
reflections, the outer one with a stripe of dull or buffy-white 
along the apical portion of the outer web. Behind the eye a 
small white spot, and a small streak of buff from the angle of 
the mouth. Throat red. Undersurface pale bronzy-green, 
each feather sliorhtlv fringed with p-rav. On each flank near 
the back a tuft of white. Vent and undertail-coverts buffy- 
white, with a streak of brown down the centre of each feather. 
Bill black. 

Total length, 5|-in. Wing, 2j. Tail, 2. Culmen, f. 

" Gould, Mon. Troch." 

Genus XLIV. Sappho, Reich., Syst. Av., 1849, p. 40. 

Cyiianthiis, Tschud, Consp., 1844, p. 36. 

Comètes, Gould, P.Z.S., 1847, P- 3^- 

Sappho, Reich., Syst. Av. Natur., 1849, P^- A^- 

Sparganura, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, t. iii.,p. 5^. 

Polyonymus, Heine, Journ for Ornith, 1863, p. 206. 

Leobia, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, t. iii., p. 297. 

Type : Sappho sparganura, Shaw. 

Bill longer than the head, slightly arched. Tail brilliantly 
coloured and deeply forked. Rectrices very wide, round at 
tips. Throat metallic. Tarsi naked. Hind toe and nail 
nearly as long as middle toe. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Columbia, Peru, Bolivia, and Argentine Republic. 

122. Sappho sparganura, Shaw, Gen. Zool., vol. viii., p. 291. 

Trochiliis chrysurus, Cuv. Regn. Anim., 1829, t. i., p. 426. 

Ornismya sappho, Less, Ois., Mouch., 1829, p. 105. 

Orthorhyjîchtts chrysurns, d'Orb. and Lafr., Syn. Av., 1838, 
p. 26. 

Mellisuga sparganura, Gray, Gen. Birds, 1844, vol. i., 
p. 113. 

Comètes sappho, Gould, P.Z.S., 1847, P- 3^- 

Lesbia sparganura, Bon., Rev. Zool., 1854, p. 252, 

Sparganura sappho. Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, 
t iii., p. 52. 



90 Genera of Humming Birds. 

The Sappho Comet, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 173. 
Le Comètes sappho, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, t. iii., 
P- 275- 

Habitat.- — Bolivia, Argentine Republic. 

Male.- — Head, upper part of back and wing-coverts bronze- 
green. Back and uppertail-coverts shining purple-crimson. 
Rectrices dark-brown at base, remaining part metallic fiery- 
orange, with a large, velvety black spot at tips. Basal half of 
outer web of external rectrices pale brown. Throat metallic 
grass-green. Remaining part of underside golden-green. 
Flanks, and undertail-coverts rufous. A patch of white 
feathers on each side of lower part of vent. Wings pale 
brown. Bill and feet black. 

Total length, 7in. Wing, 2-|. Tail, \\. Culmen, f . 

Female. — Crown and back golden-green, reddish on rump. 
Uppertail-coverts shining crimson. Central rectrices metallic 
hery-red, with a slight brownish band at tips, lateral brownish 
at base, remainder hery-red, outermost brown on inner web, 
remainder pale buff, nearly white. Throat buffy-white, spotted 
with green. Breast and flanks white, with large green spots. 
Abdomen grayish-white. Undertail-coverts pale buff. 

Total length, 4-2-in. W^ing, 2\. Tail, 2\. Culmen, \. 

I have several specimens of both sexes of this splendid 
species. Some were collected in Bolivia many years ago, the 
others were collected by Mr. White in Argentine Republic. 

123. Sappho phaon, Gould, P.Z.S., 1847, P- 3^ 

Ornismya chrysura, Var., d'Orb. and Lafr. Syn. Av., 1838, 
p. 27. 

Comètes phaon , Gould, P.Z.S., 1847, p. 31. 
Mellisuga phaon, Gr^.y, Gen. Birds, Vol. i, p. 113. 
Lesbia phaon, Bon. Rev. Zool, 1854, p. 252. 
Sparganura phaon. Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, t. iii, 
P- 52. 

The Phaon Comet, Gould, Mon. Troch., Vol. iii., p. 175. 

Le Comètes phaon, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
Vol. iii., p. 279. 

Habitat. — Bolivia, Peru, 



Genera of If ui inning Birds. 91 

Male. —Hti'dd and neck brownish green. l)cLck and upper 
tail coverts dark crimson. Tail, basal half blackish-brown, 
remainder metallic crimson with large velvety black spots at 
tips. Throat metallic grass-green, remainder of underside 
brownish-green. Undertail coverts pale buff with a central 
line bronzy-green. Wings brown. Bill and feet black. 

Total length, 6^in. Wing, 2J. Tail, 4. Culmen, -|. 

Female. — Like the preceding species, but the tail is dark 
crimson. 

I have a large series of this species collected by Buckley, 
near to la Paz, Bolivia. 

Genus XLV. Lesbia, Lesson, Ind. Gen. et Syn. des 
Ois. du Genre Trochilus, 1832, p. 17. 

Cynanthus, Bon. Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, p. 81. 

Agaclyta, Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein., i860, t. iii., p. 70. 

Psalidoprymna, Cab. et Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, p. 52. 

Type : Lesbia ituna, Lesson. 

Bill short, straight. Tail deeply forked, rectrices broad, 
the outermost very long. Throat in males brilliantly coloured. 
Sexes different. 

Habitat.- — Columbia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. 

124. Lesbia nuna. Less., Suppl. Ois. Mou, p. 169. 

Ornismya Gouldi, d'Orb et Laf. Syn. Av., t. ii., p. 27. 

Cynanthus bifurcatus, Bon. Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, p. 81. 

Psalidoprymna bifiircata, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, 
t. iii., p. 53. 

Nouna Koali, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 169. 

La Lesbie Niina, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, vol. iii., 
p. 291. 

Habitat. — Peru. 

Male. — Upperside dark bronzy-green. Rectrices black at 
base, all but the outermost ones with their apical half metallic 
grass green, the outermost ones black, with a slight metallic 
green tip. Throat metallic grass green. Sides of neck, 
breast and flanks bronzy-green, washed with rufous on lower 
part of abdomen, beneath which is a patch of white feathers. 



g2 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Undertail-coverts green, margined with buff. Tail purplish- 
black with the basal half of outer feathers grayish white. 
Thighs buff. Bill black. 

Total length, y-Hn. Wing, i|^. Tail, 5. Culmen, \. 

Female. — - Upperslde bronzy-green. Underside white, 
washed with green, sometimes with a few metallic golden 
spots on the throat. Undertail coverts buffy-white. Tail 
coloured like that of the male, but much shorter. Bill black. 

This fine species was discovered by Delattre, at Mayobamba, 
Peru. 

My specimens were collected by Mr. H. Whitely in Peru. 

^125. Lesbia eucharis, Boure, Rev. Zool., 1848, p. 274. 

Cynanthus eucharis, Bon., Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, 
p. 252. 

Train bearer, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 171. 

La Lesbie eucharis, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., vol. iii. 
p. 200. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — Entire upper surface, breast, abdomen, and flanks 
bronzy-green. Throat metallic grass-green. Vent and 
undertail-coverts buff, the latter with green centres. Wings 
purplish brown. Rectrices brownish-black, largely tipped 
with grass-green, except the outermost one, which has a 
bronze tip. Bill black. 

Total length, yfin. Wing, 2\. Tail, 5f . Culmen, -^. 

Female. — ^Above golden-green, beneath buff spangled with 
green. Tail like that of the male but shorter, and with the 
outer web of outermost feather grayish-white for three fourths 
of its length. 

The above descriptions were taken from Elliot's Synopsis 
of the Humming Birds. 

126. Lesbia Boliviana, Boucard, H. Bird, 1891, t. i., p. 43. 

Bolivian Train-bearer, 

La Lesbie bolivienne. 

Habitat. — Bolivia. 

Male. — Upperside, breast, and flanks golden-green. Throat 
metallic golden-green. Wings purplish-brown. Vent deep 
buff. Undertail-coverts buff, with a narrow central line green. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 93 

Tail purple-black. The three central rectrices black at base, 
with their apical half metallic golden-green, the two next 
purple-black, with metallic golden tip, and the two outermost 
purple-black, with a scarcely visible golden tip, rufous-gray 
on the basal outer web for about the third of its length. Bill 
black. 

Total length, yirin. Wing, 2 J. Tail, 5^. Culmen, \. 

Female. — Unknown. 

The principal differences between this species and L. nuna 
are the general colouration of its plumage, and the colour 
of the throat and tips of rectrices, which are golden instead 
of deep grass-green. 

It was discovered by Buckley in Bolivia. 

Tvpe in my collection. 

127. Lesbia gouldi, Lodd, P.Z.S., 1832, p. 7. 

Ornismya silphia, Less., Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 73. 

Mellisuga gouldij Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 

Cynanthiis goitldi, Bon., Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i., p. 81. 

Agaclyta gouldi, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, t. iii., 
p. 70. 

Bogota Train-bearer, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 167. 

La Lesbie de Gould, Muls., Hist. Nat., Ois. Mou., 1876, 
vol. iii., p. 294, 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — Upperside, breast, flanks, and abdomen golden- 
green, a patch of white feathers on each side of lower part 
of abdomen. Under-tail coverts green, margined with buff. 
Rectrices brownish-black at base, remaining part metallic 
green. Outermost one, black with shining green tip, the outer 
web grayish-buff to half its length, completely hidden by the 
median rectrices. Wings purplish brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 6|^in. Wing, 2. Tail, 4^. Culmen, |. 

Female. — Upperside golden-green. Outer rectrices brown, 
much shorter than those of the male, three fourths of the basal 
outer web grayish buff, and hidden by the median rectrices, 
tips gravish buff. Underside gravish, speckled with green. 
Bill black. 

Common in Columbia. It was dedicated by Lesson to the 
celebrated English Ornithologist, the late Mr. John Gould. 



94 Genera of Hu?nmïng Birds. 

128. Lesbia gracilis, Gould, P.Z.S., 1846, p. 86. 

Mellisuga gracilis, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i, p. 113. 

Cynanthus gracilis, Bon., Consp., Gen., Av., 1850, vol. i., 
p. 81. 

Graceful Train-bearer, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 168. 

La Lesbie déliée, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, vol. iii., 
p. 296. 

Habitat. — Ecuador, Peru. 

Male. — The only differences existing between this species 
and L. gouldi are : the length of its tail which is half an inch 
shorter in all the specimens which I have from Ecuador, the 
outer grayish buff web which is constantly half an inch longer 
than the longest median rectrices, the patch of feathers 
beneath the lower part of the abdomen, and the undertail- 
coverts which are green, greatly margined with buff. 

■^129. Lesbia chlorura, Gould, P.Z.S., 1871, p. 504. 

Green-tailed Train-bearer, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 

P- 53- 

La Lesbie à queue verte. 

Habitat. — Peru ? 

Male. — Crown of the head and all the upper surface golden 
green, gorget glittering green, rounded, and well defined as 
in L. Gouldi, abdomen mottled green and buff, its lower 
portion and the undertail-coverts pure buff. Wings purplish- 
brown, the eight central feathers entirely light green, the 
external one on each side olive, finely powdered and tipped 
with green, and having the outer web buff for more than half 
its length from the base. 

Total length, ô^in. Wing, 2. Tail, 5! . Culmen, y^^. 

'^ Gould's Mon. Trochil. Suppl.. 1887, p. 53.'' 

According to Elliott, this species is the same as L. Gouldi. 



130. Lesbia victORIAE, Bourc. and Muls. Ann. Soc. Agr. 

Lyon, 1846, t. ix., p. 312. 

Trochillus Amaryllis, Bourc. and Muls., Rev. Zool., 1848, 

P- 273- 

Mellisuga victoriae, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i. p. 113. 

Cynanthus ajnaryllis, Bon. Rev. and Mag Zool., 1854, 
p. 252. 



Genera of Hitmming Birds. 95 

Psalidoprymna amaryllis, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., 
i860, t. iii., p. 53. 

Train-Bearer, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 170. 

L a rge Ta in - Bea re r, 

La Lesbie de Victoire, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., t. iii., 

p. 287. 

Habitat. — Columbia, and Ecuador. 

Male. — Upperside, breast, upper part of abdomen and flanks 
golden-green. Throat brilliant metallic golden-green. Lower 
part of abdomen and undertail-coverts rufous. Tail purplish 
black, each feather tipped with greenish-bronze, the two outer- 
most, more than twice longer than the longest of the median 
lectrices. Wings purplish-brown. Bill black. 

Total length, gin. Wing, 2%. Tail, 6^. Culmen, \. 

«• 

/^?///rt'/<?.— Upperside golden-green. Underside white spotted 
with green, a patch of splendid metallic gold feathers on centre 
-of throat. Undertail-coverts buff. Tail half the length of that 
-of the male, coloured the same, outer web of outermost feather 
grayish-brown to within an inch-and-a-half of tip. 

Dedicated by ^^lulsant to his mother, Madame Victoire 
Mulsant. 

131. Lesbia .\E0UAT0RIALIS, Boucard, Hum. Bird, 1893, vol. 

iii., p. 6. 

Ecuador Train-Bearer. 

La Lesbie de l'Equateur. 

Habitat. — Ecuador. 

Male. — -Upperside, sides of throat and breast, vent and 
flanks grass-green. Chin and throat metallic grass-green. 
Lower part of abdomen and undertail-coverts pale rufous. 
Rest of plumage as L. victoriae. Tail longer, with tips of central 
rectrices greener than in the preceding species. 

Total length, g\iY\. Wing, 2%. Tail, 7. Culmen, \. 

Eefnale. — Upperside grass-green. Underside pale rufous, 
washed with green. Throat white, speckled with green. A 
small patch of pale golden feathers in the centre of throat. Tail, 
half the length of that of male and coloured similarly. 

I have separated this species from L. Victoriae, because in the 
many specimens which I have, (over one hundred), collected 
M 



96 Genera of Humvting Birds. 

at Rio Napo, by Buckley, the differences in colour mentioned 
above, are constant, and it is impossible to confound the 
two species. 

Types in Boucard's Museum. 

Genus XLVI. Cyanolesbia, Stej. Auk., 1885, t. ii., 

p. 46. 

Cynanthus, Sw. Class. Birds, 1837, ^^1- "•' P- 33^- 

Lesbia, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein, i860, t. iii., p. 71. 

Cyanolesbia, Berlep, Col. Art. Bog. Coll., 1888, p. 14. 

Type : T. forficatus, Edwards. 

Bill shorter than the head, straight, graduating rapidly at 
tip to a sharp point. Wings long. CroAvn and head covered 
with metallic feathers forming a crest. Patch of metallic 
feathers in the centre of throat. Tail long, deeply forked, 
brilliantly coloured on the upperside. Tarsi bare. Sexes 
unlike. 

Habitat. — Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. 

132. Cyanolesbia gorgo, Reich., Aufz. der Col., p.p. 8-24. 

Cynantiîus forficatus, Edw. Birds, Tab. 33, pi. 1763. 

Trochilus cyanurus, Steph. Shaw, Gen. Zool., vol. xix.^ 

P- 239- 

Ornismya kin^i, Less. Trochil., 182g, p. 107. 

Mellisuga cyanura, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 

Lesbia forficata, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 8. 

Mellisuga salvadori, Bienvenut, Ann. Zool. Mus. Flor., 
1865, p. 204. 

Blue-tailed Sylph, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 172. 

Le Cynanthe cyanure, Muls., His. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. iii., p. 26g. 

Habitat. — Venezuela, Columbia. 

Male. — Crown metallic grass-green, bordered on the sides 
with a greenish-black line. Upper and underside bronzy-green, 
darker on back. Upper and undertail-coverts shining-green. 
Centre of throat metallic purple. Central rectrices black with 
the outer webs dark shining blue, and the portions that 
project beyond the tips of one another, metallic light blue. 



Genera of Humming Birds. g 7 

In some specimens, the blue is rejjlaced by metallic green, 
the two outermost ones black for half their length, then 
metallic purple-blue. Underside of tail purplish-blue. Wings 
dark brown ; a white patch on each side of lower part of 
vent. Bill black. 

Total length, 8in. Wing, 2|. Tail, 5g. Culmen, \\. 

Female. — -Head metallic dark green. Upperside bronzy- 
green. Throat white spotted with green feathers. Breast 
abdomen and undertail-coverts buff. Flanks rufous washed 
with green. Central rectrices shining-green, lateral black, 
with outer webs and tips blue, outermost black, tipped white. 
Wliite spots under and behind the eyes. Bill black. 

Total length, 4iin. Wing, 2\. Tail, i.^. Culmen, |. 

1 have received a number of adult male specimens from 
Merida (Venezuela), which have the crown of a lighter green, 
no colour on the throat, and are golden-green. The under- 
side is quite distinct of the colour of C. gorge. 

If it should prove a distinct species, I propose the name of 
Cyanolesbia nier id ana for it. 

I have adopted the name gorge for this species because it 
cannot be relied upon with certainty, on the name of T. 
forficatus, L. for that bird. 

133. Cyanolesbia coelestis, Gould, Mon. Troch., Intr. 

1861, p. 102. 

Ecuador Train-hearer, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., p. 56. 

Le Cynanthe bleu celeste. 

Habitat. — Ecuador. 

This species, which is closely allied to the preceding, can 
be distinguished by the colour of the underside, which is 
coppery brown. As it is constant, I think the species is valid. 
The specimens which I have of this species were collected in 
Ecuador bv Bucklev. 

134. Cyanolesbia mocoa, Delatt. and Bourc, Rev. ZooL, 

1846, p. 311. 

Mellisiiga sniaragdinis, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 

Cynanthus smaragdicaiidiis, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., 
P- 173- 

Leshia mocoa, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, P- 8. 



gS Genera of Humming Birds. 

Green-tailed Sylph, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 172. 

Le Cynanthe mocoa, Muls., Hist. Nat., Ois. Mouch., 1876, 
t. iii., p. 272. 

Habitat. — Ecuador, Peru. 

Male. — Crown brilliant metallic-green. Upperside shining 
bronze-green, greenish on lower part. Uppertail-coverts shin- 
ing green. Basal half of the two median rectrices bluish- 
black, remaining portion brilliant metallic green, the next two 
are bluish-black four-fifths of their length, with outer webs 
and tips metallic green; the outermost ones are black for two- 
thirds of their length, remaining portion brilliant metallic- 
green. A metallic blue spot on throat. Wings purplish 
brown. Bill and feet black. 

Total length, 7iin. Wing, 2J. Tail, 5. Culmen, i^. 

Feynale. — Like the preceding species with throat and breast 
white, the first spotted with bronze-green feathers, and rest of 
underside rufous. 

This magnificent species was discovered by Delattre, near 
Mocoa, Ecuador. 

I have several adult specimens received from Bogota, which 
differ by the colour of the crown, which is golden -green, and 
the upperside is of a lighter green. The throat is brownish 
golden-green without any blue at all. If it should prove a 
distinct species, I propose the name of C columhiana for it. 

135. Cyanolesbi.^ BOLiviANA, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 

P-57- 
Bolivian Sylph, Gould, Mon. Troch, Suppl., p. 57. 

Le Cynanthe de Bolivie, 

Habitat. — Bolivia. 

Male. — Crown most brilliant golden-green. Upperside 
golden-green, with dark reflections. Rump and uppertail- 
coverts shining green. Tall like C mocoa, but shorter, and all 
the rectrices wider, the metallic green ol' tips has a bluish 
reflection on inner webs. Centre of throat metallic steel-blue, 
with orreenish reflections, rest of underside o-olden. Wingrs 
purple-brown. Bill and feet black. 

Total length, 6iin. Wing, 2%. Tail, 4L Culmen, %. 

Female. — Crown shining green. Upperside golden bronze, 
passing to green on the rump and uppertail-coverts. Throat 



Genera of Humming Birds. 99 

white, washed with green. Breast, abdomen, and undertail- 
coverts rufous. P'lanks golden green. Central rectrices shin- 
inor oreen ; lateral bluish-black on inner webs, the rest and 
tips shining green, outermost ones, bluish-black tipped white. 

Total length, 4in. Wing, 2. Tail, i^. Culmen, \. 

This beautiful species was discovered in Bolivia, by Buckley 
in 1874. 

^136. Cyanolesbia griseiventris, Tacz. P.Z.S., 1883, p. 72, 
Gray bellied. Train-bearer, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl. p, 

56. ' 

Le CynantJie du Pérou. 

Habitat. — Peru. 

I'pperside green, with the forehead scaly for a long distance 
and very brilliant. Underside entirely pale ashy-gray. Throat 
bright blue, the feathers white at the base, vent white, wing- 
coverts uniform w^ith the back, the edge of the wing white, first 
primary externally margined with white. Tail deeply forked, 
brilliant green, the median rectrices with a broad apical lustre 
of reddish copper, outermost bluish-black with green tips. 
Tail underside bluish-green. Bill black. 

Length of wing, 81 mill. Tail, 90. Culmen, 25. ■ 

This species was discovered in Peru, by Mr. Jelsky. 

Genus XLVII. Neolesbia, Salvin, Cat. Birds, 1892. p. 145, 

Cyanolesbia, Berlepsch, J. fur Ornith., 1887, p. 326. 

Bill short and straight, slightly decurved. Tail long and 
deeplv forked. Rectrices wide, dark steel blue. 

Type : Cyanolesbia nerkhorni, Berl. J. fur Ornith., 1887, p. 326. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

"^137. Neolesbia nerkhorni, Berlepsch, Berch, eines, Neuen, 
Colib., Zeiftr fur Ornith., 1887, p. 178. 

Nerkhorn s Blue-tailed Sylph. 

le Cynanthe de Nerkhorn. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — -Head metallic blue. Upperside shining greenish 
blue. Throat metallic green with bluish reflections. Breast 



lOO Genera of Hinmning Birds. 

golden-green. Abdomen and flanks bluish-brown. Tail shin- 
ing violet-blue. Undertail-coverts bluish-green, margined with 
white. Bill and feet black. 

Total length, 6in. Wing, 2\. Tail, 3. Culmen, 5. 

This very rare species was sent from Columbia to Mr. A. 
Nerkhorn. He submitted it to Hans von Berlepsch, who dedi- 
cated it to his friend. 

It forms the passage of Lesbidae to Thaluranidae. 

FAMILY VI. THALURANIDAE, 

OR Family of Wood-Nymphs. 

Bill black, longer than the head, sligtly curved. Body of 
medium size. Underside, back, and wing-coverts brilliantly 
coloured. In some species the forehead is also brilliantly 
coloured. Wings long and narrow. Tail deeply forked. 
Rectrices wide. Tarsi clothed. Sexes unlike. 

Type : Thalurania, Gould, P.Z.S. 1848, p. 13. 

Genus XLVIII. Thalurania, Gould, P.Z.S. 1848, p. 13. 

Mellisuga, Boie. Isis., 1831, p. 545. 

Glaucopis, Burm. Th. Braz., 1856, p. 333. 

Type: T. furcatus,QTCi€i\xv. 

Bill longer than the head, slightly curved. Wings long. 
Tail forked. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Costa - Rica, Veragua, Trinidad, Venezuela, 
Guiana, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. 

138. Thalurania glaucopis, Gmel., Syst. Nat., 1788, vol. i., 

p. 497. 

Trochilus frontalis, Land. Ind. Ornith., 1790, vol. i., p. 318. 

Ornismya glaucopis, Less, Ois. Mou., 1829, p. 175. 

Polytmus glaucopis, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 108. 

Coeligena glaucopis, Reich., Troch., Enum., 1855, 

P- 3- 

Glancopis frontalis, Burm., Th. Braz, 1856, p. 333. 

Thalurania luciœ, Lawr., Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist., N.Y., 1862, 
vol. vii., p. 2. 



Genera of Hitmviincr Birds. lor 

Brazilian Wood-Nymph, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. ii., p. 99. 

La Thaliiranie glaiicope, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
vol. iii., p. 60. 

Habitat. — Brazil. 

Male. — Crown metallic deep-blue. Upperside dark grass- 
ereen. Underside shininof oreen with orolden reflections. 
Undertail-coverts shining green edged ^^ ith gray. Tail steel- 
blue. Wings bluish-black. Bill black. 

Total length, 44in. Wing, 2-|. Tail, 2. Culmen, -|. 

Female. — Upperside shining green. Underside gray, washed 
with oreen on flanks. Median rectrices o-reen, lateral screen 
at base, then bluish-black, tipped white. 

Common in Brazil. 

I possess one female specimen, from Costa de Beauregard's 
collection, with the names of Oiseau Mouche Modeste and 
simplex upon the ticket. 

139. Thaluraxia Columbica, Bourc and Muls., Rev. ZooL, 

1843, p. 2. 

Polytnius columbicus, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 108. 

Coeligena coliiînbica, Reich., Troch., Enum., 1855, p. 3. 

Thaliirania veniista, Gould, P.Z.S., 1850, p. 163. 

Columbian Wood-Nymph, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. ii., 
p. loG. 

La Thaluranie de Colombie, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1876, vol. iii., p. 64. 

Thalurania columbica, var. nigra, Boucard, H. Bird, vol. i., 
p. 26. 

Habitat. — Costa-Rica, Veragua, Panama, Columbia and 
Peru. 

Male.—^Crown of head and a band across the back, winor- 
coverts and abdomen, metallic ultramarine blue. Nape, back 
and abdomen, bronze-green. Uppertail-coverts green. Tail 
bluish - black. Wings purplish brown. Throat and breast 
shining emerald-green. Feet flesh color. Bill black. 

Total length, 4in. Wing, 2^- Tail, 2. Culmen, f. 

Female. — Upperside golden green, more green on lower 
part of back, and on undertail-coverts. Underside gray with 
few green feathers on side of breast and on flanks. Median 



102 Genera of Humming Birds. 

rectrices green, lateral green at base, rest steel-blue with 
white tips. 

I have a large series of this species, some collected by myself 
at Costa-Rica and Panama, others sent from Columbia, and 
some collected by Hauxwell at Nauta, Peru. The specimens 
from Costa-Rica, Panama and Peru, are not so bronzy on nape^ 
and have a wide ultramarine-blue band on back ; but other- 
wise they are exactly the same as the Columbian specimens^ 
and I don't think necessary to maintain the name of T. venus fa 
for these specimens. 

I have also one pair of these birds collected at Valencia, 
Columbia, in which the shinino- emerald-green of the throat 
covers only the throat and upper-part of the breast. The 
neck, back and rump are all green, without the bronzy tinge 
constant on all the other specimens which I have under the 
name of T. columbica. The female is also distinct, having the 
flanks and abdomen green. If it should prove a different 
species, I propose the name of Thaliirania valenciana for 
this bird. 

^140. Thalurania townsexdi, Ridgw., P.U.S.M., 1888, 

p. 590-591. 
Town send' s Wood- Nymph. 
La Thaluranie de Townsend. 
Habitat. — Segovia River, Honduras. 

Male. — Forehead rich metallic royal purple ; rest of pileum 
dull blackish-green, only slightly metallic ; hind neck and 
upper part opaque black; scapulars rich metallic royal purple; 
lower back, rump, and uppertail-coverts metallic grass-green; 
tail uniform purplish blue-black ; remiges purplish-dusky ; 
wing-coverts metallic bluish-velvet, the larger tipped with 
metallic orreen. Chin, throat and chest rich metallic Paris 
green ; median portion of breast metallic emerald-green, 
changing gradually to more bluish-green on belly ; sides of 
breast metallic blue ; sides and flanks greenish-blue. Under- 
tail coverts blue-black edged with grayish-white. P)ill black. 
Feet dusky brownish. 

Total length, 3-95. Wing, 2-io. Tail, 1-55. Culmen.o-yi. 

Female. — Above metallic-green more yellowish for anterior 
half, tinged with bluish on uppertail-coverts and lesser wing 
coverts ; middle tail feathers bluish-green, next pair similar, 



Genera of /I uni miner Birds. 103 

but terminal portion blue-black, next pair witli the blue- 
black more extended and the extreme tip pale grayish 
or oravish-vvhite, each succeedintr feather with the white 
tip and sub-terminal blue - black space gradually more 
extended, until on ihe exterior feather the basal green 
is indistinct, and the white terminal spot about 020 long. 
Sides of head below eye, chin, throat, and lower parts 
generally, except sides and flanks dull grayish white, the sides 
and flanks metallic orrass-o^reen, like the back. Bill black. 

Total length, 350. Wing, i'85. Tail, r35. Culmen,o.75. 

Similar to 7^ coiiniihica, but much smaller, and male with 
lower breast emerald-green, the sides, flank and bellv, bluish- 
green, instead of rich purplish-blue. 



141. Th.viairania KRNPMii.K, I.ess. Hist. Colib. p. 148. 

Po/vttnus eripJivlc, Gra\', (len. Birds, vol. i., p. 108. 

Cocligeud criphylc, Reich., Troch., Enum., 1855, p. 3. 

Glaucopis eriphile, Burm. Fh. Bras., 1856, vol. ii., p. 334. 

Brazilian Wood-Nympli , Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. ii.,p. 108. 

Green Headed Wood-Xynipli 

La Thaluranie eriphile, Muls. Hist. Nat., Ois. Mou., 1876, 
vol. iii., p. 68. 

Habitat . — Brazil. 

Male. — Crown and throat metallic emerald-green, l.'pper- 
side metallic green. Shoulders, breast, and upper part of 
abdomen metallic purple-blue. Flanks and lower part of 
abdomen qreen, with a largue white tuft at base of abdomen. 
Undertail-co\"erts shininor-oreen. Tail steel-blue. Wines 
purple-brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 4.Un. Wing, 2.V. Tail, 2. Culmen, J-^. 

Female. — Upperside shining-green. Throat, breast and 
abdomen pale grav, with a lew green feather> on sides of 
breast and flanks. W^inor-coverts shininsf-blue. Tail steel- 
blue with white tips on outermost rectrices. Bill black. Feet 
flesh color. 

It is a very rare species and quite distinct from T. verticeps. 
My two specimens of this species were collected bv Mr. 
Gounelle in Brazil. 



104 Genera of Humming Birds. 

142. Thalurania Fanniae, Bourc. and Del., Rev. Zool, 1846, 

P- 310. 

Thalurania verticeps, Gould, Jard. Contr. Ornith., 185 1, 
p. 107. 

Ricordia verticeps, Reich., Aufz., der Col., 1853, P- ^• 

Chloristes verticeps, Reich., Troch., Enum., 1855, p. 4. 

Thalurania eryphile, Elliot. Syn. Hum. Bird, 1879. p. 10 1. 

Green-crowned Wood-Nymph, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. ii., 
p. 107. 

La Thaluranie eryphile, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. iii,, p. 68. 

La Thaluranie de Fanny. 

Habitat. — Ecuador and Columbia. 

Male. — Exactly like the preceding species, excepting the 
metallic emerald green of throat, which extend over the breast 
as in T. Columbica, the color of the shoulder, abdomen, and 
flanks which is shining Prussian blue, with greenish reflections, 
especially in lower part of abdomen, and the undertail-coverts 
which are steel blue, fringed with gray. Bill black, feet flesh 
color. 

Total length, 4in. Wing, 2|. Tail, i^. Culmen, -|. 

Female. — Upperside shining green. Throat and breast 
gray. Flanks and abdomen darkish gray, strongly washed 
with shining green feathers. Undertail-coverts white. Tail 
blue with white tips on outermost rectrices. 

My specimens of this species were collected by Buckley in 
Ecuador. It is not common. 

143. Thalurania hyfochlora, Gould, P.Z.S., 1870, p. 104. 
Citado Wood-Nymph, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl. 1886, 

p. 38. 

La Thaluranie hypochlore, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1876, t. iii, p. 66. 

Habitat. — Ecuador. 

Male. — Head and underside, metallic emerald - green. 
Upperside shining grass-green. Wing-coverts and shoulders 
metallic blue. Undertail-coverts white with dark blue in 
centre and tip. Tail steel-black. Wings bluish-black. Bill 
black. Feet flesh color. 

Total length, 3gin. Wing, 2^. Tail, \%. Culmen, |. 



Genera of H u mining Birds. 105 

Female. — Upperside shining- green. Throat, centre of 
breast, abdomen and undertail-coverts, pale gray, nearly 
white. Sides of breast and flanks bronzy-green. Median 
rectrices grass-green with bluish tips, lateral green at base, 
then deep blue tipped with white. 

This is a very rare species. It w as discovered by Bucklev 
in Ecuador. I have only two very tine specimens of both 
sexes, collected at Chimbo, Ecuador, by Mr. J. de Silmiradzki, 
and offered to me by Count Berlepsch. 

144. Thalurania w.\tertoni, Bourc, P.Z.S., 1847, p. 44. 

Polytmus watertoni, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 108. 

Calligena ivhatertoni, Reich., Troch., Enum., 1855, p. 3. 

Waterto7i s Wood-Nympli^ Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. 2, 

P- 103- 

La Thaluranie de Watterton^ Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1876, t. iii, p. 78. 

Habitat. — Brazil, British Guiana ? 

Male. — Crown and nape greenish-bronze. Back in its 
entire length, shoulder, wing-coverts and flanks, metallic blue. 
Uppertail-coverts green washed with blue. Underside metal- 
lic grass-green. Undertail-coverts gray with green in centre. 
Tail steel-blue. Wings purplish-black. Bill black. 

Total length, 5in. Wing, 2\. Tail, 2\. Culmen, ^. 

Female. — Upperside dark green. Underside gray. 

This is a very rare species. I have only two males, which 
were found in a collection of Brazilian birds. 

145. Thalurania furcata, Gmel. Syst. Nat.. 1788, vol. i., 

p. 486. 

Ornis7nya furcata, Less., Hist.. Nat. Ois. Mou., 182g, p. d^i. 

Polytmus furcatus, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 108. 

Coeligena gyrinno, Reich., Enum., p. 3. 

Thalurania furcatoides, Gould, Intr. Troch., p. 357. 

Cayenne Wood-Nymph, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. ii., p. loi. 

Para Wood-Nymph, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, 

P- 35- 

La Thaluranie ci queue fourchue, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. 
Mou., 1876, vol. iii., p. 72. 



io6 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Habitat. — Guiana and Upper Amazons. 

Male— \\ç.2.A dull green, black in certain lights. Upper 
part of back, breast and abdomen brilliant purple, some- 
times brilliant blue with purplish reflections. Rest of back 
grass-green. Uppertail-coverts bronzy-green. Tail blue- 
black. Throat luminous grass-green. Wings purplish-black. 
Bill black. 

Total length, 4in. Wing, 2|. Tail, i^. Culmen, ^. 

Female. — Upperside grass - green, bronzy on the head. 
Underside grayish-white. Median rectrices green, lateral 
gray at base, then bluish-blacky tipped white. 

Total length, 3.2in. Wing, i|. Tail i|-. Culmen ^. 

Rather abundant in Guiana and Upper Amazons. I have 
put T. fiircatoides diS a synonym, as 1 cannot see in what they 
difl^er. 

146. Thalurania refulgens, Gould, P.Z.S., 1852, p. 9. 
Refulgent Wood-Nymph, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. 2, p. 102. 
La Thaluranie resplendissante. 

Habitat.— ^xmxà^Là ? 

Male. — Exactly the same as the preceding species, but 
slightly larger, especially the tail, which is deeply forked. 
Some are brilliant purple, others are purplish-blue. W^ing- 
coverts metallic purplish-blue. 

Total length, 4fin. Wing, 2\. Tail, 2. Culmen, ^. 

/^é';;z<:z/<t\— Upperside grass-green, bronzy on head. Central 
rectrices bronze-green with black tips, lateral pale bronze at 
base, then bluish-black, tipped white. 

Total length, 3^in. Wing, 2\. Tail, if. Culmen, ^. 

Type of female in my collection. 

I have received many specimens of this species, said to 
come from Trinidad ; but I am doubtful about the localitv. 

147. Thalurama NIGROFASCIATA, Gould., P.Z.S., 1846, 

p. 89. 

Polytmiis 7iigrofasciatus, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 108. 
Saucerottia viridipectiis, Reich., Aufz. derCol., 1853, P- 7- 
Coeligena nigrofasciata, Reich., Troch., Enum., 1855, p. 3. 
Thalurania tschudii, Gould, P.Z.S., i860, p. 312. 



3 2044 093 289 544 





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